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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Episodic Physical Forcing And The Structure Of Phytoplankton Communities In The Coastal Waters Of New Jersey, Mark A. Moline, Shelley M. Blackwell, Robert Chant, Matthew J. Oliver, Trisha Bergmann, Scott Glenn, Oscar M.E. Schofield Dec 2004

Episodic Physical Forcing And The Structure Of Phytoplankton Communities In The Coastal Waters Of New Jersey, Mark A. Moline, Shelley M. Blackwell, Robert Chant, Matthew J. Oliver, Trisha Bergmann, Scott Glenn, Oscar M.E. Schofield

Biological Sciences

The high variability in physical, biological, and chemical properties in coastal waters have limited our ability to sample the appropriate timescale and space scale to resolve physical forcing of the ecosystem. To improve our understanding, a multiplatform adaptive sampling program at the Long-term Ecosystem Observatory(LEO-15) off the coast of New Jersey examined the relationship between episodic summertime upwelling and downwelling events and the corresponding dynamics in bulk phytoplankton biomass and community structure. Inherent and apparent optical properties were concurrently measured to evaluate the use of optics to improve future sampling coverage in coastal regions. Results indicate peak chlorophyll biomass ...


Exogenous Vasotocin Alters Aggression During Agonistic Exchanges In Male Amargosa River Pupfish (Cyprinodon Nevadensis Amargosae), Sean C. Lema, Gabrielle A. Nevitt Dec 2004

Exogenous Vasotocin Alters Aggression During Agonistic Exchanges In Male Amargosa River Pupfish (Cyprinodon Nevadensis Amargosae), Sean C. Lema, Gabrielle A. Nevitt

Biological Sciences

Pupfishes in the Death Valley region have rapidly differentiated in social behaviors since their isolation in a series of desert streams, springs, and marshes less than 20,000 years ago. These habitats can show dramatic fluctuations in ecological conditions, and pupfish must cope with the changes by plastic physiological and behavioral responses. Recently, we showed differences among some Death Valley populations in brain expression of arginine vasotocin (AVT). As AVT regulates both hydromineral balance and social behaviors in other taxa, these population differences may indicate adaptive changes in osmoregulatory and/or behavioral processes. To test whether AVT is relevant for ...


Identification And Phenotypic Characterization Of The Cell-Division Protein Cdpa, Eric Altermann, B. Logan Buck, Raul Cano, Todd R. Klaenhammer Nov 2004

Identification And Phenotypic Characterization Of The Cell-Division Protein Cdpa, Eric Altermann, B. Logan Buck, Raul Cano, Todd R. Klaenhammer

Biological Sciences

Analysis of the automated computer annotation of the early draft phase genome of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM revealed the previously discovered S-layer gene slpA and an additional partial ORF with weak similarities to S-layer proteins. The entire gene was sequenced to reveal a 1799-bp gene coding for 599 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 64.8 kDa. No transcription or translation signals could be determined in close proximity to the 5′-region. However, a strong putative terminator with a free energy of −16.84 kcal/mol was identified directly downstream of the gene. A PSI-Blast analysis showed similarities to ...


Application Of Genotypic And Phenotypic Analyses To Commerical Probiotic Strain Identity And Relatedness, P.S.M. Yeung, C. L. Kitts, R. Cano, P. Tong Nov 2004

Application Of Genotypic And Phenotypic Analyses To Commerical Probiotic Strain Identity And Relatedness, P.S.M. Yeung, C. L. Kitts, R. Cano, P. Tong

Biological Sciences

Aims: The objective of this study was to generate strain-specific genomic patterns of a bank of 67 commercial and reference probiotic strains, with a focus on probiotic lactobacilli.

Methods and Results: Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used as the primary method for strain differentiation. This method was compared with carbohydrate fermentation analysis. To supplement visual comparison, PFGE patterns were analysed quantitatively by cluster analysis using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages. SmaI, NotI and XbaI were found to effectively generate clear and easy-to-interpret PFGE patterns of a range of probiotic strains. Some probiotic strains from different sources shared highly ...


Alteration Of The Food Web Along The Antarctic Peninsula In Response To A Regional Warming Trend, Mark A. Moline, Herve Claustre, Thomas K. Frazer, Oscar Schofield, Maria Vernet Nov 2004

Alteration Of The Food Web Along The Antarctic Peninsula In Response To A Regional Warming Trend, Mark A. Moline, Herve Claustre, Thomas K. Frazer, Oscar Schofield, Maria Vernet

Biological Sciences

In the nearshore coastal waters along the Antarctic Peninsula, a recurrent shift in phytoplankton community structure, from diatoms to cryptophytes, has been documented. The shift was observed in consecutive years (1991–1996) during the austral summer and was correlated in time and space with glacial melt-water runoff and reduced surface water salinities. Elevated temperatures along the Peninsula will increase the extent of coastal melt-water zones and the seasonal prevalence of cryptophytes. This is significant because a change from diatoms to cryptophytes represents a marked shift in the size distribution of the phytoplankton community, which will, in turn, impact the zooplankton ...


Application Of Genotypic And Phenotypic Analyses To Commercial Probiotic Strain Identity And Relatedness, P. S. M. Yeung, Christopher L. Kitts, Phillip S. Tong, M. E. Sanders Nov 2004

Application Of Genotypic And Phenotypic Analyses To Commercial Probiotic Strain Identity And Relatedness, P. S. M. Yeung, Christopher L. Kitts, Phillip S. Tong, M. E. Sanders

Biological Sciences

Aims: The objective of this study was to generate strain-specific genomic patterns of a bank of 67 commercial and reference probiotic strains, with a focus on probiotic lactobacilli.
Methods and Results: Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used as the primary method for strain differentiation. This method was compared with carbohydrate fermentation analysis. To supplement visual comparison, PFGE patterns were analysed quantitatively by cluster analysis using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages. SmaI, NotI and XbaI were found to effectively generate clear and easy-to-interpret PFGE patterns of a range of probiotic strains. Some probiotic strains from different sources shared highly ...


Sex Differences In Metabolic Rates In Field Crickets And Their Dipteran Parasitoids, Gita R. Kolluru, Mark A. Chappell, Marlene Zuk Nov 2004

Sex Differences In Metabolic Rates In Field Crickets And Their Dipteran Parasitoids, Gita R. Kolluru, Mark A. Chappell, Marlene Zuk

Biological Sciences

Sex differences in metabolic rate (MR) can result from dimorphism in the performance of energetically demanding activities. Male crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) engage in costly calling and aggressive activity not performed by females. Consistent with this difference, we found higher maximal MR, factorial scope, and fat content in males than females. T. oceanicus song is also costly because it attracts the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Parasitized crickets had reduced maximal MR consistent with a metabolic cost to harboring larvae. This cost was greater for females, either because females invest more heavily into reproduction at the expense of metabolic capacity, or because ...


Evidence That Thyroid Hormone Induces Olfactory Cellular Proliferation In Salmon During A Sensitive Period For Imprinting, Sean C. Lema, Gabrielle A. Nevitt Oct 2004

Evidence That Thyroid Hormone Induces Olfactory Cellular Proliferation In Salmon During A Sensitive Period For Imprinting, Sean C. Lema, Gabrielle A. Nevitt

Biological Sciences

Salmon have long been known to imprint and home to natal stream odors, yet the mechanisms driving olfactory imprinting remain obscure. The timing of imprinting is associated with elevations in plasma thyroid hormone levels, with possible effects on growth and proliferation of the peripheral olfactory system. Here, we begin to test this idea by determining whether experimentally elevated plasma levels of 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) influence cell proliferation as detected by the 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) cell birth-dating technique in the olfactory epithelium of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). We also explore how natural fluctuations in thyroxine (T4 ...


Complete Genomic Sequence Of Bacteriophage B3, A Mu-Like Phage Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Michael D. Braid, Jennifer L. Silhavy, Christopher L. Kitts, Raul J. Cano, Martha M. Howe Oct 2004

Complete Genomic Sequence Of Bacteriophage B3, A Mu-Like Phage Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Michael D. Braid, Jennifer L. Silhavy, Christopher L. Kitts, Raul J. Cano, Martha M. Howe

Biological Sciences

Bacteriophage B3 is a transposable phage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this report, we present the complete DNA sequence and annotation of the B3 genome. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the B3 genome is 38,439 bp long with a G+C content of 63.3%. The genome contains 59 proposed open reading frames (ORFs) organized into at least three operons. Of these ORFs, the predicted proteins from 41 ORFs (68%) display significant similarity to other phage or bacterial proteins. Many of the predicted B3 proteins are homologous to those encoded by the early genes and head genes of Mu and ...


Medical Triggers Are Associated With Better Short- And Long-Term Weight Loss Outcomes, Amy A. Gorin, Suzanne Phelan, James O. Hill, Rena R. Wing Sep 2004

Medical Triggers Are Associated With Better Short- And Long-Term Weight Loss Outcomes, Amy A. Gorin, Suzanne Phelan, James O. Hill, Rena R. Wing

Kinesiology

Background. Medical events are often reported as triggers for weight loss, but it is unknown whether medical triggers result in better short- and long-term weight control.
Methods. The relationship between medical triggers and weight loss was examined in the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR), a database of individuals who have lost ≥30 lbs and kept it off for ≥1 year. Recall of weight loss triggers may become difficult over time, thus participants were limited to those reporting weight loss (1) participants with medical triggers (N = 207), (2) participants with nonmedical triggers (N = 539), and (3) participants with no trigger (N ...


Identification And Inactivation Of Genetic Loci Involved With Lactobacillus Acidophilus Acid Tolerance, M. Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Eric Altermann, Rebecca L. Hoover- Fitzula, Raul J. Cano, Todd R. Klaenhammer Sep 2004

Identification And Inactivation Of Genetic Loci Involved With Lactobacillus Acidophilus Acid Tolerance, M. Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Eric Altermann, Rebecca L. Hoover- Fitzula, Raul J. Cano, Todd R. Klaenhammer

Biological Sciences

Amino acid decarboxylation-antiporter reactions are one of themost important systems for maintaining intracellular pH betweenphysiological limits under acid stress. We analyzed the Lactobacillusacidophilus NCFM complete genome sequence and selected fouropen reading frames with similarities to genes involved withdecarboxylation reactions involved in acid tolerance in severalmicroorganisms. Putative genes encoding an ornithine decarboxylase,an amino acid permease, a glutamate -aminobutyrate antiporter,and a transcriptional regulator were disrupted by insertionalinactivation. The ability of L. acidophilus to survive low-pHconditions, such as those encountered in the stomach or fermenteddairy foods, was investigated and compared to the abilitiesof early- and late-stationary-phase cells of the mutants bychallenging ...


Examination Of Technologies For Student-Generated Work In A Peer-Led, Peer-Review Instructional Environment, Brian P. Coppola, Alan L. Kiste Aug 2004

Examination Of Technologies For Student-Generated Work In A Peer-Led, Peer-Review Instructional Environment, Brian P. Coppola, Alan L. Kiste

Chemistry and Biochemistry

There is a growing literature demonstrating the effectiveness of using computer environments to assist students’ in visualizing science and mathematics concepts. However, with many of these computerized learning environments, students do not have the option of manipulating the environment. Instead, they are presented with pre-made visualizations. Enabling students to display their understanding through multiple representational forms is more interesting. In our peer-led, peer-review environment, students generate a complex, literature-based, multimedia text on which their final examination is based. However, there are great time and personnel costs in this design. Collaborating with SRI Inc., we are addressing these demands via the ...


Deriving In Situ Phytoplankton Absorption For Bio-Optical Productivity Models In Turbid Waters, Christina Orrico, Matthew J. Oliver, Oscar Schofield, Trisha Bergmann, Scott Glenn, Mark A. Moline Jul 2004

Deriving In Situ Phytoplankton Absorption For Bio-Optical Productivity Models In Turbid Waters, Christina Orrico, Matthew J. Oliver, Oscar Schofield, Trisha Bergmann, Scott Glenn, Mark A. Moline

Biological Sciences

As part of Hyperspectral Coupled Ocean Dynamics Experiment, a high-resolution hydrographic and bio-optical data set was collected from two cabled profilers at the Long-Term Ecosystem Observatory (LEO). Upwelling-and downwelling-favorable winds and a buoyant plume from the Hudson River induced large changes in hydrographic and optical structure of the water column. An absorption inversion model estimated the relative abundance of phytoplankton, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and detritus, as well as the spectral exponential slopes of CDOM and detritus from in situ WET Labs nine-wavelength absorption/attenuation meter (ac-9) absorption data. Derived optical weights were proportional to the parameter concentrations and ...


Learning To Teach, Teaching To Learn, Lisa Nicholson, Susan Algert, Rachael Willey Jul 2004

Learning To Teach, Teaching To Learn, Lisa Nicholson, Susan Algert, Rachael Willey

Food Science and Nutrition

Community Based Learning (CBL) successfully enhances didactic objectives in a nutrition curriculum while serving the community. University students actively solved problems in a 'real world' situation and benefited non-profit locations. Emotionally, learners profited on personal levels through successfully overcoming barriers. Content analysis was used to demonstrate that using CBL in a 'Nutrition Education and Communication' class met didactic learning objectives, enhanced students' personal confidence in teaching, and strengthened awareness of interpersonal skills. 71 students, in pairs, developed and taught nutrition lessons in diverse community locations. Students kept a reflective journal throughout the five weeks of the experience.


Fire Regimes And Resultant Forest Structure In Native Ano Nuevo Monterey Pine (Pinus Radiata) Forest, California, Scott L. Stephens, Douglas D. Piirto, Domenico F. Caramagno Jul 2004

Fire Regimes And Resultant Forest Structure In Native Ano Nuevo Monterey Pine (Pinus Radiata) Forest, California, Scott L. Stephens, Douglas D. Piirto, Domenico F. Caramagno

Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences

Native Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) forests occur in five populations on the west coast of North America. High severity fire has been reported to be the main disturbance agent that initiates seedling establishment for this species. To investigate the impacts of fire in this ecosystem, age structure and fire history data were collected from the native Ano Nuevo Monterey pine forest near Santa Cruz California. Stump cross-sections were removed from 10 randomly placed openings, and each was dated to determine tree age and fire history. Average mean fire return intervals were 11.2-20.1 y. Fifty-one percent of the Monterey ...


Watercolors In The Coastal Zone: What Can We See?, Oscar Schofield, Robert A. Arnone, W. Paul Bissett, Tommy D. Dickey, Curtis O. Davis, Zoe Finkel, Matthew Oliver, Mark A. Moline Jun 2004

Watercolors In The Coastal Zone: What Can We See?, Oscar Schofield, Robert A. Arnone, W. Paul Bissett, Tommy D. Dickey, Curtis O. Davis, Zoe Finkel, Matthew Oliver, Mark A. Moline

Biological Sciences

No abstract provided.


The New Age Of Hyperspectral Oceanography, Grace Chang, Kevin Mahoney, Amanda Briggs-Whitmire, David Kohler, Curtis Mobley, Marlon Lewis, Mark A. Moline, Emmanuel Boss, Minsu Kim, William Philpot, Tommy Dickey Jun 2004

The New Age Of Hyperspectral Oceanography, Grace Chang, Kevin Mahoney, Amanda Briggs-Whitmire, David Kohler, Curtis Mobley, Marlon Lewis, Mark A. Moline, Emmanuel Boss, Minsu Kim, William Philpot, Tommy Dickey

Biological Sciences

No abstract provided.


Diploid And Polyploid Cytotype Distribution In Melampodium Cinereum And M. Leucanthum (Asteraceae, Heliantheae), Tod F. Stuessy, Hanna Weiss-Schneeweiss, David J. Keil Jun 2004

Diploid And Polyploid Cytotype Distribution In Melampodium Cinereum And M. Leucanthum (Asteraceae, Heliantheae), Tod F. Stuessy, Hanna Weiss-Schneeweiss, David J. Keil

Biological Sciences

Previous chromosomal studies within Melampodium (Asteraceae, Heliantheae) of Mexico and Central America have documented chromosome numbers n = 9, 10, 11, 12, 18, 20, 23, 25 ± 1, 27, 30, and 33. Some species also have been shown to exhibit infra-and interpopulational polyploidy. The presence of cytotype mixtures is especially pronounced in the white-rayed complex, which occurs in the southwestern United States and adjacent Mexico. This group includes M. cinereum (n = 10 and 20), M. leucanthum (n = 10 and 20), and M. argophyllum (n = 30). Cytotype distribution has been newly analyzed in 415 plants from 152 populations and added to existing data ...


From Colorblindness To Intercultural Sensitivity: Infusing Diversity Training In Pete Programs, Joe W. Burden Jr., Samuel R. Hodge, Camille P. O'Bryant, Louis Harrison Jr. May 2004

From Colorblindness To Intercultural Sensitivity: Infusing Diversity Training In Pete Programs, Joe W. Burden Jr., Samuel R. Hodge, Camille P. O'Bryant, Louis Harrison Jr.

Kinesiology

In this paper, we advocate infusing diversity training across physical education teacher education (PETE) programs and curricula (DeSensi, 1995). Specifically, we call for PETE programs to provide curriculum content and professional socialization experiences that enhance intercultural sensitivity to better prepare novice teachers for working effectively with students of various cultures and ethnicities (DeSensi, 1995; Hodge, 2003). We discuss (a) changing demographics in society and schools with implications for preparing teachers, (b) moving from ethnocentricism to ethnorelativism of intercultural sensitivity, (c) implementing NCATE diversity initiatives, (d) infusing diversity training in PETE programs, and (e) understanding physical activity and sport participation patterns ...


Bioguided Processing: A Paradigm Change In Food Production, Robert E. Ward, Heribert J. Watzke, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, J. Bruce German May 2004

Bioguided Processing: A Paradigm Change In Food Production, Robert E. Ward, Heribert J. Watzke, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, J. Bruce German

Dairy Science

The effort to sequence the human genome, and subsequently to make the results publicly available, has created a new paradigm in the biological sciences. Now that we have access to the blueprint of our very structure and those of organisms from viruses to plants to animals, a mechanistic understanding of all the processes involved in our growth and metabolism is possible. Characterization of the genetic differences among us is underway, and should provide the information basis for a new approach to individual health. The challenge to the food industry will be to create product lines that will address individual dietary ...


Micrococcus Luteus - Survival In Amber, C. L. Greenblatt, J. Baum, B. Y. Klein, S. Nachshon, V. Koltunov, R. J. Cano Apr 2004

Micrococcus Luteus - Survival In Amber, C. L. Greenblatt, J. Baum, B. Y. Klein, S. Nachshon, V. Koltunov, R. J. Cano

Biological Sciences

A growing body of evidence now supports the isolation of microorganisms from ancient materials. However, questions about the stringency of extraction methods and the genetic relatedness of isolated organisms to their closest living relatives continue to challenge the authenticity of these ancient life forms. Previous studies have successfully isolated a number of spore-forming bacteria from organic and inorganic deposits of considerable age whose survival is explained by their ability to enter suspended animation for extended periods of time. However, despite a number of putative reports, the isolation of non-spore-forming bacteria and an explanation for their survival have remained enigmatic. Here ...


Variability In Spectral Backscatter Estimated From Satellites And Its Relation To In Situ Measurements In Optically Complex Coastal Waters, Mark A. Moline, Robert Arnone, Trisha Bergmann, Scott Glenn, Matthew J. Oliver, Cristina Orrico, Oscar Schofield, Sasha Tozzi Apr 2004

Variability In Spectral Backscatter Estimated From Satellites And Its Relation To In Situ Measurements In Optically Complex Coastal Waters, Mark A. Moline, Robert Arnone, Trisha Bergmann, Scott Glenn, Matthew J. Oliver, Cristina Orrico, Oscar Schofield, Sasha Tozzi

Biological Sciences

A large database of in situ bio-optical measurements was collected at the Long-term Ecosystem Observatory off the southern coast of New Jersey, USA. In part, the research effort focused on reconciling in situ estimates with satellite-derived estimates of the inherent optical properties (IOP). At 442 nm, in situ absorption values ranged from less than 0.2 to over 1.5 inverse metres. Satellite estimates of backscatter ranged from 0.002 to 0.03 inverse metres at 442 nm and showed significant variability in time and space during July 1999, reflecting the recurrent high frequency events that characterize the region—wind-mixing ...


Variability In Measured And Modelled Remote Sensing Reflectance For Coastal Waters At Leo-5, Sasha Tozzi, Oscar Schofield, Trisha Bergmann, Mark A. Moline, Robert Arnone Apr 2004

Variability In Measured And Modelled Remote Sensing Reflectance For Coastal Waters At Leo-5, Sasha Tozzi, Oscar Schofield, Trisha Bergmann, Mark A. Moline, Robert Arnone

Biological Sciences

A large database of in situ bio-optical measurements were collected at the LEO-15 (Long-term Ecosystem Observatory) off the southern coast of New Jersey, USA. The data were used to quantify the impact of coastal upwelling on near-shore bulk apparent (AOP) and inherent (IOP) optical properties. There was good qualitative agreement between the AOPs and IOPs in space and time. The measured IOPs were used as inputs to the Hydrolight radiative transfer model (RTE). Estimated spectral AOPs from the RTE were strongly correlated (generally R2>0.80) to measured AOPs. If optical closure between in-water measurements was achieved then the ...


Foot Cooling Reduces Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia In Men With Spinal Cord Injury, Todd A. Hagobian, Kevin A. Jacobs, B Jenny Kiratli, Anne L. Friedlander Mar 2004

Foot Cooling Reduces Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia In Men With Spinal Cord Injury, Todd A. Hagobian, Kevin A. Jacobs, B Jenny Kiratli, Anne L. Friedlander

Kinesiology

The number of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) participating in sports at recreational and elite levels is on the rise. However, loss of autonomic nervous system function below the lesion can compromise thermoregulatory capacity and increase the risk of heat stress relative to able-bodied (AB) individuals.
Purpose: To test the hypotheses that exercise in a heated environment would increase tympanic temperature (TTY) more in individuals with SCI than AB individuals, and that foot cooling using a new device would attenuate the rise in TTY during exercise in both groups.
Methods: Six subjects with SCI (lesions C5–T5) and six ...


Bayesian Statistics For Biological Data: Pedigree Analysis, William D. Stansfield, Matthew A. Carlton Mar 2004

Bayesian Statistics For Biological Data: Pedigree Analysis, William D. Stansfield, Matthew A. Carlton

Biological Sciences

No abstract provided.


Bacterial Succession In A Petroleum Land Treatment Unit, Christopher W. Kaplan, Christopher L. Kitts Mar 2004

Bacterial Succession In A Petroleum Land Treatment Unit, Christopher W. Kaplan, Christopher L. Kitts

Biological Sciences

Bacterial community dynamics were investigated in a land treatment unit (LTU) established at a site contaminated with highly weathered petroleum hydrocarbons in the C(10) to C(32) range. The treatment plot, 3,000 cubic yards of soil, was supplemented with nutrients and monitored weekly for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), soil water content, nutrient levels, and aerobic heterotrophic bacterial counts. Weekly soil samples were analyzed with 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis to monitor bacterial community structure and dynamics during bioremediation. TPH degradation was rapid during the first 3 weeks and slowed for the remainder of the 24-week ...


Fossil Tuna Vertebrae Punctured By Istiophorid Billfishes, Vincent P. Schneider, Harry L. Fierstine Mar 2004

Fossil Tuna Vertebrae Punctured By Istiophorid Billfishes, Vincent P. Schneider, Harry L. Fierstine

Biological Sciences

No abstract provided.


Are Who/Unaids/Unicef-Recommended Replacement Milks For Infants Of Hiv-Infected Mothers Appropriate In The South African Context?, Peggy Papathakis, Nigel Rollins Mar 2004

Are Who/Unaids/Unicef-Recommended Replacement Milks For Infants Of Hiv-Infected Mothers Appropriate In The South African Context?, Peggy Papathakis, Nigel Rollins

Food Science and Nutrition

ObjectiveLittle is known about the nutritional adequacy and feasibility of breastmilk replacement options recommended by WHO/ UNAIDS/UNICEF. The study aim was to explore suitability of the 2001 feeding recommendations for infants of HIV-infected mothers for a rural region in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa specifically with respect to adequacy of micronutrients and essential fatty acids, cost, and preparation times of replacement milks.

Methods Nutritional adequacy, cost, and preparation time of home-prepared replacement milks containing powdered full cream milk (PM) and fresh full cream milk (FM) and different micronutrient supplements (2 g UNICEF micronutrient sachet, government supplement routinely available in ...


In Situ Cardiac Performance Of Pacific Bluefin Tuna Hearts In Response To Acute Temperature Change, Jason M. Blank, Jeffery M. Morrissette, Ana M. Landeira-Fernandez, Susanna B. Blackwell, Thomas D. Williams, Barbara A. Block Feb 2004

In Situ Cardiac Performance Of Pacific Bluefin Tuna Hearts In Response To Acute Temperature Change, Jason M. Blank, Jeffery M. Morrissette, Ana M. Landeira-Fernandez, Susanna B. Blackwell, Thomas D. Williams, Barbara A. Block

Biological Sciences

This study reports the cardiovascular physiology of the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) in an in situ heart preparation. The performance of the Pacific bluefin tuna heart was examined at temperatures from 30°C down to 2°C. Heart rates ranged from 156 beats min–1 at 30°C to 13 beats min–1 at 2°C. Maximal stroke volumes were 1.1 ml kg–1 at 25°C and 1.3 ml kg–1 at 2°C. Maximal cardiac outputs were 18.1 ml kg–1 min–1 at 2°C and 106 ml kg–1 min–1 at ...


Exercise And The Elderly: A Scientific Rationale For Exercise Prescription, Heather Mernitz, Ann Y. Mcdermott Feb 2004

Exercise And The Elderly: A Scientific Rationale For Exercise Prescription, Heather Mernitz, Ann Y. Mcdermott

Kinesiology

Objective: To review the benefits of exercise intervention in older persons and the role of exercise in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. Methods: Qualitative assessment of the literature focusing on randomized controlled trials. Results: Participation in regular physical activity, including aerobic exercise and strength training, can improve health, functional ability, and quality of life in older persons. Higher levels of aerobic activity are associated with increased physical fitness, decreased total mortality, and improvements in cardiovascular risk profile. Resistance training combats myopathy and osteopenia and increases muscle endurance and function. Additional benefits from exercise include improved bone health and ...