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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Longitudinal Variation In Muscle Protein Expression And Contraction Kinetics Of Largemouth Bass Axial Muscle, Tierney M. Thys, Jason M. Blank, David J. Coughlin, Fred Schachat Dec 2001

Longitudinal Variation In Muscle Protein Expression And Contraction Kinetics Of Largemouth Bass Axial Muscle, Tierney M. Thys, Jason M. Blank, David J. Coughlin, Fred Schachat

Biological Sciences

The present study investigates muscle protein expression in largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides through intra- and intermyomeric comparisons of white muscle. Using denaturing SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, muscle protein expression in the arm and cone regions of sequential myomeres was compared for three bass. Low percentage (4.75 %) polyacrylamide-SDS gels and cyanogen bromide (CNBr) peptide mapping revealed no obvious intramyomeric differences between the myosin heavy chains of the arm and cone regions. Electrophoresis of myofibrils and muscle homogenates on higher percentage gels also failed to demonstrate any significant differences between arm and cone regions in either the myosin light chains or any ...


Mf-Ea-705Α & Mf-Ea-705Β, New Metabolites From Microbial Fermentation Of A Streptomyces Sp., Asfia Qureshi, Jacob B. Mauger, Raul J. Cano, Jorge L. Galazzo, May D. Lee Dec 2001

Mf-Ea-705Α & Mf-Ea-705Β, New Metabolites From Microbial Fermentation Of A Streptomyces Sp., Asfia Qureshi, Jacob B. Mauger, Raul J. Cano, Jorge L. Galazzo, May D. Lee

Biological Sciences

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Artisanal Fishing On Marine Communities In The Galápagos Islands, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg Dec 2001

Effects Of Artisanal Fishing On Marine Communities In The Galápagos Islands, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg

Biological Sciences

The Galápagos Islands harbor some of the least impacted marine ecosystems in the tropics, but there are indications that local artisanal fishing is affecting exploited marine communities. To quantify these effects, I sampled communities of fishes and sea urchins at a number of heavily fished and lightly fished sites throughout the central islands of the archipelago. Sites were selected based on information collected as part of a local fisheries monitoring study and standardized across a number of abiotic factors. Abundance and biomass of the primary target species were significantly lower in the heavily fished sites than in the lightly fished ...


Re-Evaluating Nadph-Diaphorase Histochemistry As An Indicator Of Nitric Oxide Synthase: An Examination Of The Olfactory System Of Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus Kisutch), Sean C. Lema, Gabrielle A. Nevitt Nov 2001

Re-Evaluating Nadph-Diaphorase Histochemistry As An Indicator Of Nitric Oxide Synthase: An Examination Of The Olfactory System Of Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus Kisutch), Sean C. Lema, Gabrielle A. Nevitt

Biological Sciences

The NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemical technique is commonly used to localize the nitric oxide (NO)-producing enzyme NO synthase (NOS) in neural tissues. In the olfactory tissues of vertebrates, however, NADPH-d staining can be present without the detection of NOS by other methods. We used pharmacological controls to determine whether NADPH-d staining was indicative of NOS in olfactory tissues from coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). We also compared NADPH-d staining with immunoreactivity to NOS. NADPH-d staining localized to the olfactory epithelium and to the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb. Two NOS inhibitors, L-N-nitroarginine and L-N-methyl-L-arginine, failed to ...


Area-Level Characteristics And Smoking In Women, Marilyn Tseng, Karin Yeatts, Robert Millikan, Beth Newman Nov 2001

Area-Level Characteristics And Smoking In Women, Marilyn Tseng, Karin Yeatts, Robert Millikan, Beth Newman

Kinesiology

Objectives. This study examined whether area-level characteristics are associated with individual smoking behavior among women.

Methods. Analyses included 648 women enrolled as control patients in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (1993–1996). Smoking and covariate information was obtained from interviews. Area-level characteristics included census block-group education level, poverty, unemployment, car–home ownership, crowding, and, for 431 women, city-level crime rates.

Results. In multivariate logistic regression models, no area characteristics were clearly associated with a history of smoking. Among those who had ever smoked, continued smoking was associated with living in low-education areas (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval ...


Whence Meiosis?, Anne M. Villeneuve, Kenneth J. Hillers Sep 2001

Whence Meiosis?, Anne M. Villeneuve, Kenneth J. Hillers

Biological Sciences

Sexual reproduction predominates among eukaryotic organisms on our planet. While debate continues over why this should be so, burgeoning genomic and functional information now allows us to begin to think reasonably about some of the events that may have occurred to make sex possible in the first place.


Invasive Plant Management Project, Scott J. Steinmaus Aug 2001

Invasive Plant Management Project, Scott J. Steinmaus

Biological Sciences

ARI Final Report - Project Number 46910.


Fundamental Dietary Patterns And Their Correlates Among Us Whites, Marilyn Tseng, Robert F. Devellis Aug 2001

Fundamental Dietary Patterns And Their Correlates Among Us Whites, Marilyn Tseng, Robert F. Devellis

Kinesiology

A social history of eating habits in the United States (1) suggests that there are 2 fundamental US dietary patterns. The first, characterized by beef or pork, while flour bread, and potato consumption, is grounded in British culinary heritage. The second, characterized by fruits and vegetables consumed as "protective" foods, that is, to avoid illness, is a result of the development of nutrition science, the growth of good and advertising industries, and efforts of World War 1 food conservation programs. To confirm the occurrence of these 2 dietary patterns and their sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates, we used principal components analysis ...


Biological Control As A Tool For Ecosystem Management, David H. Headrick, Richard D. Goeden Jul 2001

Biological Control As A Tool For Ecosystem Management, David H. Headrick, Richard D. Goeden

Horticulture and Crop Science

Biological control is proposed as a tool useful for ecosystem management and compatible with the goals of often competing interests regarding the restoration and maintenance of ecosystems. We summarize the effects of introduced species on ecosystems in three broad groups: insects, vertebrates, and weeds. We then discuss the role of biological control for each of these groups in the context of ecosystem management and realistic outcomes. Of the three groups, we show that biological control of weeds appears to have the best chance for success in ecosystem management. We provide two case studies to support our ideas and finally discuss ...


The Effect Of The El Niño–Southern Oscillation Event On The Distribution Of Reef-Associated Labrid Fishes In The Eastern Pacific Ocean, Benjamin C. Victor, Gerard M. Wellington, D. Ross Robertson, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg Jul 2001

The Effect Of The El Niño–Southern Oscillation Event On The Distribution Of Reef-Associated Labrid Fishes In The Eastern Pacific Ocean, Benjamin C. Victor, Gerard M. Wellington, D. Ross Robertson, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg

Biological Sciences

We surveyed the labrid fishes of the eastern Pacific ocean at multiple sites before, during, and after the 1997–98 ENSO event. Our observations showed that reef fish communities in general did not appear to change markedly as a result of the ENSO. Recruitment of labrids at the Galápagos Islands, Clipperton Atoll and Baja California was generally high near the end of the ENSO, indicating no negative effect on populations. Two labrid species did extend their known range during the ENSO: Stethojulis bandanensis settled onto the tip of Baja California and to the Galápagos Islands, while Thalassoma virens recruited heavily ...


Invasion Genetics Of New World Medflies: Testing Alternative Colonization Scenarios, Andrew J. Bohonak, Neil Davies, Francis X. Villablanca, George K. Roderick Jun 2001

Invasion Genetics Of New World Medflies: Testing Alternative Colonization Scenarios, Andrew J. Bohonak, Neil Davies, Francis X. Villablanca, George K. Roderick

Biological Sciences

The Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) is an invasive agricultural pest with a wide host range and a nearly global distribution. Efforts to forgo the medfly''s spread into the United States are dependent on an understanding of population dynamics in newly established populations elsewhere. To explore the potential influence of demographic and historical parameters in six medfly populations distributed from Mexico to Peru, we created population genetic null models using Monte Carlo simulations. Null expectations for genetic differentiation (F ST) were compared with actual sequence variation from four highly polymorphic nuclear loci. Four colonization scenarios that were modeled led ...


Parasitism Patterns And The Size-Fecundity Relationship In The Acoustically Orienting Dipteran Parasitoid Ormia Ochracea, Gita R. Kolluru, Marlene Zuk Jun 2001

Parasitism Patterns And The Size-Fecundity Relationship In The Acoustically Orienting Dipteran Parasitoid Ormia Ochracea, Gita R. Kolluru, Marlene Zuk

Biological Sciences

Female parasitoids are expected to distribute offspring among hosts in a manner that maximizes fitness. Several theoretical and empirical studies have focussed on clutch-size patterns in hymenopteran parasitoids. In contrast, dipteran parasitoids, which differ from hymenopterans in potentially important ways, have received little attention. The phonotactic tachinid fly Ormia ochracea has been intensively studied for its effects on host crickets, and has recently been the subject of studies of its own reproductive biology. This work suggests a negative relationship between clutch size and progeny fitness (consistent with hymenopterans), but no adjustment of clutch size to host size (different from hymenopterans ...


Analysis And New Records Of Billfish (Teleostei: Perciformers: Istiophoridae) From The Yorktown Formation, Early Pliocene Of Eastern North Carolina At Lee Creek Mine, Harry L. Fierstine May 2001

Analysis And New Records Of Billfish (Teleostei: Perciformers: Istiophoridae) From The Yorktown Formation, Early Pliocene Of Eastern North Carolina At Lee Creek Mine, Harry L. Fierstine

Biological Sciences

Five species of the billfish family Istiophoridae (Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw and Nodder), Makaira indica (Cuvier), M. nigricans Lacépède, M. purdyi Fierstine, Tetrapturus albidus Poey) were identified from approximately 500 separate bones collected in the Yorktown Formation (early Pliocene) at Lee Creek Mine, North Carolina. This is the only record of M. purdyi, the first fossil record of the genus Tetrapturus (specifically T. albidus), the second fossil record of I. platypterus and M. indica, and the first record of I. platypterus, M. indica, M. nigricans, and T. albidus from fossil deposits bordering the Atlantic Ocean.

Identification was accomplished by converting length ...


16s Ribosomal Dna Terminal Restriction Fragment Pattern Analysis Of Bacterial Communities In Feces Of Rats Fed Lactobacillus Acidophilus Ncfm, Christopher W. Kaplan, Johanna C. Astaire, M. E. Sanders, Bandaru S. Reddy, Christopher L. Kitts May 2001

16s Ribosomal Dna Terminal Restriction Fragment Pattern Analysis Of Bacterial Communities In Feces Of Rats Fed Lactobacillus Acidophilus Ncfm, Christopher W. Kaplan, Johanna C. Astaire, M. E. Sanders, Bandaru S. Reddy, Christopher L. Kitts

Biological Sciences

16S ribosomal DNA terminal restriction fragment patterns from rat fecal samples were analyzed to track the dynamics of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and discern bacterial populations that changed during feeding with NCFM. Lactobacillus johnsonii and Ruminococcus flavefaciens were tentatively identified as such bacterial populations. The presence of L. johnsonii was confirmed by isolation from feces.


The Scientific Foundations Of Habitat Conservation Plans: A Quantitative Assessment, Elaine K. Harding, Elizabeth E. Crone, Bret D. Elderd, Jonathan M. Hoekstra, Alexa J. Mckerrow, John D. Perrine, Jim Regetz, Leslie J. Rissler, Amanda G. Stanley, Eric L. Walters, Nceas Habitat Conservation Plan Working Group Apr 2001

The Scientific Foundations Of Habitat Conservation Plans: A Quantitative Assessment, Elaine K. Harding, Elizabeth E. Crone, Bret D. Elderd, Jonathan M. Hoekstra, Alexa J. Mckerrow, John D. Perrine, Jim Regetz, Leslie J. Rissler, Amanda G. Stanley, Eric L. Walters, Nceas Habitat Conservation Plan Working Group

Biological Sciences

The number of habitat conservation plans ( HCP) has risen dramatically since the first plan was written over 18 years ago. Until recently, no studies have quantitatively investigated the scientific foundations underlying these documents. As part of a larger study of HCPs, we examined 43 plans primarily to assess the availability and use of scientific data and secondarily to determine the extent of involvement by, and influence of, independent scientists within the process. Specifically, our analysis focused on five key steps taken when an HCP is developed: assessing status of a species, determining take, predicting the project effects, mitigating for those ...


Low Genetic Diversity In An Endangered Species: Recent Or Historic Pattern?, Marjorie D. Matocq, Francis X. Villablanca Mar 2001

Low Genetic Diversity In An Endangered Species: Recent Or Historic Pattern?, Marjorie D. Matocq, Francis X. Villablanca

Biological Sciences

Examining patterns of genetic diversity has become an integral component of many management plans concerning endangered species, yet interpreting the processes underlying such patterns remains challenging. We demonstrate low genetic diversity in a critically endangered small mammal population. A common interpretation of this pattern would be that it is the result of a known, recent decline in this population. We test this interpretation and find it to be incorrect. Instead, by using museum voucher specimens, we show that the pattern of low genetic diversity is historical. This study demonstrates the importance of choosing appropriate reference groups by which to interpret ...


A New Aglyptorhynchus (Perciformes: Scombroidei: Blochiidae) From The Late Oligocene Of Oregon, Harry L. Fierstine Mar 2001

A New Aglyptorhynchus (Perciformes: Scombroidei: Blochiidae) From The Late Oligocene Of Oregon, Harry L. Fierstine

Biological Sciences

A partial fish skull with a nearly complete rostrum, a cup-shaped sclerotic hone, and cycloid scales (UCMP 123170) from the Yaquina Formation (late Oligocene, Oregon) is described and identified as Aglyptorhynchus maxillaris, sp. nov. Unusual features of the rostrum include a fused premaxillary segment with a low dorsal keel, and a maxilla with both a flat flange on its postero-ventral margin and a large condyle that presumably allowed dorsoventral movement of the rostrum to increase the gape. The Yaquina Formation was estimated to have been deposited at a water depth of over 100m and a sea surface temperature of at ...


Correlated Evolution Of Chloroplast Heat Shock Protein Expression In Closely Related Plant Species, Charles A. Knight, David D. Ackerly Mar 2001

Correlated Evolution Of Chloroplast Heat Shock Protein Expression In Closely Related Plant Species, Charles A. Knight, David D. Ackerly

Biological Sciences

Interspecific variation in chloroplast low molecular weight (cLMW) HSP (heat shock protein) expression was examined with respect to phylogeny, species specific leaf area, chlorophyll fluorescence, and mean environmental conditions within species ranges. Eight species of Ceanothus (Rhamnaceae) were heat shocked for 4 h at several different temperatures. Leaf samples were collected immediately after the heat shock, and cLMW HSP expression was quantified using Western blots. At 450C species from the subgenus Cerastes had significantly greater cLMW HSP expression than species from the subgenus Ceanothus. Specific leaf area was negatively correlated with cLMW HSP expression after the 450 ...


Weight-Loss Maintenance In Overweight Individuals One To Five Years Following Successful Completion Of A Commercial Weight Loss Program, M. R. Lowe, K. Miller-Kovach, Suzanne Phelan Mar 2001

Weight-Loss Maintenance In Overweight Individuals One To Five Years Following Successful Completion Of A Commercial Weight Loss Program, M. R. Lowe, K. Miller-Kovach, Suzanne Phelan

Kinesiology

OBJECTIVE: To determine weight loss maintenance among participants in a commercial weight loss program (Weight Watchers) who had reached their goal weights 1-5 y previously.
DESIGN: A national sample (n=1002) was surveyed by phone to obtain demographic and weight-related information. An oversample (n=258) was recruited and weighed in person to develop a correction factor for self-reported weights in the national sample.
RESULTS: Based on corrected weights, weight regain from 1 to 5 y following weight loss ranged between 31.5 and 76.5%. At 5 y, 19.4% were within 5 lb of goal weight, 42.6% maintained ...


Semi-Artificial Monarch Butterfly Larval Diet, Kingston L. H. Leong Jan 2001

Semi-Artificial Monarch Butterfly Larval Diet, Kingston L. H. Leong

Biological Sciences

A semi-artificial diet of monarch butterfly larva and a process for making such a diet are provided. The diet consists of a substantial amount of dried milkweed powder and small but effective amounts of mold inhibitor and antibiotic.


Update On Conjugated Linoleic Acids (Cla), D. E. Bauman, D. G. Peterson, L. H. Baumgard, J. W. Perfield Ii Jan 2001

Update On Conjugated Linoleic Acids (Cla), D. E. Bauman, D. G. Peterson, L. H. Baumgard, J. W. Perfield Ii

Animal Science

No abstract provided.


Scale Up And Mass Balance Of Affinity Purification Of Native Β-Lactoglobulin, Harit K. Vyas, Jesus M. Izco, Rafael Jiménez-Flores Jan 2001

Scale Up And Mass Balance Of Affinity Purification Of Native Β-Lactoglobulin, Harit K. Vyas, Jesus M. Izco, Rafael Jiménez-Flores

Dairy Science

Abstract of paper presented at the 54th Annual Reciprocal Meat Conference (2001).


Adaptive Sampling In The Coastal Ocean At The Long Ecosystem Observatory, Mark A. Moline, W. Paul Bissett, Scott Glenn, Dale Haidvogel, Oscar Schofield Jan 2001

Adaptive Sampling In The Coastal Ocean At The Long Ecosystem Observatory, Mark A. Moline, W. Paul Bissett, Scott Glenn, Dale Haidvogel, Oscar Schofield

Biological Sciences

A multi-platform inter-disciplinary observation network has been operating at the Rutgers University Long-term Ecosystem Observatory (LEO) since 1996, with real-time capabilities beginning in July 1999. The network integrates numerous remote (satellites and shore- based), stationary (surface and subsurface), moveable (ships and AUVs) observation systems. The observation network provides spatially extensive updates of the physics, optics, chemistry and biology on time scales of an hour or less which are communicated in real-time to shipboard scientists and AUV operators. This rapid environmental assessment capability is already changing current paradigms for ocean adaptive sampling strategies. For example, in the well-sampled ocean, where forecast ...


Impact Of Dynamic Light And Nutrient Environments On Phytoplankton Communities In The Coastal Ocean, Mark A. Moline, Oscar Schofield, Joe Grzymski Jan 2001

Impact Of Dynamic Light And Nutrient Environments On Phytoplankton Communities In The Coastal Ocean, Mark A. Moline, Oscar Schofield, Joe Grzymski

Biological Sciences

Phytoplankton represent the base of the food web in marine ecosystems. Changes in the structure and composition of these phytoplankton communities will, therefore, have a direct effect on the amount of carbon available to higher trophic levels. In the absence of significant grazing, light and nutrients are the primary factors regulating phytoplankton photosynthesis and productivity in marine environments. As the requirements for light and nutrients differ between species, phytoplankton community structure is also sensitive to dynamic optical and chemical conditions in the water column.


Modeling Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions And Primary Productivity, Joe Grzymski, Mark A. Moline, Jay T. Cullen Jan 2001

Modeling Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions And Primary Productivity, Joe Grzymski, Mark A. Moline, Jay T. Cullen

Biological Sciences

The heat budget, and hence the climate of the Earth, is sensitive to changes in the atmospheric greenhouse gas composition. Next to water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most important atmospheric greenhouse gas affecting the Earth's radiative balance. Greenhouse gases raise the mean temperature of the Earth by absorbing and trapping long-wave radiation from the planet surface that would otherwise be lost to space.


Changes In Phytoplankton Assemblages Along The Antarctic Peninsula And Potential Implications For The Antarctic Food Web, Mark A. Moline, Herve Claustre, Thomas K. Frazer, Joe Grzymski, Maria Vernet Jan 2001

Changes In Phytoplankton Assemblages Along The Antarctic Peninsula And Potential Implications For The Antarctic Food Web, Mark A. Moline, Herve Claustre, Thomas K. Frazer, Joe Grzymski, Maria Vernet

Biological Sciences

The majority of the yearly organic carbon production int he coastal regions of the Southern ocean occurs during summer blooms. Changes in the quantity and quality of the phytoplankton standing crop during this period will likely impact organisms that occupy higher trophic levels within the ecosystem. Here we report a recurrent shift in the dominant phytoplankton taxa during the austral summer in a coastal region along the Antarctic Peninsula. The pattern was observed each year between 1991 and 1996 despite radically different biomass concentrations and meteorological and hydrographic conditions. We show that a repeated dominance of cryptophytes (Cryptophyceae) during the ...


Optical Remote Sensing Techniques In Biological Oceanography, W. Paul Bissett, Oscar Schofield, Curtis D. Mobley, Michael F. Crowley, Mark A. Moline Jan 2001

Optical Remote Sensing Techniques In Biological Oceanography, W. Paul Bissett, Oscar Schofield, Curtis D. Mobley, Michael F. Crowley, Mark A. Moline

Biological Sciences

No abstract provided.


Terminal Restriction Fragment Patterns: A Tool For Comparing Microbial Communities And Assessing Community Dynamics, Christopher L. Kitts Jan 2001

Terminal Restriction Fragment Patterns: A Tool For Comparing Microbial Communities And Assessing Community Dynamics, Christopher L. Kitts

Biological Sciences

Terminal Restriction Fragment (TRF) patterns, also known as Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (T-RFLP), are a recently introduced PCR-based tool for studying microbial community structure and dynamics. Since the first review of TRF methodology (Marsh, 1999. Curr. Op. Microbiol. 2: 323-7), at least 35 new research articles were published that include this powerful tool in some part of their reports. This review covers some of the applications that TRF patterns were used for and provides a discussion of how to create and analyze TRF pattern data. This data has the advantage of being simply and rapidly produced using standard DNA ...


A Fossil Blue Marlin (Makaira Nigricans Lacépède) From The Middle Facies Of The Trinidad Formation (Upper Miocene To Upper Pliocene), San José Del Cabo Basin, Baja California Sur, México, Harry L. Fierstine, Shelton P. Applegate, Gerardo González-Barba, Tobias Schwennicke, Luis Espinosa-Arrubarrena Jan 2001

A Fossil Blue Marlin (Makaira Nigricans Lacépède) From The Middle Facies Of The Trinidad Formation (Upper Miocene To Upper Pliocene), San José Del Cabo Basin, Baja California Sur, México, Harry L. Fierstine, Shelton P. Applegate, Gerardo González-Barba, Tobias Schwennicke, Luis Espinosa-Arrubarrena

Biological Sciences

A large fossil skull and several rostra of Makaira nigricans Lacépède, 1802 (Perciformes: Istiophoridae), as well as some less diagnostic istiophorid remains, have been recovered from the middle facies of the Trinidad Formation near Rancho Algodones, San José del Cabo Basin, Baja California Sur, México. These are the only bill fish specimens known from fossiliferous deposits located between southern California and Panama. Based on published accounts of the presence of nannofossils and planktonic foraminifera, and additional field work, we conclude that the age of the study area is late Miocene to late Pliocene. Based on the habitat preferences of recent ...


A New Wildlife Sighting Reporting And Database System For Lassen Volcanic National Park, John D. Perrine, Jonathan F. Arnold Jan 2001

A New Wildlife Sighting Reporting And Database System For Lassen Volcanic National Park, John D. Perrine, Jonathan F. Arnold

Biological Sciences

Visitors and employees in national parks may observe species of interest to wildlife biologists and resource managers. These sightings are useful to researchers and managers only if the data can be efficiently acquired, stored and retrieved for analysis.· We identified several problems in the wildlife sightings reporting system at Lassen Volcanic National Park, including a confusing array of reporting forms; incomplete contact information for the reporter; insufficient reporting of the animal's description, behavior and location; and a cumbersome data entry and retrieval system. We developed a new system to correct these problems. A single reporting form corrects the aforementioned ...