Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Maintaining Large Weight Losses: The Role Of Behavioral And Psychological Factors, Rena R. Wing, George Papandonatos, Joseph L. Fava, Amy A. Gorin, Suzanne Phelan, Jeanne Mccaffery, Deborah F. Tate Dec 2008

Maintaining Large Weight Losses: The Role Of Behavioral And Psychological Factors, Rena R. Wing, George Papandonatos, Joseph L. Fava, Amy A. Gorin, Suzanne Phelan, Jeanne Mccaffery, Deborah F. Tate

Kinesiology

Few studies have examined predictors of weight regain after significant weight losses. This prospective study examined behavioral and psychological predictors of weight regain in 261 successful weight losers who completed an 18-month trial of weight regain prevention that compared a control condition with self-regulation interventions delivered face-to-face or via the Internet. Linear mixed effect models were used to examine behavioral and psychological predictors of weight regain, both as main effects and as interactions with treatment group. Decreases in physical activity were related to weight regain across all 3 groups, and increased frequency of self-weighing was equally protective in the 2 ...


Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (Pfps): A Systematic Review Of Anatomy And Potential Risk Factors, Gregory R. Waryasz, Ann Y. Mcdermott Jun 2008

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (Pfps): A Systematic Review Of Anatomy And Potential Risk Factors, Gregory R. Waryasz, Ann Y. Mcdermott

Kinesiology

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS), a common cause of anterior knee pain, is successfully treated in over 2/3 of patients through rehabilitation protocols designed to reduce pain and return function to the individual. Applying preventive medicine strategies, the majority of cases of PFPS may be avoided if a pre-diagnosis can be made by clinician or certified athletic trainer testing the current researched potential risk factors during a Preparticipation Screening Evaluation (PPSE). We provide a detailed and comprehensive review of the soft tissue, arterial system, and innervation to the patellofemoral joint in order to supply the clinician with the knowledge required ...


Holiday Weight Management By Successful Weight Losers And Normal Weight Individuals, Suzanne Phelan, Rena R. Wing, Hollie A. Raynor, Julia Dibello, Kim Nedeau, Wanfeng Peng Jun 2008

Holiday Weight Management By Successful Weight Losers And Normal Weight Individuals, Suzanne Phelan, Rena R. Wing, Hollie A. Raynor, Julia Dibello, Kim Nedeau, Wanfeng Peng

Kinesiology

This study compared weight control strategies during the winter holidays among successful weight losers (SWL) in the National Weight Control Registry and normal weight individuals (NW) with no history of obesity. SWL (n = 178) had lost a mean of 34.9 kg and had kept =13.6 kg off for a mean of 5.9 years. NW (n = 101) had a body mass index of 18.5-24.9 kg/m². More SWL than NW reported plans to be extremely strict in maintaining their usual dietary routine (27.3% vs. 0%) and exercise routine (59.1% vs. 14.3%) over the ...


Does Parenting Affect Children's Eating And Weight Status?, Alison K. Ventura, Leann L. Birch Mar 2008

Does Parenting Affect Children's Eating And Weight Status?, Alison K. Ventura, Leann L. Birch

Kinesiology

Background: Worldwide, the prevalence of obesity among children has increased dramatically. Although the etiology of childhood obesity is multifactorial, to date, most preventive interventions have focused on school-aged children in school settings and have met with limited success. In this review, we focus on another set of influences that impact the development of children's eating and weight status: parenting and feeding styles and practices. Our review has two aims: (1) to assess the extent to which current evidence supports the hypothesis that parenting, via its effects on children's eating, is causally implicated in childhood obesity; and (2) to ...


Effects Of Short-Term Exercise And Energy Surplus On Hormones Related To Regulation Of Energy Balance, Todd A. Hagobian, Carrie G. Sharoff, Barry Braun Mar 2008

Effects Of Short-Term Exercise And Energy Surplus On Hormones Related To Regulation Of Energy Balance, Todd A. Hagobian, Carrie G. Sharoff, Barry Braun

Kinesiology

Energy surplus raises circulating concentrations of leptin and insulin while lowering plasma ghrelin. Exercise has the opposite effects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercise counters the hormonal effects of energy surplus independent of changes in energy balance. To do that, we assessed plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin, and ghrelin at baseline, after overfeeding, and after overfeeding plus exercise. Baseline (B) leptin and insulin concentrations and ghrelin area under the curve were measured during an oral glucose challenge in 9 healthy, active subjects (6 male, 3 female) after 2 days in energy balance without exercise. Measurements were ...


Impact Of Metformin On Peak Aerobic Capacity, Barry Braun, Pamela Eze, Brooke R. Stephens, Todd A. Hagobian, Carrie G. Sharoff, Stuart R. Chipkin, Benjamin Goldstein Feb 2008

Impact Of Metformin On Peak Aerobic Capacity, Barry Braun, Pamela Eze, Brooke R. Stephens, Todd A. Hagobian, Carrie G. Sharoff, Stuart R. Chipkin, Benjamin Goldstein

Kinesiology

Individually, exercise and the drug metformin have been shown to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes. Metformin mildly inhibits complex I of the electron transport system and may impact aerobic capacity in people exercising while taking metformin. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of metformin on maximal aerobic capacity in healthy individuals without mitochondrial dysfunction. Seventeen healthy, normal-weight men (n=11) and women (n=6) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Peak aerobic capacity was measured twice using a continuous, incrementally graded protocol; once after 7-9 d of metformin (final dose=2000 mg/d) and ...


Dietary Patterns And Breast Density In The Minnesota Breast Cancer Family Study, Marilyn Tseng, Robert A. Vierkant, Lawrence H. Kushi, Thomas A. Sellers, Celine M. Vachon Jan 2008

Dietary Patterns And Breast Density In The Minnesota Breast Cancer Family Study, Marilyn Tseng, Robert A. Vierkant, Lawrence H. Kushi, Thomas A. Sellers, Celine M. Vachon

Kinesiology

Objective Whether dietary patterns, rather than single foods or nutrients, are associated with breast density is not known. We investigated this in the Minnesota Breast Cancer Family Study. Methods Participants completed a 153-item food frequency questionnaire and provided screening mammograms for breast density assessment using a computer-assisted method. We used multivariate linear regression to quantify dietary pattern–breast density associations. Results Among 3,147 women with dietary information, three dietary patterns emerged from principal components analysis: a fruit–vegetable–cereal pattern, a salad–sauce–pasta/ grain pattern, and a meat–starch pattern. Among 1,286 women with breast density estimates ...


Metabolic Syndrome And Health-Related Quality Of Life In Obese Individuals Seeking Weight Reduction, Adam Gilden Tsai, Thomas A. Wadden, David B. Sarwer, Robert I. Berkowitz, Leslie G. Womble, Louise A. Hesson, Suzanne Phelan, Rebecca Rothman Jan 2008

Metabolic Syndrome And Health-Related Quality Of Life In Obese Individuals Seeking Weight Reduction, Adam Gilden Tsai, Thomas A. Wadden, David B. Sarwer, Robert I. Berkowitz, Leslie G. Womble, Louise A. Hesson, Suzanne Phelan, Rebecca Rothman

Kinesiology

Background: No previous research has examined the association between metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using standard criteria for defining MetSyn. We hypothesized that MetSyn would be associated with lower HRQoL on measures of physical and mental health.
Methods and Procedures: Participants were 361 individuals in two randomized weight loss trials. MetSyn was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Panel criteria. The Medical Outcomes Study, Short Form-36 (SF-36) was used to assess HRQoL. Differences in HRQoL and in clinical and psychosocial characteristics were compared among participants with and without MetSyn. Multiple regression was used to determine predictors ...


Physical Activity Patterns In The National Weight Control Registry, Victoria A. Catenacci, Lorraine G. Ogden, Jennifer Stuht, Suzanne Phelan, Rena R. Wing, James O. Hill, Holly R. Wyatt Jan 2008

Physical Activity Patterns In The National Weight Control Registry, Victoria A. Catenacci, Lorraine G. Ogden, Jennifer Stuht, Suzanne Phelan, Rena R. Wing, James O. Hill, Holly R. Wyatt

Kinesiology

Objective: The National Weight Control Registry (NWCR) was established in 1993 to examine the characteristics of those who are successful at weight loss: individuals maintaining a 13.6-kg weight loss for >1 year. The size of the registry has increased substantially since the early descriptions of this group a decade ago. The purpose of this study was to describe in detail the weekly physical activity habits of NWCR members, to examine the relationship between amount of activity and demographic characteristics, and to determine if changes in activity parameters have occurred over time.
Methods and Procedures: Participants were 887 men and ...


Mediterranean Diet And Breast Density In The Minnesota Breast Cancer Family Study, Marilyn Tseng, Thomas A. Sellers, Robert A. Vierkant, Lawrence H. Kushi, Celine M. Vachon Jan 2008

Mediterranean Diet And Breast Density In The Minnesota Breast Cancer Family Study, Marilyn Tseng, Thomas A. Sellers, Robert A. Vierkant, Lawrence H. Kushi, Celine M. Vachon

Kinesiology

Mediterranean populations’ lower breast cancer incidence has been attributed to a traditional Mediterranean diet, but few studies have quantified Mediterranean dietary pattern intake in relation to breast cancer. We examined the association of a Mediterranean diet scale (MDS) with mammographic breast density as a surrogate marker for breast cancer risk. Participants completed a dietary questionnaire and provided screening mammograms for breast density assessment using a computer-assisted method. Among 1,286 women, MDS was not clearly associated with percent density in multivariate linear regression analyses. Because of previous work suggesting dietary effects limited to smokers, we conducted stratified analyses and found ...


Food Frequency Questionnaires And Overnight Urines Are Valid Indicators Of Daidzein And Genistein Intake In U.S. Women Relative To Multiple 24-H Urine Samples, Marilyn Tseng, Temitope Olufade, Mindy S. Kurzer, Kristiina Wahala, Carolyn Y. Fang, Yvonne T. Van Der Schouw, Mary B. Daly Jan 2008

Food Frequency Questionnaires And Overnight Urines Are Valid Indicators Of Daidzein And Genistein Intake In U.S. Women Relative To Multiple 24-H Urine Samples, Marilyn Tseng, Temitope Olufade, Mindy S. Kurzer, Kristiina Wahala, Carolyn Y. Fang, Yvonne T. Van Der Schouw, Mary B. Daly

Kinesiology

Data regarding convenient, valid methods for measuring U.S. isoflavone intake are limited. We evaluated a soy food questionnaire (SFQ), the Willett food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and overnight urine samples relative to excretion in 24-h urine samples. We also described intake among women in a high-risk program for breast or ovarian cancer. Between April 2002 and June 2003, 451 women aged 30 to 50 yr with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer completed the SFQ and FFQ. Of them, 27 provided four 24-h and overnight urine specimens. In these women, 24-h sample measures were correlated with SFQ estimates ...