Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 73

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Cal Poly Basic Needs Task Force Report - Fall 2018, Aydin Nazmi Oct 2018

The Cal Poly Basic Needs Task Force Report - Fall 2018, Aydin Nazmi

Food Science and Nutrition

No abstract provided.


Editorial: The Nutrition Transition- The Same, But Different, Aydin Nazmi, C. Monteiro Apr 2013

Editorial: The Nutrition Transition- The Same, But Different, Aydin Nazmi, C. Monteiro

Food Science and Nutrition

No abstract provided.


Food Fortification Improves The Intake Of All Fortified Nutrients, But Fails To Meet The Estimated Dietary Requirements For Vitamins A And B6, In Lactating South African Women, Peggy C. Papathakis, Kerry E. Pearson Oct 2012

Food Fortification Improves The Intake Of All Fortified Nutrients, But Fails To Meet The Estimated Dietary Requirements For Vitamins A And B6, In Lactating South African Women, Peggy C. Papathakis, Kerry E. Pearson

Food Science and Nutrition

Objective To investigate the impact of fortification by comparing food records and selected biochemical indicators of nutritional status pre- and post-fortification.

Design Mean intake from 24 h recalls (n 142) was compared with the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) to determine the proportion with inadequate intake. In a subsample (n 34), diet and serum retinol, folate, ferritin and Zn were compared pre- and post-fortification for fortified nutrients vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, Fe and Zn.

Setting South Africa.

Subjects Breast-feeding women (ninety-four HIV-infected, forty eight HIV-uninfected) measured at ∼6, 14, 24 weeks, and 9 and 12 months postpartum.

Results ...


Seasonality Of Infant Feeding Practices In Three Brazilian Birth Cohorts, David A. González-Chica, Helen Gonçalves, Aydin Nazmi, Iná S. Santos, Aluísio J. D. Barros, Alicia Matijasevich, Cesar G. Victora Jun 2012

Seasonality Of Infant Feeding Practices In Three Brazilian Birth Cohorts, David A. González-Chica, Helen Gonçalves, Aydin Nazmi, Iná S. Santos, Aluísio J. D. Barros, Alicia Matijasevich, Cesar G. Victora

Food Science and Nutrition

Background We assessed the influence of season of birth on duration of breastfeeding and other feeding patterns in three population-based birth cohort studies in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil.

Methods In 1982, 1993 and 2004, all hospital-born children in the city were enrolled in three cohort studies (n =  5914, 5249 and 4287, respectively). Children and their mothers were periodically visited in the first 2 years of life, to collect information on the duration of breastfeeding and the ages at which different types of foods were introduced on a regular basis. Two independent variables were studied: month of birth and ...


Hunger-Free Communities: Characterizing Vulnerable Populations In San Luis Obispo County, Aydin Nazmi, Alexandra Lund Jan 2012

Hunger-Free Communities: Characterizing Vulnerable Populations In San Luis Obispo County, Aydin Nazmi, Alexandra Lund

Food Science and Nutrition

No abstract provided.


Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy And Risk Factors For Cardiovascular Disease In Adulthood, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Denise P. Gigante, Aydin Nazmi, Vera Maria F. Silveira, Isabel Oliveira, Cesar G. Victora Dec 2011

Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy And Risk Factors For Cardiovascular Disease In Adulthood, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Denise P. Gigante, Aydin Nazmi, Vera Maria F. Silveira, Isabel Oliveira, Cesar G. Victora

Food Science and Nutrition

Objective: This study was aimed at assessing the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on metabolic cardiovascular risk factors in early adulthood in a Brazilian birth cohort, after controlling for possible confounding variables and health behaviors in early adulthood.

Methods: In 1982, the maternity hospitals in Pelotas, southern Brazil, were visited and all births were identified. Those livebirths whose family lived in the urban area of the city were studied prospectively. In 2004–2005, we attempted to follow the whole cohort, the subjects were interviewed, examined and blood sample was collected. The following outcomes were studied: blood pressure; HDL cholesterol ...


Effect Of Tannin Additions Postfermentation With Gelatin Remediation In Paso Robles Cabernet Sauvignon, Briana Heywood, Geraldine S.P. Ritchie Sep 2011

Effect Of Tannin Additions Postfermentation With Gelatin Remediation In Paso Robles Cabernet Sauvignon, Briana Heywood, Geraldine S.P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

The resultant color of a Cabernet Sauvignon wine connotes overall quality. Therefore, it is in the best interests of a winery to produce a well-balanced wine, containing the deepest color possible, using the least amount of additives. This experiment studied the effects of adding ColorPro, VRSupra, and Gelatin Extra No.1 to Cabernet Sauvignon fruit from Paso Robles to determine if anthocyanin and tannin levels changed with respect to the aforementioned supplements. To increase color and tannin extraction, ColorPro was added to the grape must prior to fermentation. A tannin powder, VRSupra, was added later in the winemaking process to ...


The Influence Of Persistent Pathogens On Circulating Levels Of Inflammatory Markers: A Cross-Sectional Analysis From The Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis, Aydin Nazmi, Ana V. Diez-Roux, Nancy S. Jenny, Michael Y. Tsai, Moyses Szklo, Allison E. Aiello Nov 2010

The Influence Of Persistent Pathogens On Circulating Levels Of Inflammatory Markers: A Cross-Sectional Analysis From The Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis, Aydin Nazmi, Ana V. Diez-Roux, Nancy S. Jenny, Michael Y. Tsai, Moyses Szklo, Allison E. Aiello

Food Science and Nutrition

Background: Systemic inflammation is linked to cardiovascular risk, but the influence of persistent pathogens, which are conventionally dichotomously categorized, on circulating levels of inflammatory markers is not clear. Antibody levels of pathogens have not been examined in relation to inflammation.
Methods: Using data from a subsample of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we examined circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen in relation to five common persistent pathogens: cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus-1, Hepatitis A virus, Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae. We tested the hypothesis that the number of seropositive pathogens (based on conventional cut-off points) would not ...


Cross-Sectional And Longitudinal Associations Of Neighborhood Characteristics With Inflammatory Markers: Findings From The Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis, Aydin Nazmi, Ana Diez Roux, Nalini Ranjit, Teresa E. Seeman, Nancy S. Jenny Nov 2010

Cross-Sectional And Longitudinal Associations Of Neighborhood Characteristics With Inflammatory Markers: Findings From The Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis, Aydin Nazmi, Ana Diez Roux, Nalini Ranjit, Teresa E. Seeman, Nancy S. Jenny

Food Science and Nutrition

We investigated cross-sectional associations of neighborhood deprivation, problems, safety, and cohesion with circulating levels of fibrinogen, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein (n=5370) and longitudinal associations with changes in IL-6 over a 3–4 year period (n=946). In cross-sectional analyses, higher levels of neighborhood deprivation and problems were associated with higher levels of all three inflammatory markers, whereas higher levels of safety were associated with lower levels. Fibrinogen remained associated with all neighborhood characteristics except cohesion and IL-6 remained associated with safety after adjustment for race and SES. In longitudinal analyses, higher levels of neighborhood deprivation and problems, and lower ...


Quantifying Dissolved Carbon Dioxide Concentrations In Fermenting Red Musts, David M. Goldfarb, Steven D. Colome, Marci Norkin, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie Jun 2010

Quantifying Dissolved Carbon Dioxide Concentrations In Fermenting Red Musts, David M. Goldfarb, Steven D. Colome, Marci Norkin, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

The concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide (DCOn2) is recognized as being high during alcoholic fermentation, but there is little data to indicate the actual concentrations and how they vary with extent of the fermentation or winemaking operations. The presence of the inert gas is important in protecting the juice or must from oxidation. In addition, carbon dioxide (COn2) is a recognized greenhouse gas, and the contribution of fermenting juice and musts to atmospheric COn2 cannot be put in perspective or modeled unless one has a better idea of DCOn2 and whether supersaturation is occurring throughout fermentation ...


Empirical Study Of Carbon Dioxide Released To The Atmosphere During Commercial Red Grape Fermentation, Steven D. Colome, David M. Goldfarb, Marci Norkin, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie Jun 2010

Empirical Study Of Carbon Dioxide Released To The Atmosphere During Commercial Red Grape Fermentation, Steven D. Colome, David M. Goldfarb, Marci Norkin, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a pollutant (greenhouse gas) that is emitted during winemaking but not currently regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency. While winery CO2 emissions have been modeled, they have never been measured continuously or confirmed during a commercial fermentation. As international interest increases in greenhouse gases, it is important to know the amount of CO2 release and the determining factors; yeast strain, temperature, and dissolved CO2 are potentially important parameters. The study was designed to quantify emissions and test a theoretical model for atmospheric release of CO2 during alcoholic fermentation in a commercial winery. Gas release was channeled ...


Effect Of Bentonite Additions Prior To Fermentation On Protein Stability In Edna Valley Sauvignon Blanc, Tymari Lore, Matthew Brain, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie Jun 2010

Effect Of Bentonite Additions Prior To Fermentation On Protein Stability In Edna Valley Sauvignon Blanc, Tymari Lore, Matthew Brain, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

Sauvignon blanc often requires large amounts of bentonite in order to remove haze proteins and make the wine heat stable. However, large bentonite additions can affect the sensory perception of the wine. We studied the effect of adding small amounts of bentonite before fermentation on the subsequent amount required after fermentation to heat stabilize the wine. Protein stability was evaluated in two lots of Sauvignon blanc juice from two blocks of the same Edna Valley vineyard. Bentonite (Volclay KWK, American Colloid Co.), 4.6 g suspended in 200 mL water, was added to 19 L of juice prior to fermentation ...


Lifecourse Socioeconomic Trajectories And C-Reactive Protein Levels In Young Adults: Findings From A Brazilian Birth Cohort, Aydin Nazmi, I. O. Oliveira, Bernardo L. Horta, D. P. Gigante, Cesar G, Victora Apr 2010

Lifecourse Socioeconomic Trajectories And C-Reactive Protein Levels In Young Adults: Findings From A Brazilian Birth Cohort, Aydin Nazmi, I. O. Oliveira, Bernardo L. Horta, D. P. Gigante, Cesar G, Victora

Food Science and Nutrition

Socioeconomic factors are associated with cardiovascular disease. C-reactive protein (CRP) is increasingly implicated as a candidate linking conventional risk factors and atherosclerosis. The impact of early- and later-life socioeconomic status (SES) on CRP levels has not been widely investigated and a handful of studies from high-income countries are inconsistent. We set out to examine the associations between lifecourse socioeconomic indicators (family income at birth, maternal education, family income at age 23 and own education) on CRP levels in young adults belonging to the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study (n = 5914). Early-life SES showed significant and graded associations with CRP ...


How Can I Protect My Grapes And Juice From Spoilage During Transport To The Winery?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie Jan 2010

How Can I Protect My Grapes And Juice From Spoilage During Transport To The Winery?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

No abstract provided.


How Should I Calculate And Make Water Additions To Facilitate The Fermentation Of Red Musts?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie Jan 2010

How Should I Calculate And Make Water Additions To Facilitate The Fermentation Of Red Musts?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

No abstract provided.


What Is Lysozyme And Why Is It Used In Winemaking?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie Jan 2010

What Is Lysozyme And Why Is It Used In Winemaking?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

No abstract provided.


How Can I Estimate When To Fortify A Fermenting Juice To Achieve Desired Sugar And Alcohol Concentrations?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie Jan 2010

How Can I Estimate When To Fortify A Fermenting Juice To Achieve Desired Sugar And Alcohol Concentrations?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

No abstract provided.


Growth From Birth To Adulthood And Abdominal Obesity In A Brazilian Birth Cohort, D. A. Gonzalez, Aydin Nazmi, C. G. Victoria Jan 2010

Growth From Birth To Adulthood And Abdominal Obesity In A Brazilian Birth Cohort, D. A. Gonzalez, Aydin Nazmi, C. G. Victoria

Food Science and Nutrition

Background: Rapid weight gain in childhood may increase the risk of chronic adult diseases. Few studies have examined the effects of lifecourse weight gain on waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR).
Objective: To evaluate the effects of birthweight and weight gain from birth to age 23 years on WC, HC, and WHR in young adults.
Design: Population-based birth cohort study started in 1982. A sample of 856 individuals was examined in 2006. Conditional growth analyses were carried out with adjustment for confounders. WC and HC were also mutually adjusted.
Results: Weight gains during all age ranges ...


How Should I Calculate And Make Additions Of Grape Concentrate To Juice, Musts And Wines?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie Jan 2010

How Should I Calculate And Make Additions Of Grape Concentrate To Juice, Musts And Wines?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

No abstract provided.


What Is Saignée And How Will It Affect My Red Wine?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie Jan 2010

What Is Saignée And How Will It Affect My Red Wine?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

No abstract provided.


Childhood Poverty And Abdominal Obesity In Adulthood: A Systematic Review, David González, Aydin Nazmi, Cesar G. Victoria Sep 2009

Childhood Poverty And Abdominal Obesity In Adulthood: A Systematic Review, David González, Aydin Nazmi, Cesar G. Victoria

Food Science and Nutrition

Adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood can have lasting effects on health, but evidence is lacking from prospective studies concerning the effects of early poverty on abdominal obesity in adulthood. Cross-sectional studies in adults from middle and high-income countries show that current socioeconomic status is inversely related to obesity in women, but the pattern in men is not consistent. A systematic review was undertaken to assess the influence of early socioeconomic status on waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-hip ratio in adulthood. Thirteen relevant articles were located (five cross-sectional and eight cohort), including only one from a middle-income country and the ...


Life-Course Socio-Economic Factors, Skin Colour And Abdominal Obesity In Adulthood In A Brazilian Birth Cohort, David A. Gonzalez, Aydin Nazmi, John S. Yudkin, Cesar G. Victora Aug 2009

Life-Course Socio-Economic Factors, Skin Colour And Abdominal Obesity In Adulthood In A Brazilian Birth Cohort, David A. Gonzalez, Aydin Nazmi, John S. Yudkin, Cesar G. Victora

Food Science and Nutrition

Objective:Obesity is an increasingly prevalent nutritional disorder throughout the world. In particular, abdominal obesity is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of skin colour and life-course socio-economic indicators on waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist:hip ratio (WHR) in young adults.

Design:Population-based birth cohort study. Individuals born in 1982 in Pelotas (southern Brazil) were visited on a number of occasions from birth to age 23–24 years. A sample of the cohort was sought in 2006 and 972 individuals were located. The analysis was restricted to individuals with ...


Epidemiology Of Early And Late Growth In Height, Leg And Trunk Length: Findings From A Birth Cohort Of Brazilian Males, D. P. Gigante, Aydin Nazmi, R. C. Lima, F. C. Barros, Cesar G. Victora Mar 2009

Epidemiology Of Early And Late Growth In Height, Leg And Trunk Length: Findings From A Birth Cohort Of Brazilian Males, D. P. Gigante, Aydin Nazmi, R. C. Lima, F. C. Barros, Cesar G. Victora

Food Science and Nutrition

Background/Objective:To investigate socioeconomic, gestational and early life exposures as potential determinants of total height, leg and trunk length.

Subjects/Methods:Male subjects from the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study were examined in 1986 at home, and in 2000 when registering at the local army base. The follow-up rate was 79%. Standing and sitting heights were measured on both occasions. Leg length was calculated as the difference between standing and sitting heights. Outcome measures were height, leg and trunk length at 4 and 18 years and growth in this period. Complete data were obtained for 2012 participants, representing 71 ...


The Development And Pilot Of A Culinary Intervention Designed Using The Social Cognitive Theory To Teach Nutrition To Adolescent Girls, Julie Chessen, Lisa M. Nicholson, Jeff Sklar, Ann Yelmokas Mcdermott Jan 2009

The Development And Pilot Of A Culinary Intervention Designed Using The Social Cognitive Theory To Teach Nutrition To Adolescent Girls, Julie Chessen, Lisa M. Nicholson, Jeff Sklar, Ann Yelmokas Mcdermott

Food Science and Nutrition

Due to the trend of decreased traditional cooking skills, this study investigated the effectiveness of practical cooking classes on diet quality to reduce the prevalence of obesity in adolescent girls.


Correlates Of C-Reactive Protein Levels In Young Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study Of 3827 Subjects In Brazil, Aydin Nazmi, I. O. Oliveira, Cesar G. Victora May 2008

Correlates Of C-Reactive Protein Levels In Young Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study Of 3827 Subjects In Brazil, Aydin Nazmi, I. O. Oliveira, Cesar G. Victora

Food Science and Nutrition

The socio-demographic, behavioral and anthropometric correlates of C-reactive protein levels were examined in a representative young adult Brazilian population. The 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study (Brazil) recruited over 99% of births in the city of Pelotas that year (N = 5914). Individuals belonging to the cohort have been prospectively followed up. In 2004-2005, 77.4% of the cohort was traced, members were interviewed and 3827 individuals donated blood. Analyses of the outcome were based on a conceptual model that differentiated confounders from potential mediators. The following independent variables were studied in relation to levels of C-reactive protein in sex-stratified analyses: skin ...


Nutrition And Tuberculosis: A Review Of The Literature And Considerations For Tb Control Programs, Peggy Papathakis, Ellen Piwoz Apr 2008

Nutrition And Tuberculosis: A Review Of The Literature And Considerations For Tb Control Programs, Peggy Papathakis, Ellen Piwoz

Food Science and Nutrition

No abstract provided.


Eat Smart. Play HardTm San Luis Obispo: A Nutrition And Fitness Pilot Program For Young Children And Their Adult Buddies, Shirley S. Peterson, Dana E. Gerstein, Krista Mugford, Rachael Willey, Jenny Davis, Lisa M. Nicholson, Patricia B. Crawford Feb 2008

Eat Smart. Play HardTm San Luis Obispo: A Nutrition And Fitness Pilot Program For Young Children And Their Adult Buddies, Shirley S. Peterson, Dana E. Gerstein, Krista Mugford, Rachael Willey, Jenny Davis, Lisa M. Nicholson, Patricia B. Crawford

Food Science and Nutrition

Eat Smart. Play Hard™. San Luis Obispo!, a multi-component primary prevention program targeting low-income, Hispanic children 6-8 years, focuses on promoting healthy dietary and physical activity behaviors using an innovative child-adult buddy system approach. The child-adult buddies participate in multiple activities to increase their consumption of fruits and vegetables, and level of physical activity and decrease their consumption of sweetened beverages. The results of the pilot program show high program satisfaction and improvements in dietary and physical activity behaviors. Such programs provide an opportunity to establish and promote healthy behaviors among young children and ultimately prevent overweight development.


Socioeconomic And Racial/Ethnic Differentials Of C-Reactive Protein Levels: A Systematic Review Of Population-Based Studies, Aydin Nazmi, Cesar G. Victora Aug 2007

Socioeconomic And Racial/Ethnic Differentials Of C-Reactive Protein Levels: A Systematic Review Of Population-Based Studies, Aydin Nazmi, Cesar G. Victora

Food Science and Nutrition

Background:Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic factors strongly influence cardiovascular disease outcomes and risk factors. C-reactive protein (CRP), a non-specific marker of inflammation, is associated with cardiovascular risk, and knowledge about its distribution in the population may help direct preventive efforts. A systematic review was undertaken to critically assess CRP levels according to socioeconomic and racial/ethnic factors.

Methods:Medline was searched through December 2006 for population-based studies examining CRP levels among adults with respect to indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) and/or race/ethnicity. Bibliographies from located studies were scanned and 26 experts in the field were contacted for unpublished ...


Hb A1c In Relation To Intrauterine Growth Among Male Adolescents In Southern Brazil, Aydin Nazmi, S. R. Huttly, Cesar G. Victora, R. C. Lima, P. R. Post, J. W.L. Elizalde, B. M.C. Gerson Mar 2007

Hb A1c In Relation To Intrauterine Growth Among Male Adolescents In Southern Brazil, Aydin Nazmi, S. R. Huttly, Cesar G. Victora, R. C. Lima, P. R. Post, J. W.L. Elizalde, B. M.C. Gerson

Food Science and Nutrition

The fetal origins hypothesis states that nutritional deprivation in utero affects fetal development and contributes to the incidence of diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome in later life. This study investigated whether haemoglobin (Hb) A1c, an indicator of blood glucose, varied among healthy male adolescents according to their fetal growth rate, in a middle-income setting. Participants were men aged 18 years, belonging to the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort. Complete data, including gestational age and Hb A1c at age 18 years, were available for 197 individuals. There was an inverse association between mean Hb A1c and birthweight for ...


Hiv And Nutrition: Pregnant And Lactating Women, Peggy Papathakis, Nigel Rollins Apr 2005

Hiv And Nutrition: Pregnant And Lactating Women, Peggy Papathakis, Nigel Rollins

Food Science and Nutrition

No abstract provided.