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Fabrication Of Miniaturized Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices (Micropads), E. Brandon Strong, Spencer A. Schultz, Andres Martinez, Nathaniel W. Martinez Jan 2019

Fabrication Of Miniaturized Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices (Micropads), E. Brandon Strong, Spencer A. Schultz, Andres Martinez, Nathaniel W. Martinez

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (microPADs) are emerging as cost-effective and portable platforms for point-of-care assays. A fundamental limitation of microPAD fabrication is the imprecise nature of most methods for patterning paper. The present work demonstrates that paper patterned via wax printing can be miniaturized by treating it with periodate to produce higher-resolution, high-fidelity microPADs. The optimal miniaturization parameters were determined by immersing microPADs in various concentrations of aqueous sodium periodate (NaIO4) for varying lengths of time. This treatment miniaturized microPADs by up to 80% in surface area, depending on the concentration of periodate and length of the reaction time ...


Characterization Of Reagent Pencils For Deposition Of Reagents Onto Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices, Cheyenne H. Liu, Isabelle C. Noxon, Leah E. Cuellar, Amanda L. Thraen, Chad Immoos, Andres W. Martinez, Philip J. Costanzo Aug 2017

Characterization Of Reagent Pencils For Deposition Of Reagents Onto Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices, Cheyenne H. Liu, Isabelle C. Noxon, Leah E. Cuellar, Amanda L. Thraen, Chad Immoos, Andres W. Martinez, Philip J. Costanzo

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Reagent pencils allow for solvent-free deposition of reagents onto paper-based microfluidic devices. The pencils are portable, easy to use, extend the shelf-life of reagents, and offer a platform for customizing diagnostic devices at the point of care. In this work, reagent pencils were characterized by measuring the wear resistance of pencil cores made from polyethylene glycols (PEGs) with different molecular weights and incorporating various concentrations of three different reagents using a standard pin abrasion test, as well as by measuring the efficiency of reagent delivery from the pencils to the test zones of paper-based microfluidic devices using absorption spectroscopy and ...


Paper Microzone Plates As Analytical Tools For Studying Enzyme Stability: A Case Study On The Stabilization Of Horseradish Peroxidase Using Trehalose And Su-8 Epoxy Novolac Resin, Kirsten A. Ganaja, Cory Chaplan, Jingyi Zhang, Nathaniel W. Martinez, Andres W. Martinez May 2017

Paper Microzone Plates As Analytical Tools For Studying Enzyme Stability: A Case Study On The Stabilization Of Horseradish Peroxidase Using Trehalose And Su-8 Epoxy Novolac Resin, Kirsten A. Ganaja, Cory Chaplan, Jingyi Zhang, Nathaniel W. Martinez, Andres W. Martinez

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Paper microzone plates in combination with a noncontact liquid handling robot were demonstrated as tools for studying the stability of enzymes stored on paper. The effect of trehalose and SU-8 epoxy novolac resin (SU-8) on the stability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was studied in both a short-term experiment, where the activity of various concentrations of HRP dried on paper were measured after 1 h, and a long-term experiment, where the activity of a single concentration of HRP dried and stored on paper was monitored for 61 days. SU-8 was found to stabilize HRP up to 35 times more than trehalose ...


Paper-Based Diagnostic Devices, Spencer A. Schultz, Isabelle C. Noxon, Tyler A. Sisley, Andres W. Martinez Jan 2017

Paper-Based Diagnostic Devices, Spencer A. Schultz, Isabelle C. Noxon, Tyler A. Sisley, Andres W. Martinez

Chemistry and Biochemistry

This chapter will provide an overview of existing diagnostic devices made primarily out of paper and then focus on paper-based microfluidic devices, the next generation of paper-based diagnostic devices that promises to extend the use of paper as a material for fabricating diagnostic devices well into the future.

Chapter Contents:

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Current paper-based diagnostic devices
  • 2.2.1 Dipstick devices
  • 2.2.2 Lateral-flow devices
  • 2.2.2.1 Vertical-flow devices
  • 2.2.3 Paper-based arrays
  • 2.3 Paper-based microfluidic devices
  • 2.3.1 Fabrication of paper-based microfluidic devices
  • 2.3.2 Applications of paper-based microfluidic ...


Phthalate Plasticizers Covalently Linked To Pvc Via Copper-Free Or Copper Catalyzed Axide-Alkyne Cycloadditions, Aruna Earla, Li Longbo, Philip Costanzo, Rebecca Braslau Dec 2016

Phthalate Plasticizers Covalently Linked To Pvc Via Copper-Free Or Copper Catalyzed Axide-Alkyne Cycloadditions, Aruna Earla, Li Longbo, Philip Costanzo, Rebecca Braslau

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Plasticization of PVC was carried out by covalently linking phthalate derivatives via copper-free (thermal) or copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate derivatives (DEHP-ether and DEHP-ester) were synthesized and appended to PVC at two different densities. The glass transition temperatures of the modified PVC decreased with increasing content of plasticizer. PVC-DEHP-ether gave lower glass transition temperatures than PVC-DEHP-ester, reflecting the enhanced flexibility of the ether versus ester linker.


An Examination Of Student Outcomes In Studio Chemistry, Alan L. Kiste, Gregory E. Scott, Jesse Paul Bukenberger, Miles Markmann, Jennifer Moore Dec 2016

An Examination Of Student Outcomes In Studio Chemistry, Alan L. Kiste, Gregory E. Scott, Jesse Paul Bukenberger, Miles Markmann, Jennifer Moore

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Twenty years ago, a major curriculum revision at a large, comprehensive university in the Western United States led to the implementation of an integrated lecture/laboratory (studio) experience for our engineering students taking general chemistry. Based on these twenty years of experience, construction of four purpose-built studio classrooms to house the majority of the remaining general chemistry courses was completed in 2013. A detailed study of the effects of the entire ecology of the studio experience on student success was initiated at that time. Data from content knowledge pre- and post-tests, learning attitudes surveys, and student course evaluations show positive ...


Atomic Tiles: Manipulative Resources For Exploring Bonding And Molecular Structure, Alan L. Kiste, Rebecca G. Hooper, Gregory E. Scott, Seth Bush Oct 2016

Atomic Tiles: Manipulative Resources For Exploring Bonding And Molecular Structure, Alan L. Kiste, Rebecca G. Hooper, Gregory E. Scott, Seth Bush

Chemistry and Biochemistry

A simple manipulative resource, Atomic Tiles, is described for scaffolding the learning of Lewis structures without using algorithmic, rule-based methods of drawing. Students use Atomic Tiles to (1) create models of bonding that lead to drawing Lewis structures, (2) use the structures they create to infer patterns required for rational structures and common organic functional groups, (3) translate between Lewis structures and molecular models, and (4) use molecular models to identify isomers.


Two-Ply Channels For Faster Wicking In Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices, Conor K. Camplisson, Kevin M. Schilling, William L. Pedrotti, Howard A. Stone, Andres W. Martinez Oct 2015

Two-Ply Channels For Faster Wicking In Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices, Conor K. Camplisson, Kevin M. Schilling, William L. Pedrotti, Howard A. Stone, Andres W. Martinez

Chemistry and Biochemistry

This article describes the development of porous two-ply channels for paper-based microfluidic devices that wick fluids significantly faster than conventional, porous, single-ply channels. The two-ply channels were made by stacking two single-ply channels on top of each other and were fabricated entirely out of paper, wax and toner using two commercially available printers, a convection oven and a thermal laminator. The wicking in paper-based channels was studied and modeled using a modified Lucas–Washburn equation to account for the effect of evaporation, and a paper-based titration device incorporating two-ply channels was demonstrated.


Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide) Hydrogels For Storage And Delivery Of Reagents To Paper-Based Analytical Devices, Haydn T. Mitchell, Spencer Schultz, Philip Costanzo, Andres W. Martinez Jul 2015

Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide) Hydrogels For Storage And Delivery Of Reagents To Paper-Based Analytical Devices, Haydn T. Mitchell, Spencer Schultz, Philip Costanzo, Andres W. Martinez

Chemistry and Biochemistry

The thermally responsive hydrogel N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide-cross-linked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) was developed and evaluated as a reagent storage and delivery system for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (microPADs). PNIPAM was shown to successfully deliver multiple solutions to microPADs in specific sequences or simultaneously in laminar-flow configuration and was found to be suitable for delivering four classes of reagents to the devices: Small molecules, enzymes, antibodies and DNA. PNIPAM was also able to successfully deliver a series of standard glucose solutions to microPADs equipped to perform a colorimetric glucose assay. The results of these tests were used to produce an external calibration ...


Reagent Pencils: A New Technique For Solvent-Free Deposition Of Reagents Onto Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices, Haydn T. Mitchell, Isabelle C. Noxon, Cory A. Chaplan, Samantha J. Carlton, Cheyenne H. Liu, Kirsten A. Ganaja, Nathaniel W. Martinez, Chad Immoos, Philip Costanzo, Andres W. Martinez Apr 2015

Reagent Pencils: A New Technique For Solvent-Free Deposition Of Reagents Onto Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices, Haydn T. Mitchell, Isabelle C. Noxon, Cory A. Chaplan, Samantha J. Carlton, Cheyenne H. Liu, Kirsten A. Ganaja, Nathaniel W. Martinez, Chad Immoos, Philip Costanzo, Andres W. Martinez

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Custom-made pencils containing reagents dispersed in a solid matrix were developed to enable rapid and solvent-free deposition of reagents onto membrane-based fluidic devices. The technique is as simple as drawing with the reagent pencils on a device. When aqueous samples are added to the device, the reagents dissolve from the pencil matrix and become available to react with analytes in the sample. Colorimetric glucose assays conducted on devices prepared using reagent pencils had comparable accuracy and precision to assays conducted on conventional devices prepared with reagents deposited from solution. Most importantly, sensitive reagents, such as enzymes, are stable in the ...


Paper-Based Standard Addition Assays, Cory A. Chaplan, Haydn T. Mitchell, Andres W. Martinez Jan 2014

Paper-Based Standard Addition Assays, Cory A. Chaplan, Haydn T. Mitchell, Andres W. Martinez

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Standard addition assays conducted on paper-based microfluidic devices are introduced as an alternative to external standards for calibrating quantitative tests. To demonstrate this technique, a colorimetric, paper-based, standard addition assay was optimized for the determination of glucose concentrations in the range of 0 to 5 mM. Comparable results were obtained from the assay via digital image colorimetry under three different lighting conditions.


Synthesis And Evaluation Of Thermally-Responsive Coatings Based Upon Diels–Alder Chemistry And Renewable Materials, Dahlia N. Amato, Gregory A. Strange, John P. Swanson, Anton D. Chavez, Suzanne E. Roy, Kim L. Varney, Craig A. Machado, Douglas V. Amato, Philip Costanzo Aug 2013

Synthesis And Evaluation Of Thermally-Responsive Coatings Based Upon Diels–Alder Chemistry And Renewable Materials, Dahlia N. Amato, Gregory A. Strange, John P. Swanson, Anton D. Chavez, Suzanne E. Roy, Kim L. Varney, Craig A. Machado, Douglas V. Amato, Philip Costanzo

Chemistry and Biochemistry

A soybean based coating with thermally responsive Diels–Alder linkages has been prepared following an automotive 2-component formulation. The resulting coatings displayed the capability to be healed following physical deformation by a thermal stimulus, and such a material has significant potential for end users. Various curing agents were employed, and resulted in variation of scratch resistance and re-healablity. Different thermally responsive soybean resins were synthesized to have varying amounts reversible and nonreversible linkages when incorporated into the coating. Additionally, different isocyanates were added at differing ratios of NCO:OH in search of the optimum coating. It was found through the ...


Paper And Toner Three-Dimensional Fluidic Devices: Programming Fluid Flow To Improve Point-Of-Care Diagnostics, Kevin M. Schilling, Daisy Jauregui, Andres W. Martinez Jan 2013

Paper And Toner Three-Dimensional Fluidic Devices: Programming Fluid Flow To Improve Point-Of-Care Diagnostics, Kevin M. Schilling, Daisy Jauregui, Andres W. Martinez

Chemistry and Biochemistry

We present a new method for fabricating three-dimensional paper-based fluidic devices that uses toner as a thermal adhesive to bond multiple layers of patterned paper together. The fabrication process is rapid, involves minimal equipment (a laser printer and a laminator) and produces complex channel networks with dimensions down to 1 mm. The devices can run multiple diagnostic assays on one or more samples simultaneously, can incorporate positive and negative controls and can be programmed to display the results of the assays in a variety of patterns. The patterns of the results can encode information, which could be used to identify ...


Correction To Fully Enclosed Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices, Kevin M. Schilling, Anna L. Lepore, Jason A. Kurian, Andres W. Martinez Mar 2012

Correction To Fully Enclosed Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices, Kevin M. Schilling, Anna L. Lepore, Jason A. Kurian, Andres W. Martinez

Chemistry and Biochemistry

There is an error in the units of the concentrations of potassium iodide and trehalose described in the experimental details on page 1581. The correct concentrations are 0.6 M potassium iodide and 0.3 M trehalose.


Fully Enclosed Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices, Kevin M. Schilling, Anna L. Lepore, Jason A. Kurian, Andres W. Martinez Jan 2012

Fully Enclosed Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices, Kevin M. Schilling, Anna L. Lepore, Jason A. Kurian, Andres W. Martinez

Chemistry and Biochemistry

This article introduces fully enclosed microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (microPADs) fabricated by printing toner on the top and bottom of the devices using a laser printer. Enclosing paper-based microfluidic channels protects the channels from contamination, contains and protects reagents stored on the device, contains fluids within the channels so that microPADs can be handled and operated more easily, and reduces evaporation of solutions from the channels. These benefits extend the capabilities of microPADs for applications as low-cost point-of-care diagnostic devices.


Β-Casein–Phospholipid Monolayers As Model Systems To Understand Lipid–Protein Interactions In The Milk Fat Globule Membrane, Sophie Gallier, Derek E. Gragson, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, David W. Everett Jan 2012

Β-Casein–Phospholipid Monolayers As Model Systems To Understand Lipid–Protein Interactions In The Milk Fat Globule Membrane, Sophie Gallier, Derek E. Gragson, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, David W. Everett

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Phospholipid–protein monolayer films were studied as model systems to mimic the structure of the native bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) and to understand lipid–protein interactions at the surface of the globule. Phospholipids extracted from bovine raw milk, raw cream, processed milk and buttermilk powder were spread onto the air–water interface of a Langmuir trough, β-casein was then added to the sub-phase, and Langmuir–Blodgett films were studied by epifluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In all films, β-casein was responsible for clustering of the sphingomyelin- and cholesterol-rich microdomains into larger platforms. This suggests that the same ...


Thermal-Initiated Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate Functionalization Of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes, Greg Curtzwiler, Philip Costanzo, Ray Fernando, Jeffrey E. Danes, Keith Vorst Jul 2011

Thermal-Initiated Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate Functionalization Of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes, Greg Curtzwiler, Philip Costanzo, Ray Fernando, Jeffrey E. Danes, Keith Vorst

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Multiwalled-carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized via thermoinitiated free radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) using benzoyl peroxide. Tip sonication was used during the polymerization reaction to separate agglomerated nanotubes. The functionalization was confirmed by control experiments and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the addition of poly(HEMA)-MWCNTs to a two-component polyurethane coating will have little effect on the glass transition temperature of the coating. The poly(HEMA)-functionalized MWCNTs formed large colloidal structures of highly dispersed nanotubes in both the nonsheared and sheared coatings as determined by atomic force microscopy. This ...


Direct Imaging Of Two-State Dynamics On The Amorphous Silicon Surface, S. Ashtekar, Gregory E. Scott, J. Lyding, M. Gruebele Jun 2011

Direct Imaging Of Two-State Dynamics On The Amorphous Silicon Surface, S. Ashtekar, Gregory E. Scott, J. Lyding, M. Gruebele

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Amorphous silicon is an important material, amidst a debate whether or not it is a glass. We produce amorphous Si surfaces by ion bombardment and vapor growth, and image discrete Si clusters which hop by two-state dynamics at 295 K. Independent of surface preparation, these clusters have an average diameter of ~5 atoms. Given prior results for metallic glasses, we suggest that this cluster size is a universal feature. The hopping activation free energy of 0.93 ± 0.15 eV is rather small, in agreement with a previously untested surface glass model. Hydrogenation quenches the two-state dynamics, apparently by increasing ...


Better Biomolecule Thermodynamics From Kinetics, Kiran Girdhar, Gregory Scott, Yann R. Chemla, Martin Gruebele Jan 2011

Better Biomolecule Thermodynamics From Kinetics, Kiran Girdhar, Gregory Scott, Yann R. Chemla, Martin Gruebele

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Protein stability is measured by denaturation: When solvent conditions are changed (e.g., temperature, denaturant concentration, or pH) the protein population switches between thermodynamic states. The resulting denaturation curves have baselines. If the baselines are steep, nonlinear, or incomplete, it becomes difficult to characterize protein denaturation. Baselines arise because the chromophore probing denaturation is sensitive to solvent conditions, or because the thermodynamic states evolve structurally when solvent conditions are changed, or because the barriers are very low (downhill folding). Kinetics can largely eliminate such baselines: Relaxation of chromophores, or within thermodynamic states, is much faster than the transition over ...


Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices: From Pocket To Paper-Based Elisa, Andres W. Martinez Jan 2011

Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices: From Pocket To Paper-Based Elisa, Andres W. Martinez

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (microPADs) began as a simple idea with an ambitious goal. The idea was to make microfluidic devices out of paper instead of plastic or glass. The goal was to develop low-cost and portable paper-based diagnostic devices to improve healthcare in developing countries. Over the past 6 years, many developments have been made in the emerging field of paper-based microfluidic devices. Reviewing the development of these devices in the Whitesides group at Harvard University (Cambridge, MA, USA) can provide some insight into the future of the field and encourage scientists from a variety of backgrounds to contribute ...


Dual Inhibition Of Sodium-Mediated Proton And Calcium Efflux Triggers Non-Apoptotic Cell Death In Malignant Gliomas, William Harley, Candace Floyd, Tamara Dunn, Xiao-Dong Zhang, Tsung-Yu Chen, Manu Hegde, Hasan Palandoken, Michael H. Nantz, Leonardo Leon, K.L. Carraway Iii, Bruce Lyeth, Fredric A. Gorin Dec 2010

Dual Inhibition Of Sodium-Mediated Proton And Calcium Efflux Triggers Non-Apoptotic Cell Death In Malignant Gliomas, William Harley, Candace Floyd, Tamara Dunn, Xiao-Dong Zhang, Tsung-Yu Chen, Manu Hegde, Hasan Palandoken, Michael H. Nantz, Leonardo Leon, K.L. Carraway Iii, Bruce Lyeth, Fredric A. Gorin

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Malignant glioma cells maintain an elevated intracellular pH (pHi) within hypoxic–ischemic tumormicroenvironments through persistent activation of sodium–proton transport (McLean et al., 2000). Amiloride has been reported to selectively kill human malignant glioma cell lines but not primary astrocytes (Hegde et al., 2004). While amiloride reduces pHi of malignant gliomas by inhibiting isoform 1 of sodium–proton exchange (NHE1), direct acidification was shown to be cytostatic rather than cytotoxic. At cytotoxic concentrations, amiloride has multiple drug targets including inhibition of NHE1 and sodium–calciumexchange. Amiloride's glioma cytotoxicity can be explained, at least in part, by dual ...


Solving The Low Dimensional Smoluchowski Equation With A Singular Value Basis Set, Gregory E. Scott, Martin Gruebele Oct 2010

Solving The Low Dimensional Smoluchowski Equation With A Singular Value Basis Set, Gregory E. Scott, Martin Gruebele

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Reaction kinetics on free energy surfaces with small activation barriers can be computed directly with the Smoluchowski equation. The procedure is computationally expensive even in a few dimensions. We present a propagation method that considerably reduces computational time for a particular class of problems: when the free energy surface suddenly switches by a small amount, and the probability distribution relaxes to a new equilibrium value. This case describes relaxation experiments. To achieve efficient solution, we expand the density matrix in a basis set obtained by singular value decomposition of equilibrium density matrices. Grid size during propagation is reduced from (100 ...


Novel Polymer Coupling Chemistry Based Upon Latent Cysteine-Like Residues And Thiazolidine Chemistry, Jospeh S. Carlson, Megan R. Hill, Taiga Young, Philip Costanzo Aug 2010

Novel Polymer Coupling Chemistry Based Upon Latent Cysteine-Like Residues And Thiazolidine Chemistry, Jospeh S. Carlson, Megan R. Hill, Taiga Young, Philip Costanzo

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Chain end functional polymers were prepared via reversible addition–fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization techniques that were further chain extended with acrylonitrile. Under reducing conditions, latent cysteine-like residues were exposed at the chain ends. A variety of reduction conditions were explored and base polymers were then tethered together via thiazolidine chemistry.


A Natural Missing Link Between Activated And Downhill Protein Folding Scenarios, Feng Liu, Caroline Maynard, Gregory E. Scott, Artem Melnykov, Kathleen B. Hall, Martin Gruebele Feb 2010

A Natural Missing Link Between Activated And Downhill Protein Folding Scenarios, Feng Liu, Caroline Maynard, Gregory E. Scott, Artem Melnykov, Kathleen B. Hall, Martin Gruebele

Chemistry and Biochemistry

We propose protein PTB1:4W as a good candidate for engineering into a downhill folder. PTB1:4W has a probe-dependent thermal unfolding curve and sub-millisecond T-jump relaxation kinetics on more than one time scale. Its refolding rate in denaturant is a non-linear function of denaturant concentration (curved chevron plot). Yet at high denaturant concentration its unfolding is probe-independent, and the folding kinetics can be fitted to a single exponential decay. The domain appears to fold via a mechanism between downhill folding and activated folding over several small barriers, and when denaturant is added, one of these barriers greatly increases and ...


Electrochemical Sensing In Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices, Zhihong Nie, Christian A. Nijhuis, Jinlong Gong, Xin Chen, Alexander Kumachev, Andres W. Martinez, Max Narovlyansky, George M. Whitesides Jan 2010

Electrochemical Sensing In Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices, Zhihong Nie, Christian A. Nijhuis, Jinlong Gong, Xin Chen, Alexander Kumachev, Andres W. Martinez, Max Narovlyansky, George M. Whitesides

Chemistry and Biochemistry

This paper describes the fabrication and the performance of microfluidic paper-based electrochemical sensing devices (we call the microfluidic paper-based electrochemical devices, μPEDs). The μPEDs comprise paper-based microfluidic channels patterned by photolithography or wax printing, and electrodes screen-printed from conducting inks (e.g., carbon or Ag/AgCl). We demonstrated that the μPEDs are capable of quantifying the concentrations of various analytes (e.g., heavy-metal ions and glucose) in aqueous solutions. This low-cost analytical device should be useful for applications in public health, environmental monitoring, and the developing world.


Programmable Diagnostic Devices Made From Paper And Tape, Andres W. Martinez, Scott T. Phillips, Zhihong Nie, Chao-Min Cheng, Emanuel Carrilho, Benjamin J. Wiley, George M. Whitesides Jan 2010

Programmable Diagnostic Devices Made From Paper And Tape, Andres W. Martinez, Scott T. Phillips, Zhihong Nie, Chao-Min Cheng, Emanuel Carrilho, Benjamin J. Wiley, George M. Whitesides

Chemistry and Biochemistry

This paper describes three-dimensional microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (3-D μPADs) that can be programmed (postfabrication) by the user to generate multiple patterns of flow through them. These devices are programmed by pressing single-use ‘on’ buttons, using a stylus or a ballpoint pen. Pressing a button closes a small space (gap) between two vertically aligned microfluidic channels, and allows fluids to wick from one channel to the other. These devices are simple to fabricate, and are made entirely out of paper and double-sided adhesive tape. Programmable devices expand the capabilities of μPADs and provide a simple method for controlling the movement ...


Millimeter-Scale Contact Printing Of Aqueous Solutions Using A Stamp Made Out Of Paper And Tape, Chao-Min Cheng, Aaron D. Mazzeo, Jinlong Gong, Andres W. Martinez, Scott T. Phillips, Nina Jain, George M. Whitesides Jan 2010

Millimeter-Scale Contact Printing Of Aqueous Solutions Using A Stamp Made Out Of Paper And Tape, Chao-Min Cheng, Aaron D. Mazzeo, Jinlong Gong, Andres W. Martinez, Scott T. Phillips, Nina Jain, George M. Whitesides

Chemistry and Biochemistry

This communication describes a simple method for printing aqueous solutions with millimeter-scale patterns on a variety of substrates using an easily fabricated, paper-based microfluidic device (a paper-based ―stamp‖) as a contact printing device. The device is made from inexpensive materials, and it is easily assembled by hand; this method is thus accessible to a wide range of laboratories and budgets. A single device was used to print over 2500 spots in less than three minutes at a density of 16 spots per square centimetre. This method provides a new tool to pattern biochemicals—reagents, antigens, proteins, and DNA—on planar ...


Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Devices Fabricated In Layered Paper And Tape, Andres W. Martinez, Scott T. Phillips, George M. Whitesides Dec 2008

Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Devices Fabricated In Layered Paper And Tape, Andres W. Martinez, Scott T. Phillips, George M. Whitesides

Chemistry and Biochemistry

This article describes a method for fabricating 3D microfluidic devices by stacking layers of patterned paper and double-sided adhesive tape. Paper-based 3D microfluidic devices have capabilities in microfluidics that are difficult to achieve using conventional open-channel microsystems made from glass or polymers. In particular, 3D paper-based devices wick fluids and distribute microliter volumes of samples from single inlet points into arrays of detection zones (with numbers up to thousands). This capability makes it possible to carry out a range of new analytical protocols simply and inexpensively (all on a piece of paper) without external pumps. We demonstrate a prototype 3D ...


Cariporide Prodrugs: Targeting Brain Cancer Cells Through Sodium-Proton Exchange Inhibition, Jacob Vervynckt, Johnathan Brantley, Jessica Moore, Mark Graves Ii, William Harley, Fredric A. Gorin, Hasan Palandoken Nov 2008

Cariporide Prodrugs: Targeting Brain Cancer Cells Through Sodium-Proton Exchange Inhibition, Jacob Vervynckt, Johnathan Brantley, Jessica Moore, Mark Graves Ii, William Harley, Fredric A. Gorin, Hasan Palandoken

Chemistry and Biochemistry

More than 200,000 people in the United States are diagnosed with a primary or metastatic brain tumor annually. The life expectancy for these individuals is approximately 9-12 months from the time of diagnosis. This poor prognosis is due to the ineffectiveness of existing therapies (i.e., chemotherapy and radiotherapy) against brain cancer, where the primary problem is the inability to differentiate cancer cells from healthy brain cells.

Relative to healthy brain tissue, the heightened metabolism of cancer cells increases their reliance on the ion transport proteins NHE (sodium-proton exchanger) and NCX (sodium-calcium exchanger). Inhibition of these proteins disrupts the ...


Alkoxyamine Polymers: Versatile Materials For Surface Ligation Applications, Lindsey Hines, Jessica Moore, David Dahl, Belinda Lady, Johnathan Brantley, Hasan Palandoken Nov 2008

Alkoxyamine Polymers: Versatile Materials For Surface Ligation Applications, Lindsey Hines, Jessica Moore, David Dahl, Belinda Lady, Johnathan Brantley, Hasan Palandoken

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Immobilization of biomolecules (i.e., proteins, carbohydrates), on polymeric surfaces has been an area of intense research. The resultant bioconjugates often display increased stability, bioavailability and activity. Our research program seeks to explore the utility of the alkoxyamine (RONH2) functional group in new materials as versatile ligating sites for the immobilization of various compounds.

The ease with which alkoxyamines (RONH2) condense with aldehydes or ketones has prompted their widespread use in labelling liposome, bacterial and mammalian cell surfaces as well as chemoselectively ligating small molecule ‘recognition elements' onto polyfunctional substrates. These condensation reactions proceed in aqueous media to afford the ...