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Climactic Niche Model For Overwintering Monarch Butterflies In A Topographically Complex Region Of California, Ashley Fisher, Kiana Saniee, Charis Van Der Heide, Jessica Griffiths, Daniel Meade, Francis X. Villablanca Nov 2018

Climactic Niche Model For Overwintering Monarch Butterflies In A Topographically Complex Region Of California, Ashley Fisher, Kiana Saniee, Charis Van Der Heide, Jessica Griffiths, Daniel Meade, Francis X. Villablanca

Biological Sciences

We use climatic conditions that are associated with known monarch butterfly overwintering groves in California to build a Maxent model, and focus on the fine scale probability of overwintering grove occurrence in a topographically complex region of the state (Santa Barbara County). Grove locations are known from recent and historical surveys and a long-term citizen science database. The climatic niche model performs well, predicting that overwintering habitat is most likely to occur along the coast and at low elevations, as shown by empirical data. We then use climatic variables in conjunction with climate change scenarios to model the future location ...


Effect Of The Specific Carbohydrate Diet On The Microbiome Of A Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis And Ulcerative Colitis Patient, Alanna Dubrovsky, Christopher Kitts Feb 2018

Effect Of The Specific Carbohydrate Diet On The Microbiome Of A Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis And Ulcerative Colitis Patient, Alanna Dubrovsky, Christopher Kitts

Biological Sciences

A 20-year-old female was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC) at age 14 and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) at age 16. The PSC was successfully treated with high doses of oral vancomycin; however, the UC was more difficult to manage. After many drug treatments failed to treat the UC, the patient began following the specific carbohydrate diet (SCD). This report documents fecal microbiome changes resulting from following the SCD for two weeks. The DNA extracted from fecal samples was subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing to quantify bacterial species abundance. Not only were substantial changes in the fecal bacterial composition detectable ...


Ultramafic Geoecology Of South And Southeast Asia, M.L. Galey, A. Van Der Ent, M.C.M. Iqbal, N. Rajakaruna Apr 2017

Ultramafic Geoecology Of South And Southeast Asia, M.L. Galey, A. Van Der Ent, M.C.M. Iqbal, N. Rajakaruna

Biological Sciences

Globally, ultramafic outcrops are renowned for hosting foras with high levels of endemism, including plants with specialised adaptations such as nickel or manganese hyperaccumulation. Soils derived from ultramafic regoliths are generally nutrient-deficient, have major cation imbalances, and have concomitant high concentrations of potentially phytotoxic trace elements, especially nickel. The South and Southeast Asian region has the largest surface occurrences of ultramafic regoliths in the world, but the geoecology of these outcrops is still poorly studied despite severe conservation threats. Due to the paucity of systematic plant collections in many areas and the lack of georeferenced herbarium records and databased information ...


Drivers Of Redistribution Of fishing And Non-fishing Effort After The Implementation Of A Marine Protected Area Network, Reniel B. Cabral, Steven D. Gaines, Brett A. Johnson, Tom W. Bell, Crow White Feb 2017

Drivers Of Redistribution Of fishing And Non-fishing Effort After The Implementation Of A Marine Protected Area Network, Reniel B. Cabral, Steven D. Gaines, Brett A. Johnson, Tom W. Bell, Crow White

Biological Sciences

Marine spatial planning (MSP) is increasingly utilized to sustainably manage ocean uses. Marine protected areas (MPAs), a form of spatial management in which parts of the ocean are regulated to fishing, are now a common tool in MSP for conserving marine biodiversity and managing fisheries. However, the use of MPAs in MSP often neglects, or simplifies, the redistribution of fishing and non-fishing activities inside and outside of MPAs following their implementation. This redistribution of effort can have important implications for effective MSP. Using long-term (14 yr) aerial surveys of boats at the California Channel Islands, we examined the spatial redistribution ...


Limestone Flora Of The Simonton Corner Quarry Preserve, Rockport, Maine, Usa, Margaret Stern, Ian D. Medeiros, Luka Negoita, N. Rajakaruna May 2016

Limestone Flora Of The Simonton Corner Quarry Preserve, Rockport, Maine, Usa, Margaret Stern, Ian D. Medeiros, Luka Negoita, N. Rajakaruna

Biological Sciences

Limestone is a distinctive substrate that has significant effects on soils and plants. The present study characterizes the diversity of vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens at the Simonton Corner Quarry Preserve, an abandoned limestone quarry in Rockport, Maine, USA, which was in operation in the late 1800s. We document vascular plant diversity and associated edaphic features (i.e., soil pH and elemental chemistry) using 30 535 meter plots spread throughout the site. For vascular plants, 114 species in 96 genera and 50 families were observed; few of these species are known to prefer calcareous environments, and 38% are nonnative. Conversely ...


A Comparative Study Of The Flora And Soils Of Great Duck And Little Duck Islands, Maine, Usa, Luka Negoita, Matthew Dickinson, Glen H. Mittlehauser, N. Rajakaruna Apr 2016

A Comparative Study Of The Flora And Soils Of Great Duck And Little Duck Islands, Maine, Usa, Luka Negoita, Matthew Dickinson, Glen H. Mittlehauser, N. Rajakaruna

Biological Sciences

Strong environmental gradients and varied land-use practices have generated a mosaic of habitats harboring distinct plant communities on islands on the coast of Maine. Botanical studies of Maine’s islands, however, are generally limited in number and scope. Baseline studies of Maine’s islands are necessary for assessing vegetation dynamics and changes in habitat conditions in relation to environmental impacts imposed by climate change, rising sea levels, invasive species, pests and pathogens, introduced herbivores, and human disturbance. We conducted a survey of the vascular plants and soils of forest, field, and ocean-side communities of Great Duck and Little Duck Islands ...


Resource Partitioning Along Multiple Niche Axes Drives Functional Diversity In Parrotfishes On Caribbean Coral Reefs, Thomas C. Adam, Megan Kelley, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Deron E. Burkepile Dec 2015

Resource Partitioning Along Multiple Niche Axes Drives Functional Diversity In Parrotfishes On Caribbean Coral Reefs, Thomas C. Adam, Megan Kelley, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Deron E. Burkepile

Biological Sciences

The recent loss of key consumers to exploitation and habitat degradation has significantly altered community dynamics and ecosystem function across many ecosystems worldwide. Predicting the impacts of consumer losses requires knowing the level of functional diversity that exists within a consumer assemblage. In this study, we document functional diversity among nine species of parrotfishes on Caribbean coral reefs. Parrotfishes are key herbivores that facilitate the maintenance and recovery of coral-dominated reefs by controlling algae and provisioning space for the recruitment of corals. We observed large functional differences among two genera of parrotfishes that were driven by differences in diet. Fishes ...


Complete Mitochondrial Genome Of The Speckled Dace Rhinichthys Osculus, A Widely Distributed Cyprinid Minnow Of Western North America, Samantha J. Bock, Morgan M. Malley, Sean Lema Oct 2015

Complete Mitochondrial Genome Of The Speckled Dace Rhinichthys Osculus, A Widely Distributed Cyprinid Minnow Of Western North America, Samantha J. Bock, Morgan M. Malley, Sean Lema

Biological Sciences

The speckled dace Rhinichthys osculus (order Cypriniformes), also known as the carpita pinta, is a small cyprinid minnow native to western North America. Here, we report the sequencing of the full mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of R. osculus from a male fish collected from the Amargosa River Canyon in eastern California, USA. The assembled mitogenome is 16 658 base pair (bp) nucleotides, and encodes 13 protein-coding genes, and includes both a 12S and a 16S rRNA, 22 tRNAs, and a 985 bp D-loop control region. Mitogenome synteny reflects that of other Ostariophysian fishes with the majority of genes and RNAs encoded ...


Temperatures Experienced By Fresh-Cut Leafy Greens During Retail Storage And Display, W. Brown, E. Ryser, L. Gorman, Scott J. Steinmaus, Keith Vorst Sep 2015

Temperatures Experienced By Fresh-Cut Leafy Greens During Retail Storage And Display, W. Brown, E. Ryser, L. Gorman, Scott J. Steinmaus, Keith Vorst

Biological Sciences

There has been limited published work in the United States on temperature profiling of fresh-cut, bagged leafy greens during their transport, retail storage, and retail display. This study utilized temperature monitors placed in backrooms and display cases at nine supermarkets located in southern California: the Central Coast (Santa Barbara to Los Osos), Greater Los Angeles (Burbank area), and Greater Palm Desert. Sensors were installed midway along each 8-foot display case section containing fresh-cut leafy greens. Monitors were placed at the front and back of shelves and in the lower bin. In storage rooms, sensors were placed 4 feet from the ...


Herbivory And The Resilience Of Caribbean Coral Reefs: Knowledge Gaps And Implications For Management, Thomas C. Adam, Deron E. Burkepile, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Michelle J. Paddack Feb 2015

Herbivory And The Resilience Of Caribbean Coral Reefs: Knowledge Gaps And Implications For Management, Thomas C. Adam, Deron E. Burkepile, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Michelle J. Paddack

Biological Sciences

Herbivory is a key process on coral reefs that can facilitate reef-building corals by excluding algae that otherwise negatively impact coral settlement, growth, and survivorship. Over the last several decades, coral cover on Caribbean reefs has declined precipitously. On many reefs, large structurally complex corals have been replaced by algae and other non-reef-building organisms, resulting in the collapse of physical structure and the loss of critical ecosystem services. The drivers of coral decline on Caribbean reefs are complex and vary among locations. On many reefs, populations of key herbivores have been greatly reduced by disease and overfishing, and this has ...


Protemic Identification Of Germline Proteins In Caenorhabditis Elegans, B Elizabeth Turner, Sophia M. Basecke, Grace E. Bazan, Eric S. Dodge, Cassy M. Haire, Dylan J. Heussman, Chelsey L. Johnson, Chelsea K. Mukai, Adrianna M. Naccarati, Sunny-June Norton, Jennifer R. Sato, Chihara O. Talavera, Michael V. Wade, Kenneth J. Hillers Jan 2015

Protemic Identification Of Germline Proteins In Caenorhabditis Elegans, B Elizabeth Turner, Sophia M. Basecke, Grace E. Bazan, Eric S. Dodge, Cassy M. Haire, Dylan J. Heussman, Chelsey L. Johnson, Chelsea K. Mukai, Adrianna M. Naccarati, Sunny-June Norton, Jennifer R. Sato, Chihara O. Talavera, Michael V. Wade, Kenneth J. Hillers

Biological Sciences

Sexual reproduction involves fusion of 2 haploid gametes to form diploid offspring with genetic contributions from both parents. Gamete formation represents a unique developmental program involving the action of numerous germline-specific proteins. In an attempt to identify novel proteins involved in reproduction and embryonic development, we have carried out a proteomic characterization of the process in Caenorhabditis elegans. To identify candidate proteins, we used 2D gel electrophoresis (2DGE) to compare protein abundance in nucleus-enriched extracts from wild-type C. elegans, and in extracts from mutant worms with greatly reduced gonads (glp-4(bn2) worms reared at 25°C); 84 proteins whose abundance ...


Diversity And Soil-Tissue Elemental Relations Of Vascular Plants Of Callahan Mine, Brooksville, Maine, U.S.A., Margaret R. Mansfield, Nathaniel S. Pope, Glen H. Mittelhauser, Nishanta Rajakaruna Sep 2014

Diversity And Soil-Tissue Elemental Relations Of Vascular Plants Of Callahan Mine, Brooksville, Maine, U.S.A., Margaret R. Mansfield, Nathaniel S. Pope, Glen H. Mittelhauser, Nishanta Rajakaruna

Biological Sciences

Metal-contaminated soils provide numerous stressors to plant life, resulting in unique plant communities worldwide. The current study focuses on the vascular plants of Callahan Mine in Brooksville, ME, USA, a Superfund site contaminated with Cu, Zn, Pb, and other pollutants. One hundred and fifty-five taxa belonging to 50 families were identified, with the Asteraceae (21%), Poaceae (11%), and Rosaceae (9%) as the most species-rich families. Ninety-six species encountered at the Mine were native to North America (62%), including 11 taxa (7%) with rarity status in at least one New England state. Fifty-one species were non-native (33%), including nine taxa (6 ...


A Preliminary Study Of The Role Of Nickel In Enhancing Flowering Of The Nickel Hyperaccumulating Plant Alyssum Inflatum Nyár. (Brassicaceae), R. Ghasemi, Z. Zare Chavoshi, R.S. Boyd, Nishanta Rajakaruna Mar 2014

A Preliminary Study Of The Role Of Nickel In Enhancing Flowering Of The Nickel Hyperaccumulating Plant Alyssum Inflatum Nyár. (Brassicaceae), R. Ghasemi, Z. Zare Chavoshi, R.S. Boyd, Nishanta Rajakaruna

Biological Sciences

Alyssum inflatum is a native of serpentine soils and is able to hyperaccumulate nickel (Ni), but the importance of Ni to reproduction in the species is unknown. We investigated if reproductive fitness is enhanced by Ni in the growth medium, and included a treatment involving a relatively high level of Mg to provide a comparison with elevated levels of another metal. Seedlings were grown in a modified Hoagland solution culture in an inert medium of Perlite and were treated with Ni (100 μM), a high concentration of Mg (5 mM), or under control conditions (solution culture without Ni or the ...


Using Crossword Puzzles To Enhance Students' Learning Of Technical Biological Terms, William D. Stansfield Mar 2014

Using Crossword Puzzles To Enhance Students' Learning Of Technical Biological Terms, William D. Stansfield

Biological Sciences

No abstract provided.


Additional Lichen Records And Mineralogical Data From Metal-Contaminated Sites In Maine, Ian D. Medeiros, Alan M. Fryday, N. Rajakaruna Jan 2014

Additional Lichen Records And Mineralogical Data From Metal-Contaminated Sites In Maine, Ian D. Medeiros, Alan M. Fryday, N. Rajakaruna

Biological Sciences

Geochemistry and mineralogy of rocks play important roles in the occurrence of individual lichen species and assembly of lichen communities. Whereas lichens of metal-enriched settings have been a focus of study for many decades, only a few such lichen inventories exist for North America. We reexamined the lichen biota of Pine Hill, a serpentine outcrop on Little Deer Isle, Maine and Callahan Mine, a copper-and zinc-enriched Superfund site in Brooksville, Maine by conducting additional field surveys and reexamining unidentified taxa from previous collections. To better characterize the substrates upon which the lichens were found, we conducted elemental analyses via x-ray ...


Phylogeography Of The California Sheephead, Semicossyphus Pulcher: The Role Of Deep Reefs As Stepping Stones And Pathways To Antitropicality, Marloes Poortvliet, Gary C. Longo, Kimberly Selkoe, Paul H. Berber, Crow White, Jennifer E. Caselle, Alejandro Perez-Matus, Steven D. Gaines, Giacomo Bernardi Nov 2013

Phylogeography Of The California Sheephead, Semicossyphus Pulcher: The Role Of Deep Reefs As Stepping Stones And Pathways To Antitropicality, Marloes Poortvliet, Gary C. Longo, Kimberly Selkoe, Paul H. Berber, Crow White, Jennifer E. Caselle, Alejandro Perez-Matus, Steven D. Gaines, Giacomo Bernardi

Biological Sciences

In the past decade, the study of dispersal of marine organisms has shifted from focusing predominantly on the larval stage to a recent interest in adult movement. Antitropical distributions provide a unique system to assess vagility and dispersal. In this study, we have focused on an antitropical wrasse genus, Semicossyphus, which includes the California sheephead, S. pulcher, and Darwin's sheephead, S. darwini. Using a phylogenetic approach based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers, and a population genetic approach based on mitochondrial control region sequences and 10 microsatellite loci, we compared the phylogenetic relationships of these two species, as well as ...


Luxs In Bacteria Isolated From 25- To 40-Million-Year-Old Amber, Tasha M. Santiago-Rodriguez, Ana R. Patrício, Jessica I. Rivera, Mariel Coradin, Alfredo Gonzalez, Gabriela Tirado, Raúl J. Cano, Gary A. Toranzos Oct 2013

Luxs In Bacteria Isolated From 25- To 40-Million-Year-Old Amber, Tasha M. Santiago-Rodriguez, Ana R. Patrício, Jessica I. Rivera, Mariel Coradin, Alfredo Gonzalez, Gabriela Tirado, Raúl J. Cano, Gary A. Toranzos

Biological Sciences

Interspecies bacterial communication is mediated by autoinducer-2, whose synthesis depends on luxS. Due to the apparent universality of luxS (present in more than 40 bacterial species), it may have an ancient origin; however, no direct evidence is currently available. We amplified luxS in bacteria isolated from 25- to 40-million-year-old amber. The phylogenies and molecular clocks of luxS and the 16S rRNA gene from ancient and extant bacteria were determined as well. Luminescence assays using Vibrio harveyi BB170 aimed to determine the activity of luxS. While the phylogeny of luxS was very similar to that of extant Bacillus spp., amber isolates ...


Rov-Based Tracking Of A Shallow Water Nocturnal Squid, Samuel Yim, Christopher M. Clark, Timothy Peters, Vladimir Prodanov, Pat Fidopiastis Sep 2013

Rov-Based Tracking Of A Shallow Water Nocturnal Squid, Samuel Yim, Christopher M. Clark, Timothy Peters, Vladimir Prodanov, Pat Fidopiastis

Biological Sciences

This paper describes the use of a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) equipped with a monocular vision system to find and track the squid Euprymna scolopes, so that motion behaviors of the squid could be characterized through the use of off-line image processing and state estimation. The ROV was deployed for several nights at several nearshore locations off Oahu, resulting in 10 hours of squid footage. Using blob-tracking image processing techniques and a Particle Filter state estimator, the squid can be detected and tracked. The position, velocity, and acceleration of the squid relative to the stationary ROV can be determined. Experiment ...


Evaluation Of Species Distribution Models By Resampling Of Sites Surveyed A Century Ago By Joseph Grinnell, Adam B. Smith, Maria J. Santos, Michelle S. Koo, Karen M.C. Rowe, Kevin C. Rowe, James L. Patton, John D. Perrine, Steven R. Beissinger, Craig Moritz Sep 2013

Evaluation Of Species Distribution Models By Resampling Of Sites Surveyed A Century Ago By Joseph Grinnell, Adam B. Smith, Maria J. Santos, Michelle S. Koo, Karen M.C. Rowe, Kevin C. Rowe, James L. Patton, John D. Perrine, Steven R. Beissinger, Craig Moritz

Biological Sciences

Species distribution models (SDMs) are commonly applied to predict species’ responses to anticipated global change, but lack of data from future time periods precludes assessment of their reliability. Instead, performance against test data in the same era is assumed to correlate with accuracy in the future. Moreover, high-confidence absence data is required for testing model accuracy but is often unavailable since a species may be present when undetected. Here we evaluate the performance of eight SDMs trained with historic (1900–1939) or modern (1970–2009) climate data and occurrence records for 18 mammalian species. Models were projected to the same ...


Assessing Coral Reef Fish Population And Community Changes In Response To Marine Reserves In The Dry Tortugas, Florida, Usa, Jerald S. Ault, Steven G. Smith, James A. Bohnsack, Jiangang Luo, Natalia Zurcher, David B. Mcclellan, Tracy A. Ziegler, David E. Hallac, Matt Patterson, Michael W. Feeley, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, John Hunt, Dan Kimball, Billy Causey Jul 2013

Assessing Coral Reef Fish Population And Community Changes In Response To Marine Reserves In The Dry Tortugas, Florida, Usa, Jerald S. Ault, Steven G. Smith, James A. Bohnsack, Jiangang Luo, Natalia Zurcher, David B. Mcclellan, Tracy A. Ziegler, David E. Hallac, Matt Patterson, Michael W. Feeley, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, John Hunt, Dan Kimball, Billy Causey

Biological Sciences

The efficacy of no-take marine reserves (NTMRs) to enhance and sustain regional coral reef fisheries was assessed in Dry Tortugas, Florida, through 9 annual fishery-independent research surveys spanning 2 years before and 10 years after NTMR implementation. A probabilistic sampling design produced precise estimates of population metrics of more than 250 exploited and non-target reef fishes. During the survey period more than 8100 research dives utilizing SCUBA Nitrox were optimally allocated using stratified random sampling. The survey domain covered 326 km2, comprised of eight reef habitats in four management areas that offered different levels of resource protection: the Tortugas ...


Microbial Communities In Pre-Columbian Coprolites, Tasha M. Santiago-Rodriguez, Yvonne M. Narganes-Storde, Luis Chanlatte, Edwin Crespo-Torres, Gary A. Toranzos, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Alice Hamrick, Raul J. Cano Jun 2013

Microbial Communities In Pre-Columbian Coprolites, Tasha M. Santiago-Rodriguez, Yvonne M. Narganes-Storde, Luis Chanlatte, Edwin Crespo-Torres, Gary A. Toranzos, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Alice Hamrick, Raul J. Cano

Biological Sciences

The study of coprolites from earlier cultures represents a great opportunity to study an “unaltered” composition of the intestinal microbiota. To test this, pre-Columbian coprolites from two cultures, the Huecoid and Saladoid, were evaluated for the presence of DNA, proteins and lipids by cytochemical staining, human and/or dog-specific Bacteroides spp. by PCR, as well as bacteria, fungi and archaea using Terminal Restriction Fragment analyses. DNA, proteins and lipids, and human-specific Bacteroides DNA were detected in all coprolites. Multidimensional scaling analyses resulted in spatial arrangements of microbial profiles by culture, further supported by cluster analysis and ANOSIM. Differences between the ...


Achieving The Triple Bottom Line In The Face Of Inherent Trade-Offs Among Social Equity, Economic Return, And Conservation, Benjamin S. Halpern, Carissa J. Klein, Christopher J. Brown, Maria Beger, Hedley S. Grantham, Sangeeta Mangubhai, Mary Ruckelshaus, Vivitskaia J. Tulloch, Matt Watts, Crow White, Hough P. Possingham Apr 2013

Achieving The Triple Bottom Line In The Face Of Inherent Trade-Offs Among Social Equity, Economic Return, And Conservation, Benjamin S. Halpern, Carissa J. Klein, Christopher J. Brown, Maria Beger, Hedley S. Grantham, Sangeeta Mangubhai, Mary Ruckelshaus, Vivitskaia J. Tulloch, Matt Watts, Crow White, Hough P. Possingham

Biological Sciences

Triple–bottom-line outcomes from resource management and conservation, where conservation goals and equity in social outcomes are maximized while overall costs are minimized, remain a highly sought-after ideal. However, despite widespread recognition of the importance that equitable distribution of benefits or costs across society can play in conservation success, little formal theory exists for how to explicitly incorporate equity into conservation planning and prioritization. Here, we develop that theory and implement it for three very different case studies in California (United States), Raja Ampat (Indonesia), and the wider Coral Triangle region (Southeast Asia). We show that equity tends to trade ...


Marine Protected Areas And Resilience To Sedimentation In The Solomon Islands, B. S. Halpern, K. A. Selkoe, Crow White, S. Albert, S. Aswani, M. Lauer Mar 2013

Marine Protected Areas And Resilience To Sedimentation In The Solomon Islands, B. S. Halpern, K. A. Selkoe, Crow White, S. Albert, S. Aswani, M. Lauer

Biological Sciences

The ability of marine protected areas (MPAs) to provide protection from indirect stressors, via increased resilience afforded by decreased impact from direct stressors, remains an important and unresolved question about the role MPAs can play in broader conservation and resource management goals. Over a five-year period, we evaluated coral and fish community responses inside and outside three MPAs within the Roviana Lagoon system in Solomon Islands, where sedimentation pressure from upland logging is substantial. We found little evidence that MPAs decrease impact or improve conditions and instead found some potential declines in fish abundance. We also documented modest to high ...


Evaluating Tradeoffs Among Ecosystem Services To Inform Marine Spatial Planning, Sarah E. Lester, Christopher Costello, Benjamin S. Halpern, Steven D. Gaines, Crow White, John A. Barth Mar 2013

Evaluating Tradeoffs Among Ecosystem Services To Inform Marine Spatial Planning, Sarah E. Lester, Christopher Costello, Benjamin S. Halpern, Steven D. Gaines, Crow White, John A. Barth

Biological Sciences

A central challenge for natural resource management is developing rigorous yet practical approaches for balancing the costs and benefits of diverse human uses of ecosystems. Economic theory has a long history of evaluating tradeoffs in returns from different assets to identify optimal investment strategies. There has been recent progress applying this framework to the delivery of ecosystem services in land use planning. However, despite growing national and international interest in marine spatial planning, there is a lack of parallel frameworks in the marine realm. This paper reviews an ecosystem service tradeoff analysis framework and provides a more comprehensive synthesis for ...


Teaching Evolution & The Nature Of Science Via The History Of Debates About The Levels At Which Natural Selection Operates, William D. Stansfield Feb 2013

Teaching Evolution & The Nature Of Science Via The History Of Debates About The Levels At Which Natural Selection Operates, William D. Stansfield

Biological Sciences

Students should not graduate from high school without understanding that scientific debates are essential components of scientific methodology. This article presents a brief history of ongoing debates regarding the hypothesis that group selection is an evolutionary mechanism, and it serves as an example of the role that debates play in correcting faulty ideas and stimulating new research in the pursuit of extending scientific knowledge.


A Socratic Method For Surveying Students’ Readiness To Study Evolution, William D. Stansfield Feb 2013

A Socratic Method For Surveying Students’ Readiness To Study Evolution, William D. Stansfield

Biological Sciences

Before beginning a series of presentations on evolution, it would be prudent to survey the general level of students’ understanding of prerequisite basic concepts of reproduction, heredity, ontology, and phenotypic diversity so that teachers can avoid devoting time to well-known subjects of general knowledge and can spend more time on subjects that are unknown, forgotten, or misunderstood by most students. This article outlines a Socratic method for surveying and teaching to address these concerns.


Rapid Invasion Of Indo-Pacific Lionfishes (Pterois Volitans And Pterois Miles) In The Florida Keys, Usa: Evidence From Multiple Pre- And Post-Invasion Data Sets, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Pamela J. Schofield, J. Lad Akins, Alejandro Acosta, Michael W. Feeley, Jeremiah Blondeau, Steven G. Smith, Jerald S. Ault Oct 2012

Rapid Invasion Of Indo-Pacific Lionfishes (Pterois Volitans And Pterois Miles) In The Florida Keys, Usa: Evidence From Multiple Pre- And Post-Invasion Data Sets, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Pamela J. Schofield, J. Lad Akins, Alejandro Acosta, Michael W. Feeley, Jeremiah Blondeau, Steven G. Smith, Jerald S. Ault

Biological Sciences

Over the past decade, Indo-Pacific lionfishes, Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) and Pterois miles (Bennett, 1828), venomous members of the scorpionfish family (Scorpaenidae), have invaded and spread throughout much of the tropical and subtropical northwestern Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. These species are generalist predators of fishes and invertebrates with the potential to disrupt the ecology of the invaded range. Lionfishes have been present in low numbers along the east coast of Florida since the 1980s, but were not reported in the Florida Keys until 2009. We document the appearance and rapid spread of lionfishes in the Florida Keys using multiple ...


Dynamics Of An Acute Coral Disease Outbreak Associated With The Macroalgae Dictyota Spp. In Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, Usa, Marilyn E. Brandt, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Rob Waara, Jeff Miller, Brian Witcher, Andrew J. Estep, Matt Patterson Oct 2012

Dynamics Of An Acute Coral Disease Outbreak Associated With The Macroalgae Dictyota Spp. In Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, Usa, Marilyn E. Brandt, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Rob Waara, Jeff Miller, Brian Witcher, Andrew J. Estep, Matt Patterson

Biological Sciences

Reports of coral disease outbreaks have increased in recent decades, but often few details are known about these outbreaks, such as environmental triggers, associated biological variables, or even the precise temporal span of the outbreak. Here we document an acute outbreak of a rapid tissue loss disease on the highest live coral cover (15%–30%) reefs within Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, USA. This disease exhibited similar signs to white plague disease with the notable exception that a white film often was observed on the recently denuded skeleton. The temporal span of the disease was short (<2 mo). Partial mortality was recorded but there was no detectable impact to overall coral cover. A significant increase and then decrease in the cover of macroalgae, primarily of the genus Dictyota, occurred simultaneously with ...


An Experimental Evaluation Of The Use Of C3 Δ13C Plant Tissue As A Proxy For The Paleoatmospheric Δ13Co2 Signature Of Air, B. H. Lomax, C. A. Knight, J. A. Lake Sep 2012

An Experimental Evaluation Of The Use Of C3 Δ13C Plant Tissue As A Proxy For The Paleoatmospheric Δ13Co2 Signature Of Air, B. H. Lomax, C. A. Knight, J. A. Lake

Biological Sciences

Previous work suggests that the relationship between the carbon isotope composition of air (d13Ca) and plant leaf tissue (d13Cp) can be used to track changes in the carbon isotope composition of paleo-atmospheric CO2. Here we test this assertion in a series of experiments using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana grown under a range of atmospheric CO2 concentrations relevant to geologic time (380, 760, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 3000 ppm). Nested within these CO2 experiments water availability was controlled (giving two sets of experimental plants; low and high water treatment at each CO2 concentration) to manipulate stomatal opening, a key process ...


Environmental Stress Proteomics Of Two Blue Mussel (Genus Mytilus) Congeners, Lars Tomanek Sep 2012

Environmental Stress Proteomics Of Two Blue Mussel (Genus Mytilus) Congeners, Lars Tomanek

Biological Sciences

Abstract of paper presented at the 28th Congress of the New European Society of Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry Proceedings: Bilbao, Spain.