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California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

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Animal Science

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Technical Note: Feeding Zilpaterol Hydrochloride To Calf-Fed Holstein Steers Improves Muscle Conformation Of Top Loin Steaks, T. E. Lawrence, D. M. Allen, R. J. Delmore, J. L. Beckett, W. T. Nichols, M. N. Streeter, D. A. Yates, J. P. Hutcheson May 2011

Technical Note: Feeding Zilpaterol Hydrochloride To Calf-Fed Holstein Steers Improves Muscle Conformation Of Top Loin Steaks, T. E. Lawrence, D. M. Allen, R. J. Delmore, J. L. Beckett, W. T. Nichols, M. N. Streeter, D. A. Yates, J. P. Hutcheson

Animal Science

The objective of this research was to evaluate changes in the muscle conformation of subprimal top-loins (M. longissimus lumborum) from calf-fed Holstein steers fed zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH). Top-loins (n =100) were transversely cut into 2.54 cm-thick steaks, weighed, and objectively evaluated via image analysis software for muscle area, width, and length traits. Top-loin steaks from steers fed ZH were heavier (P < 0.01; 367 vs. 337 g) and average muscle area per steak was greater (P < 0.05; 80.9 vs. 77.2 cm2) as compared to steaks from control steers. Muscle width (medial–lateral) was not different (P = 0.23) between control steers and those fed ZH. However, steaks from steers fed ZH had greater (P < 0.05) depth (dorsal–ventral) than steaks from control steers throughout the top-loin. The increased muscle depth of top-loins from calf-fed Holstein steers fed ZH may improve the center-of-the-plate salability of a cut that has traditionally suffered from poor muscling.


The Effects Of Sexed Semen On Embryonic Development To The Blastocyst Stage, William E. Plummer, D. Beckett, A. Schaffner, B. Layport, J. Norman, C. Grimbleby, P. Wessinger, E. Pace, L. Kirscher, K. Matthews, T. Dorshorst Jan 2011

The Effects Of Sexed Semen On Embryonic Development To The Blastocyst Stage, William E. Plummer, D. Beckett, A. Schaffner, B. Layport, J. Norman, C. Grimbleby, P. Wessinger, E. Pace, L. Kirscher, K. Matthews, T. Dorshorst

Animal Science

Sexed semen (SS) exhibits approximately 80% of the fertilizing ability of conventional semen (CS), and studies have shown that this continues through the 8-cell stage of bovine embryo development. At the time of this study, no information could be found that, when used for IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) development, had been carried to the blastocyst stage. In addition, questions have arisen regarding which of the measured sperm parameters are responsible for the difference between the SS and CS and contribute to this decline in fertility. The goals of this project were to evaluate the effects of using sexed ...


Lutein Exposure, In Ovo Or In The Diet, Reduces Parameters Of Inflammation In The Liver And Spleen Laying-Type Chicks (Gallus Gallus Domesticus), L.S. Meriwether, B. D. Humphrey, D. G. Peterson, K. C. Klasing, E. A. Koutsos Oct 2010

Lutein Exposure, In Ovo Or In The Diet, Reduces Parameters Of Inflammation In The Liver And Spleen Laying-Type Chicks (Gallus Gallus Domesticus), L.S. Meriwether, B. D. Humphrey, D. G. Peterson, K. C. Klasing, E. A. Koutsos

Animal Science

These trials examined whether the demonstrated effects of embryonic and dietary carotenoid exposure on the inflammatory immune response in fast growing chickens also occur in slow growing chickens. The systemic and local inflammatory responses of chicks were examined in two experiments with two in ovo lutein levels (C+, carotenoid replete; or C−, carotenoid-deplete), two dietary lutein levels (0 or 40 mg lutein/kg diet), and two inflammatory challenges [no exposure or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-vaccinated]. At 24 h after LPS vaccination, spleen weight was not affected by diet or in ovo lutein, but liver weight increased from C+ eggs (p < 0.01), and in LPS-vaccinated chicks fed 0 mg lutein (p < 0.05), but not in chicks fed 40 mg lutein. Plasma carotenoids and liver carotenoids were reduced post-LPS (p < 0.05). Splenic IL-6 mRNA abundance was the greatest post-LPS in C− chicks fed 40 mg lutein vs. C+ chicks fed 40 mg lutein (p < 0.05). Hepatic IL-6, iNOS and TGFβ and splenic iNOS and TGFβ ...


Growth Hormone Alters Lipid Composition And Increases The Abundance Of Casein And Lactalbumin Mrna In The Mac-T Cell Line, Tasha L. Johnson, Brent As. Fujimoto, Rafael Jimenez-Flores, Daniel G. Peterson May 2010

Growth Hormone Alters Lipid Composition And Increases The Abundance Of Casein And Lactalbumin Mrna In The Mac-T Cell Line, Tasha L. Johnson, Brent As. Fujimoto, Rafael Jimenez-Flores, Daniel G. Peterson

Animal Science

The MAC-T cell line has been used extensively to investigate bovine mammary epithelial cell function. A lactogenic phenotype is generally induced in this cell line by a combination of dexamethasone, insulin and prolactin and has typically been assessed by milk protein production. Few studies have focused on identifying other factors that may affect milk protein synthesis in the MAC-T cell line, and none have considered the lipid class distribution of MAC-T cells as a component of the lactogenic phenotype. Growth hormone (GH) has been shown to increase milk protein synthesis both in vivo and in mammary cell models, and has ...


Perspectives On The Application Of Zilpaterol Hydrochloride In The United States Beef Industry, R. J. Delmore, J. M. Hodgen, B. J. Johnson Apr 2010

Perspectives On The Application Of Zilpaterol Hydrochloride In The United States Beef Industry, R. J. Delmore, J. M. Hodgen, B. J. Johnson

Animal Science

Zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) is a β-adrenergic agonist approved to be fed at a rate of 8.3 mg/kg (100% DM basis) during the final 20 to 40 d of the finishing period in beef cattle followed by a minimum 3-d withdrawal period antemortem. The Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approved label claims of increased rate of BW gain, improved feed efficiency, and increased carcass leanness. Before the release of ZH for commercial use in 2007, approximately 10 independent research trials at various universities and commercial feedlots were initiated. Articles in recent issues of the Journal of Animal Science are a ...


Perspectives On The Application Of Zilpaterol Hydrochloride In The United States Beef Industry, Robert J. Delmore, Jr., J. M. Hodgen, B. J. Johnson Apr 2010

Perspectives On The Application Of Zilpaterol Hydrochloride In The United States Beef Industry, Robert J. Delmore, Jr., J. M. Hodgen, B. J. Johnson

Animal Science

Zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) is a β-adrenergic agonist approved to be fed at a rate of 8.3 mg/kg (100% DM basis) during the final 20 to 40 d of the finishing period in beef cattle followed by a minimum 3-d withdrawal period antemortem. The Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approved label claims of increased rate of BW gain, improved feed efficiency, and increased carcass leanness. Before the release of ZH for commercial use in 2007, approximately 10 independent research trials at various universities and commercial feedlots were initiated. Articles in recent issues of the Journal of Animal Science are a ...


Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated From A Novel Equine Tissue Exhibit Embryonic Molecular Markers And Adipogenic Differentiation Potential, Jane Marie Isquith, Kelly Shaw, Karen Shaw, Daniel Peterson, Matthew Burd Apr 2010

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated From A Novel Equine Tissue Exhibit Embryonic Molecular Markers And Adipogenic Differentiation Potential, Jane Marie Isquith, Kelly Shaw, Karen Shaw, Daniel Peterson, Matthew Burd

Animal Science

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from equine tissues, most notably adipose and bonemarrow. On the basis of ability for self-renewal, molecular marker expression and differentiation potential, we characterized MSCs isolated from a tissue not yet explored in the equine. After isolation, MSCs weremaintained in culture for 25 passages before senescence was observed. Reverse transcription-PCR revealedembryonic transcription factor Oct4 mRNA, as well as mRNA for fucosyltransferase 4 and ST3B-galactosid α 2,3 sialySSEA4, respylxanthine l ltransferase 2, two enzymes responsible for synthesis of embryonic surface markersSSEA1 and ectively. Treatment with insulin, dexamethasone, indomethacin andisobutylmethed to increased oil red O ...


Lh Increases Insl3 Mrna Abundance In Ma-10 Leydig Cells, Mary Elizabeth Strong, Matthew Anderson Burd, Daniel Gunnar Peterson Apr 2010

Lh Increases Insl3 Mrna Abundance In Ma-10 Leydig Cells, Mary Elizabeth Strong, Matthew Anderson Burd, Daniel Gunnar Peterson

Animal Science

Leydig cells produce testosterone in response to luteinizing hormone (LH) via the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A pathway. Additionally, these cells are responsible for producing insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3), a peptide hormone that is essential for testicular descent. The insl3 promoterin Leydig cells can be activated by cAMP through the transcription factor Nur77. While the mechanism of LH action on testosterone production is well characterized, the effect of LH on insl3 abundance has yet to be shown directly. MA-10 Leydig cells were treated with either 0 and 100 ng/mL LH for 3 and 6 hours in a ...


Comparison Of The Effects Of Growth Hormone On Mac-T Cells And Primary Mammary Cells, Lisa Mcdonnell, Tasha Johnson, Daniel G. Peterson Apr 2010

Comparison Of The Effects Of Growth Hormone On Mac-T Cells And Primary Mammary Cells, Lisa Mcdonnell, Tasha Johnson, Daniel G. Peterson

Animal Science

The ability of growth hormone (GH) to increase milk yield through somatomedins is well characterized,however recent studies utilizing mammary epithelial cell (MEC) lines have indicated a possible direct effecton MEC. In the mammary alveolar cell-T (MAC-T) line, relative abundance of mRNA for two milk protein genes, α-lactalbumin and αS1-casein, and GH receptor was increased by GH. MAC-T cells were compared tobovine mammary tissue explants and primary MEC isolated from raw milk through culture in classicallactation medium (dexamethasone, insulin, prolactin) with 0 or 10 ng/mL GH. Explant and primary cellmRNA abundance showed a similar pattern to MAC-T indicating that ...


Effects Of Zilpaterol Hydrochloride Feeding Duration On Beed And Calf-Fed Holstein Strip Loin Steak Color, H. R. Rogers, J. C. Brooks, M. C. Hunt, G. G. Hilton, D. L. Vanoverbeke, J. Killefer, T. E. Lawrence, R. J. Delmore, B. J. Johnson, D. M. Allen, M. N. Streeter, W. T. Nichols, J. P. Hutcheson, D. A. Yates, J. N. Martin, M. F. Miller Jan 2010

Effects Of Zilpaterol Hydrochloride Feeding Duration On Beed And Calf-Fed Holstein Strip Loin Steak Color, H. R. Rogers, J. C. Brooks, M. C. Hunt, G. G. Hilton, D. L. Vanoverbeke, J. Killefer, T. E. Lawrence, R. J. Delmore, B. J. Johnson, D. M. Allen, M. N. Streeter, W. T. Nichols, J. P. Hutcheson, D. A. Yates, J. N. Martin, M. F. Miller

Animal Science

ABSTRACT: Two studies using beef and calf-fed Holstein cattle were conducted to determine the effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) supplementation on the color of strip loin steaks packaged in traditional and modified-atmosphere packaging. Select (USDA) strip loins were obtained from the carcasses of beef (n = 118) or calf-fed Holstein (n = 132) cattle fed ZH (6.8 g/ton on a 90% DM basis) for the last 0, 20, 30, or 40 d of feeding. One portion of the strip loin was moisture enhanced, cut into steaks, and packaged in an atmosphere containing 80% oxygen and 20% carbon dioxide. The remaining ...


The Effects Of Zilpaterol Hydrochloride On Carcass Cutability And Tenderness Of Calf-Fed Holstein Steers, A. J. Garmyn, J. N. Shook, D. L. Vanoverbeke, J. L. Beckett, Robert J. Delmore, D. A. Yates, D. M. Allen, G. G. Hilton Jan 2010

The Effects Of Zilpaterol Hydrochloride On Carcass Cutability And Tenderness Of Calf-Fed Holstein Steers, A. J. Garmyn, J. N. Shook, D. L. Vanoverbeke, J. L. Beckett, Robert J. Delmore, D. A. Yates, D. M. Allen, G. G. Hilton

Animal Science

To evaluate the impact of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on carcass cutability and tenderness of calf-fed Holstein steers, calf-fed Holstein carcasses (n = 102) were selected from a pool of 2,300 steers that were fed 0 or 8.3 mg/kg (DM basis) of ZH. Zilpaterol hydrochloride was supplemented the last 20 d of the finishing period and withdrawn for 3 d before slaughter. Carcasses were selected based on carcass weight as well as predetermined USDA Yield grade categories. For tenderness evaluation, steaks from the strip loin, bottom round, and top round (n = 54 per subprimal) were aged for 14 or ...


Effects Of Zilpaterol Hydrochloride On Growth Rates, Feed Converstion, And Carcass Traits In Calf-Fed Holstein Steers, J. L. Beckett, R. J. Delmore, G. C. Duff, D. A. Yates, D. M. Allen, T. E. Lawrence, N. Elam Dec 2009

Effects Of Zilpaterol Hydrochloride On Growth Rates, Feed Converstion, And Carcass Traits In Calf-Fed Holstein Steers, J. L. Beckett, R. J. Delmore, G. C. Duff, D. A. Yates, D. M. Allen, T. E. Lawrence, N. Elam

Animal Science

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) to enhance growth performance and carcass characteristics in calf-fed Holstein steers. In Exp. 1, Holstein steers (n = 2,311) were fed in a large-pen trial in 2 phases at a commercial feed yard in the desert Southwest. In Exp. 2, a total of 359 steers were fed in a small-pen university study. In Exp. 1 and 2, cattle were implanted with a combination trenbolone acetate-estradiol implant approximately 120 d before slaughter. Cattle were fed ZH for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d before slaughter at a rate of ...


Growth Hormone Alters The Proteome Of Differentiated Mac-T Cells, Tasha Lynn Johnson, Daniel G. Peterson Apr 2009

Growth Hormone Alters The Proteome Of Differentiated Mac-T Cells, Tasha Lynn Johnson, Daniel G. Peterson

Animal Science

Growth Hormone (GH) improves growth and lactation in many species. Mammary epithelium is responsive to GH though the mechanism of these effects has not yet been fully characterized. Bovine Mammary Alveolar Cell-T (MAC-T) cells uniformly differentiate and secrete casein proteins in response to dexamethasone, insulin and prolactin (DIP) and are a widely used ruminant mammary cell model. We have found significant changes in triacyglycerol, cholesterol and phospholipid distribution in MAC -T cells stimulated with 10 ng/ml GH. To characterize these direct effects of GH on a proteomic level, total protein was isolated from MAC-T cells after differentiation for seven ...


National Beef Market Basket Survey- 2006: External Fat Thickness Measurements And Separable Component Determinations For Beef From Us Retail Establishments, C. L. Mason, K. L. Nicholson, J. C. Brooks, R. J. Delmore, W. R. Henning, D. D. Johnson, C. L. Lorenzen, R. J. Maddock, R. K. Miller, J. B. Morgan, B. E. Wasser, B. L. Gwartney, K. B. Harris, D. B. Griffin, D. S. Hale, J. W. Savell Feb 2009

National Beef Market Basket Survey- 2006: External Fat Thickness Measurements And Separable Component Determinations For Beef From Us Retail Establishments, C. L. Mason, K. L. Nicholson, J. C. Brooks, R. J. Delmore, W. R. Henning, D. D. Johnson, C. L. Lorenzen, R. J. Maddock, R. K. Miller, J. B. Morgan, B. E. Wasser, B. L. Gwartney, K. B. Harris, D. B. Griffin, D. S. Hale, J. W. Savell

Animal Science

A market basket survey for beef retail cut composition at the retail level (four stores each from two chains in each city) was conducted in 11 US cities from January to March 2006. Beef cuts (n = 17,495) were measured for external fat thickness with cuts from the chuck (0.05 cm), round (0.05 cm), and miscellaneous (0.04 cm) having less (P < 0.05) fat than cuts from the loin (0.11 cm) and rib (0.11 cm). Beef cuts (n = 1327) were separated physically into separable components with round cuts having more (P < 0.05) separable lean (96.63%) than chuck cuts (86.81%) and miscellaneous cuts (86.18%), which had more (P < 0.05) separable lean than loin cuts (84.53%) with rib cuts (69.34%) having the lowest (P < 0.05) separable lean. Chemical fat from the separable lean differed (P < 0.05) between each cut category: round cuts (3.71%), miscellaneous cuts (4.99%), loin cuts (5.60%), chuck cuts (6.90%), and rib cuts (8.61%). Ground beef samples (n = 235), with declared lean/fat percentages ranging from 73/27 to 96/4, had overall chemical fat values of 13.41% and moisture values of 67.42%. This survey documents the current beef retail cut and ground beef composition, which is helpful to those who need this information for various dietary and marketing purposes.


The Effect Of Zilpaterol Hydrochloride On Meat Quality Of Calf-Fed Holstein Steers, S. F. Holmer, D. M. Fernandez- Duenas, S. M. Scramlin, C. M. Souza, D. D. Boler, F. K. Mckeith, J. Killefer, R. J. Delmore, J. L. Beckett, T. E. Lawrence, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, M. E. Dikeman, J. C. Brooks, R. A. Zinn, M. N. Streeter, J. P. Hutcheson, W. T. Nichols, D. M. Allen, D. A, Yates Jan 2009

The Effect Of Zilpaterol Hydrochloride On Meat Quality Of Calf-Fed Holstein Steers, S. F. Holmer, D. M. Fernandez- Duenas, S. M. Scramlin, C. M. Souza, D. D. Boler, F. K. Mckeith, J. Killefer, R. J. Delmore, J. L. Beckett, T. E. Lawrence, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, M. E. Dikeman, J. C. Brooks, R. A. Zinn, M. N. Streeter, J. P. Hutcheson, W. T. Nichols, D. M. Allen, D. A, Yates

Animal Science

The objective of these studies was to evaluate the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH), fed for 0, 20, or 30 d, on meat quality attributes of calf-fed Holstein steers. Steers were slaughtered at a commercial facility, and carcasses were selected by HCW to represent the pen mean. Further carcass selection was based on quality grade (Choice and Select) and yield grade. Proximate composition, measures of water holding capacity, and tenderness using Warner-Bratzler shear force after 7, 14, or 21 d postmortem were evaluated on the shoulder clod (triceps brachii), top butt (gluteus medius), and strip loin (longissimus lumborum). Percentage of ...


Effects Of Feeding Zilpaterol Hydrochloride For Twenty To Forty Days On Carcass Cutability And Subprimal Yield Of Calf-Fed Holstein Steers, D. D. Boler, S. F. Holmer, F. K. Mckeith, J. Killefer, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, R. J. Delmore, J L. Beckett, J. C. Brooks, R. K. Miller, D. B. Griffen, J. W. Savell, T. E. Lawrence, N. A. Elam, M N. Streeter, W. T. Nichols, J. P. Hutcheson, D. A. Yates, D. M. Allen Jan 2009

Effects Of Feeding Zilpaterol Hydrochloride For Twenty To Forty Days On Carcass Cutability And Subprimal Yield Of Calf-Fed Holstein Steers, D. D. Boler, S. F. Holmer, F. K. Mckeith, J. Killefer, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, R. J. Delmore, J L. Beckett, J. C. Brooks, R. K. Miller, D. B. Griffen, J. W. Savell, T. E. Lawrence, N. A. Elam, M N. Streeter, W. T. Nichols, J. P. Hutcheson, D. A. Yates, D. M. Allen

Animal Science

Zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) is designed to increase carcass leanness, chilled side weight (CSW), and percent saleable yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single dose of ZH on cutability and subprimal yield of calf-fed Holstein steers when fed for increasing durations. Two hundred forty steers were fed 8.3 mg/kg of ZH on a DM basis for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d, with a 3-d withdrawal before slaughter. After slaughter, steers were fabricated into 4 pieces (round, loin/flank, rib/plate, and chuck), packaged in combos, shipped to 2 locations, and further ...


Growth Hormone, Prolactin, And Sodium Acetate Have Complex And Non-Uniform Effects On The Lipid Distribution Of A Differentiated Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cell Line, Brent Fujimoto, Daniel G. Peterson Apr 2008

Growth Hormone, Prolactin, And Sodium Acetate Have Complex And Non-Uniform Effects On The Lipid Distribution Of A Differentiated Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cell Line, Brent Fujimoto, Daniel G. Peterson

Animal Science

Non-polar lipids (NPL) accumulate within the mammary epithelial cell during lactation; however there are no reported systematic studies that utilize NPL composition as a sign of differentiation. Additionally, there are no reported systematic studies on the response of a bovine mammary alveolar cell line (MAC-T), to a range of lactogenic hormone concentrations, or different lipogenic substrates. In a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, the effect of growth hormone (GH; 0, 10, 100 ng/ml), and prolactin (PRL; 0, 5, 10 µg/ml) on the lipid composition of MAC-T was examined using thin layer chromatography. Using the optimal hormone treatment (10 ...


Carbohydrate Response Element Binding-Protein Is Activated By Elevated Glucose Levels In The Normal Murine Liver Cell Line Nmuli, Jackson Adams, Daniel G. Peterson Apr 2008

Carbohydrate Response Element Binding-Protein Is Activated By Elevated Glucose Levels In The Normal Murine Liver Cell Line Nmuli, Jackson Adams, Daniel G. Peterson

Animal Science

Carbohydrate response element (ChRE) binding protein (ChREBP) is a transcription factor that is regulated by intracellular glucose levels and activates several lipogenic genes including acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC). Previous studies of the ChREBP system have used both in vivo models as well as isolated primary hepatocytes. Due to the difficulties in isolation and genetic variability of primary cell culture, we propose the use of a normal murine liver cell line (NMuLi) as a convenient alternative to primary isolated hepatocytes. We show that high (25 mM) but not low (0.5 or 5 mM) glucose activates a luciferase reporter driven by ...


Conjugated Linoleic Acids Alter Body Composition Differently According To Physiological Age In Moulard Ducks, Jeffrey Allen Fesler, Daniel G. Peterson Apr 2008

Conjugated Linoleic Acids Alter Body Composition Differently According To Physiological Age In Moulard Ducks, Jeffrey Allen Fesler, Daniel G. Peterson

Animal Science

Recent developments in the field of lipid biology have shown conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) to have remarkable yet inconsistent metabolic effects in mice, rats, hamsters, chickens, cows, and humans. In particular, effects on lipogenesis vary with tissue, physiological state, and specie. In this study, sub-adult (7 wk) and adult (11 wk) moulard ducks were grouped by age and fed a standard corn-soy based diet supplemented with either 5% soybean oil (control) or 5% CLA isomer mixture (30% 9c,11t, 30% 10t,12c; CLA). Animals were harvested after 3 wk or 6 wk for assessment of body composition including liver, adipose ...


Moderate Zinc Restriction Affects Intestinal Health And Immune Function In Lipopolysaccharide-Challenged Mice, Daniel G. Peterson, Angus G. Scrimgeour, James P. Mcclung, Elizabeth A. Koutsos Mar 2008

Moderate Zinc Restriction Affects Intestinal Health And Immune Function In Lipopolysaccharide-Challenged Mice, Daniel G. Peterson, Angus G. Scrimgeour, James P. Mcclung, Elizabeth A. Koutsos

Animal Science

Zinc (Zn) is an essential nutrient that affects immune function, especially within the digestive system, although the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. This study examined the effects of short-term moderate Zn restriction on intestinal health and immune function in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged mice through plasma cytokine profiling and histological evaluation of intestinal tissue sections. Adult male mice were fed with a Zn-adequate (40 ppm) or a Zn-marginal (4 ppm) diet for 4 weeks, and then a bacterial challenge was simulated by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (10 μg/g body weight [BW]) or saline (control). BW was recorded weekly, and ...


Push Versus Pull: Nutrient Partitioning Toward Immunity, Brooke D. Humphrey, Daniel G. Peterson Jan 2008

Push Versus Pull: Nutrient Partitioning Toward Immunity, Brooke D. Humphrey, Daniel G. Peterson

Animal Science

No abstract provided.


National Beef Tenderness Survey- 2006: Assessment Of Warner-Bratzler Shear And Sensory Panel Ratings For Beef From Us Retail And Foodservice Establishments, K. L. Voges, C. L. Mason, J. C. Brooks, R. J. Delmore, D. B. Griffin, D. S. Hale, W. R. Henning, D. D. Johnson, C. L. Lorenzen, R. J. Maddock, R. K. Miller, J. B. Morgan, B. E. Baird, B. L. Gwartney, J. W. Savell Nov 2007

National Beef Tenderness Survey- 2006: Assessment Of Warner-Bratzler Shear And Sensory Panel Ratings For Beef From Us Retail And Foodservice Establishments, K. L. Voges, C. L. Mason, J. C. Brooks, R. J. Delmore, D. B. Griffin, D. S. Hale, W. R. Henning, D. D. Johnson, C. L. Lorenzen, R. J. Maddock, R. K. Miller, J. B. Morgan, B. E. Baird, B. L. Gwartney, J. W. Savell

Animal Science

Beef from retail and foodservice establishments in 11 US cities was evaluated using Warner–Bratzler shear (WBS) and consumer evaluation panels. Postmortem aging times ranged from3 to83d for retail and7 to 136d for foodservice with mean aging times of 22.6d and 30.1 d, respectively. For retail, the three cuts from the round – top round, bottom round, and eye of round – had the highest (P < 0.05) WBS values compared to cuts from the chuck, rib, and loin. Top loin steaks had the lowest(P < 0.05) WBS value compared to ribeye and top sirloin foodservice steaks. Retail bone-in top loin, top loin, ribeye, T-bone, and porterhouse received the highest (P < 0.05) ratings by consumers for overall like and like tenderness. Quality grade had little or no effect on foodservice sensory evaluations. Improvements in round tenderness are needed to increase consumer acceptability.


Industry Response To Beef Sector Policy And Regulation: Case Study Of Beef Sector In California, James Ahern, Robert Delmore, Andy Thulin Sep 2007

Industry Response To Beef Sector Policy And Regulation: Case Study Of Beef Sector In California, James Ahern, Robert Delmore, Andy Thulin

Animal Science

No Abstract.


Isolation And Selective Culture Of Quail Primordial Germ Cells And The Development Of A Cross Culture System To Harbor Development Of Manipulated Embryos, C. M. Kimmell, A. Saribalis, J. Echeverria, L. Shuey, K. A. Shaw, K. L. Shaw, D. G. Peterson Jan 2007

Isolation And Selective Culture Of Quail Primordial Germ Cells And The Development Of A Cross Culture System To Harbor Development Of Manipulated Embryos, C. M. Kimmell, A. Saribalis, J. Echeverria, L. Shuey, K. A. Shaw, K. L. Shaw, D. G. Peterson

Animal Science

Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the embryonic precursors of adult egg and sperm. Isolation, propagation, genetic manipulation and reimplantation of modified PGCs that retain their commitment to the germline have been recently described for the successful generation of transgenic chickens [1]. Here, we report the adaptation and application of these techniques to Japanese quail for the purpose of future applications involving the introduction of a phytase transgene as previously described [2]. Quail PGCs are harvested by aspiration of whole embryonic blood from embryos that have been incubated for 48– 52 h. Blood is aspirated using a mouth pipette fitted with ...


Development Of Successful Sex Determination Method Of Bovine Embryos Utilizing Embryo Biopsy And Pcr, William E. Plummer, Debbie Beckett Feb 2006

Development Of Successful Sex Determination Method Of Bovine Embryos Utilizing Embryo Biopsy And Pcr, William E. Plummer, Debbie Beckett

Animal Science

Producers of domestic livestock strive to improve genetic influences in their herds. This requires identification, and propagation of animals that demonstrate desirable characteristics. The more animals available from which to select, the greater the opportunity to discover high-performance animals. Predetermination of the sex of offspring would provide a greater number of males or females from which to select the top individuals that will contribute the genetics to the next generation. Many attempts at sexing semen and identification of sex in preimplantation embryos have been mildly successful. However, recent advances in gene amplification enable investigators to use sex-specific probes to determine ...


Effects Of A Marginal Zinc Diet On Intestinal Health And Immune Function, Daniel G. Peterson, James P. Mcclung, Angus G. Scrimgeour, Elizabeth A. Koutsos Jan 2006

Effects Of A Marginal Zinc Diet On Intestinal Health And Immune Function, Daniel G. Peterson, James P. Mcclung, Angus G. Scrimgeour, Elizabeth A. Koutsos

Animal Science

Zinc (Zn) is an essential nutrient for overall health and proper immune function, especially within the digestive system, although the specific mechanisms by which it exerts these effects are not well understood. In this study we examined the effects of short term exposure to a marginal Zn diet on the intestinal health and immune function of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged mice through plasma cytokine profiling and histologic evaluation of intestinal tissue sections. Adult male mice were fed a Zn-adequate (30 ppm) or Zn-marginal (3 ppm) diet for 4 wk and then a bacterial challenge was simulated with an intraperitoneal injection of ...


Development Of Methods For The Production Of Transgenic Quail Expressing An E. Coli Phytase Gene, G. G. Guenther, L. M. Hylle, C. H. Stahl, E. A. Koutsos, D. G. Peterson Jan 2005

Development Of Methods For The Production Of Transgenic Quail Expressing An E. Coli Phytase Gene, G. G. Guenther, L. M. Hylle, C. H. Stahl, E. A. Koutsos, D. G. Peterson

Animal Science

Excess phosphorus (P) in manure is a major environmental pollutant associated with poultry and swine production and is directly related to eutrophication, which results in the death of aquatic organisms and loss of biodiversity. Phytate accounts for 50–80% of plant phosphorus and this phytate-bound P is unavailable to simple-stomached animals. As a result, this P is not utilized by the animal and is therefore excreted. Phytases are enzymes that cleave inorganic phosphate from phytic acid, thereby improving its bioavailability to simple-stomached animals. Strategies intended to limit levels of P excretion in production animals have included dietary supplementation of phytase ...


Conjugated Linoleic Acids In The Dairy Cow: Biological Activities And Applications, Daniel G. Peterson Jan 2005

Conjugated Linoleic Acids In The Dairy Cow: Biological Activities And Applications, Daniel G. Peterson

Animal Science

No abstract provided.


Analysis Of Platelet Activating Factor In The Gravid Reproductive Tracts Of Swine, William E. Plummer Nov 2003

Analysis Of Platelet Activating Factor In The Gravid Reproductive Tracts Of Swine, William E. Plummer

Animal Science

Depressed hog prices in 1998 and 1999 were due to not enough shackle space (kill capacity) and not to a glut of slaughter swine. However, many swine producers were put out of business in California. In 2000, market prices rebounded due to increased shackle space and reduced numbers of slaughter swine available as a result of the sellouts of the previous two years. The economic roller coaster ride emphasized the need for maximizing profit while streamlining operations. Increasing numbers of pigs per litter, and thereby reducing the cost per pig produced, is one aspect of streamlining. A significant step in ...


Analysis Of Platelet Activating Factor In The Gravid Reproductive Tracts Of Swine, William E. Plummer Aug 2002

Analysis Of Platelet Activating Factor In The Gravid Reproductive Tracts Of Swine, William E. Plummer

Animal Science

No abstract provided.