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Food Science Education, Research, And Professional Development, Phillip S. Tong Oct 2016

Food Science Education, Research, And Professional Development, Phillip S. Tong

Dairy Science

Food science knowledge and experience obtained through education, research, and professional development are the engines for innovative solutions that have historically solved key challenges in providing food for man since ancient times, and hold the key to meeting future needs of a growing global population. The systems in place that have been used to evolve our education programs conduct research and provide continuous learning opportunities that are essential to insuring a vibrant and widely available nutritious, safe, and wholesome food supply. This article provides an overview of the topics of the hierarchy related to food science education, research, and professional ...


Short Communication: Effect Of Storage Temperature On The Solubility Of Milk Protein Concentrate 80 (Mpc80) Treated With Nacl Or Kcl, V. Sikand, P.S. Tong, J. Walker, T. Wang, L.E. Rodriguez-Saona Mar 2016

Short Communication: Effect Of Storage Temperature On The Solubility Of Milk Protein Concentrate 80 (Mpc80) Treated With Nacl Or Kcl, V. Sikand, P.S. Tong, J. Walker, T. Wang, L.E. Rodriguez-Saona

Dairy Science

A previous study in our laboratory showed that addition of 150 mM NaCl or KCl into diafiltration water improved the solubility of freshly made milk protein concentrate 80 (MPC80). In the present study, the objectives were (1) to evaluate the solubility of NaCl- or KCl-treated MPC80 samples kept at varying temperatures and then stored for extensive periods at room temperature (21°C ± 1°C); and (2) to determine if MPC80 samples stored at different temperatures and protein conformation can be grouped or categorized together. Freshly manufactured MPC80 samples were untreated (control), processed with NaCl, or processed with KCl. One ...


Culturally Speaking: Ways To Tame Our Sweet Tooth, Phillip Tong Feb 2016

Culturally Speaking: Ways To Tame Our Sweet Tooth, Phillip Tong

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Growth Rate Of Copepods In The San Francisco Bay, Brooke Bemowski, Wim Kimmerer, Toni Ignoffo Jan 2016

Growth Rate Of Copepods In The San Francisco Bay, Brooke Bemowski, Wim Kimmerer, Toni Ignoffo

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The San Francisco Estuary is a complex ecosystem. A key part of the foodweb are zooplankton crustaceans, specifically copepods. Many fish, especially the endangered delta smelt, rely on copepods as a food source. Measuring the growth of copepods assists in predictions if enough food is available for delta smelt. Traditionally growth rate is measured through lengthy and involved processes. The objective of this research project is to develop an imaging process to analyze biomass of copepods more efficiently. For this research, field samples of copepods were collected and grown over three days. Subsamples were taken and preserved at three predetermined ...


Culturally Speaking: Of Rotary Phones And Dairy Foods, Phillip Tong Dec 2015

Culturally Speaking: Of Rotary Phones And Dairy Foods, Phillip Tong

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Partial Calcium Depletion During Membrane Filtration Affects Gelation Of Reconstituted Milk Protein Concentrates, H. Eshpari, R. Jiménez-Flores, P. S. Tong, M. Corredig Dec 2015

Partial Calcium Depletion During Membrane Filtration Affects Gelation Of Reconstituted Milk Protein Concentrates, H. Eshpari, R. Jiménez-Flores, P. S. Tong, M. Corredig

Dairy Science

Milk protein concentrate powders (MPC) with improved rehydration properties are often manufactured using processing steps, such as acidification and high-pressure processing, and with addition of other ingredients, such as sodium chloride, during their production. These steps are known to increase the amount of serum caseins or modify the mineral equilibrium, hence improving solubility of the retentates. The processing functionality of the micelles may be affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of partial acidification by adding glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) to skim milk during membrane filtration on the structural changes of the casein micelles by observing their chymosin-induced ...


Culturally Speaking: Beyond The Dairy Case: Cultured Products As Food Ingredients, Phillip Tong Sep 2015

Culturally Speaking: Beyond The Dairy Case: Cultured Products As Food Ingredients, Phillip Tong

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Culturally Speaking: Move Over Blueberry: Make Way For Parsnip Yogurt, Phillip S. Tong Feb 2015

Culturally Speaking: Move Over Blueberry: Make Way For Parsnip Yogurt, Phillip S. Tong

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Father Convict Cichlids Bite Intruders More Often In Hot Temperatures, Jesse L. Heckendorf Jan 2015

Father Convict Cichlids Bite Intruders More Often In Hot Temperatures, Jesse L. Heckendorf

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Convict cichlids (Archocentrus nigrofasciatus) have evolved to be extremely good parents by protecting their brood. Parental care leads to aggressive biting, chasing, and gill flaring to intimidate predators. In this experiment, we show that environmental factors, such as the changing of temperature in this case, affect a male convict cichlid’s aggression toward caring for his offspring when an intruder is introduced. Male convict cichlids attack more in warmer water.


Mother Convict Cichlids Inflict More Bites Upon An Intruder In Hot Temperatures, Jesse L. Heckendorf Aug 2014

Mother Convict Cichlids Inflict More Bites Upon An Intruder In Hot Temperatures, Jesse L. Heckendorf

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Convict cichlids (Archocentrus nigrofasciatus) have developed to be extremely good parents by protecting their brood. Parental care leads to aggressive biting, chasing, and gill flaring to intimidate known predators. In this experiment, we show that environmental factors, such as the changing of temperature in this case, affect a female convict cichlid’s aggression toward caring for her offspring when an intruder is introduced. Females attack more in warmer water.


Aquaponics And Basil Plant Density, Danika L. Macmaster, Brook Murphy, Dudley Burton Aug 2014

Aquaponics And Basil Plant Density, Danika L. Macmaster, Brook Murphy, Dudley Burton

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Aquaponics is the use of water from a fish tank to provide nutrients to plants in a soil-less environment. The rocks cultivate the bacteria that turns the ammonia into nitrates that the plants need, and the plant bed functions as a filter for the fish tank. In this study, with the guidance of Doctor Dudley Burton, Doctor Brook Murphy, we researched the optimal plant density for basil in an Aquaponics system. We attempted to control or measure all the other variables to consider, as to isolate the variable of distance between plants. The water flow was spread through the plant ...


Assessment Of Salmon Habitat On The Feather River, Nathan Sweem Aug 2014

Assessment Of Salmon Habitat On The Feather River, Nathan Sweem

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Human activity in central valley streams has had a significantly negative impact on salmon habitat (Williams 2006). The presence of dams impedes sediment transport which is critical to salmon spawning (Williams 2006; Kondolf 1997). As part of an effort to enhance salmon spawning, the California Department of Water Resources added 7000 ft3 of gravel to Cottonwood Hatchery, Upper Auditorium, and Auditorium riffles on the Lower Feather River below the Thermalito Dam Complex in July of 2014. Stream conditions at Cottonwood Hatchery riffle were assessed by conducting analysis of sediment grain size, water depth and velocity, gravel permeability, and dissolved ...


Culturally Speaking: The Time Is Right For Drinkable Yogurts To Take Off In The United States, Phillip Tong Feb 2014

Culturally Speaking: The Time Is Right For Drinkable Yogurts To Take Off In The United States, Phillip Tong

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Culturally Speaking: You Don't Know Beans About Cottage Cheese, Phillip Tong Dec 2013

Culturally Speaking: You Don't Know Beans About Cottage Cheese, Phillip Tong

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Culturally Speaking: Lactose Intolerance: A Condition As Old As The Stone Age, Phillip Tong Sep 2013

Culturally Speaking: Lactose Intolerance: A Condition As Old As The Stone Age, Phillip Tong

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Leatherback Hatchling Fitness, Violet Campbell, Shane Morales, Kelly Stewart Aug 2013

Leatherback Hatchling Fitness, Violet Campbell, Shane Morales, Kelly Stewart

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Leatherback hatchling fitness on land is essential for their success in entering the ocean without being predated. Two ways fitness on land may be measured are by how fast hatchlings crawl as well as how fast their righting responses are when they are flipped onto their carapaces. Hatchlings from certain nests have slower righting response times along with slower crawl times, both of which would increase the odds of predation and hinder the success of hatchlings reaching the ocean.

Hatchling crawling speed was determined by timing 12 randomly selected hatchlings from each nest to crawl a distance of two meters ...


Behavioral Variation Between Two Clades Of Leptasterias Spp., Ashley N. Contreras Aug 2013

Behavioral Variation Between Two Clades Of Leptasterias Spp., Ashley N. Contreras

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Leptasterias spp. are six-rayed sea stars found along the rocky intertidal of the northeast Pacific Alaska to Santa Catalina Island, southern California. In central California, three clades of Leptasterias are found in separate or mixed populations, in diverse habitats that range from shallow pools of seagrass and algae to bare rock exposed to crashing waves. Initial field observations of two clades from different locations suggested that behavioral variation may relate to habitat differences among clades. To measure differences in activity, the righting response was timed at both field sites. As a result of behavioral variation observed in the field, more ...


Temporal Variation In Larval Release In Botrylloides Violaceous, Damion J. Delton, Sarah Cohen Aug 2013

Temporal Variation In Larval Release In Botrylloides Violaceous, Damion J. Delton, Sarah Cohen

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Despite Botrylloides violaceous being a globally invasive species in temperate marine habitats, little is known about it’s natural dispersal behavior. Previous work (Delton et al, 2011) suggests behavioral inferences based on a related and much more commonly studied species may not be appropriate, potentially due to a large size difference between the non-feeding larvae of these two species. Here, we consider factors that may affect dispersal potential. To study how light affects larval release, we measured timing of larval release in the field and compared larval size and time of release. Colonies were collected from floating docks in Richmond ...


Big Babies, Big Mammas?: Relationship Of Leatherback Hatchling Size And Mother Size, Shane Morales, Violet Campbell, Kelly Stewart Aug 2013

Big Babies, Big Mammas?: Relationship Of Leatherback Hatchling Size And Mother Size, Shane Morales, Violet Campbell, Kelly Stewart

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Individual leatherback hatchlings vary in size when compared to individuals from other nests, as well as individuals from the same nest. It is thought that many factors affect hatchling size but that one of the most influential factors is maternal size. Of all the aspects of a mother which could affect hatchling size, evidence for question concerning influence of mother size is determinable within the field using minimal tools and basic statistical analysis. If a direct correlation exists between mother size and hatchling size then the claim can be made that larger mothers produce larger offspring while smaller mothers produce ...


Effect Of Adding Salt During The Diafiltration Step Of Milk Protein Concentrate Powder Manufacture On Mineral And Soluble Protein Composition, Vandna Sikand, Phillip S. Tong, John Walker Jul 2013

Effect Of Adding Salt During The Diafiltration Step Of Milk Protein Concentrate Powder Manufacture On Mineral And Soluble Protein Composition, Vandna Sikand, Phillip S. Tong, John Walker

Dairy Science

Milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders offer a great potential for use in an array of food applications because of their nutritional and functional values. However, MPC powders with protein content ≥80% (MPC80) exhibit poor solubility and hence restrict their potential use. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of adding salt during the diafiltration stage of MPC80 manufacture on solubility, turbidity, and to compare minerals and protein content of supernatants of ultracentrifuged samples with control sample. Three types of samples were produced: MPC80-C (control) with or without salt treatment, MPC80-Na (150 mM NaCl), and MPC80-K (150 mM ...


Milk Fat Globule Membrane Isolated From Buttermilk Or Whey Cream And Their Lipid Components Inhibit Infectivity Of Rotavirus In Vitro, K. L. Fuller, T. B. Kuhlenschmidt, M. S. Kuhlenschmidt, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, S M. Donovan Jun 2013

Milk Fat Globule Membrane Isolated From Buttermilk Or Whey Cream And Their Lipid Components Inhibit Infectivity Of Rotavirus In Vitro, K. L. Fuller, T. B. Kuhlenschmidt, M. S. Kuhlenschmidt, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, S M. Donovan

Dairy Science

Milk fat is encapsulated in a milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) that contains bioactive glycoproteins and glycolipids. The MFGM inhibits infectivity of rotavirus (RV), activity that has been attributed to its glycoprotein and carbohydrate components. However, previous studies of proteins and oligosaccharides in the MGFM have not accounted for all the bioactivity associated with the complete MFGM. The lipid fraction of the MFGM accounts for half of its composition by weight, and we postulate that this fraction should be tested by itself to determine if it plays a role in antiviral activity. Herein, the anti-RV activity of an organic extract ...


Culturally Speaking: Options For Making Greek Yogurt, Phillip Tong May 2013

Culturally Speaking: Options For Making Greek Yogurt, Phillip Tong

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Rna Sequencing To Study Gene Expression And Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Variation Associated With Citrate Content In Cow Milk, A. Cánovas, G. Rincón, A. Islas-Trejo, R. Jiménez-Flores, A. Laubscher, J. F. Medrano Apr 2013

Rna Sequencing To Study Gene Expression And Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Variation Associated With Citrate Content In Cow Milk, A. Cánovas, G. Rincón, A. Islas-Trejo, R. Jiménez-Flores, A. Laubscher, J. F. Medrano

Dairy Science

The technological properties of milk have significant importance for the dairy industry. Citrate, a normal constituent of milk, forms one of the main buffer systems that regulate the equilibrium between Ca2+ and H+ ions. Higher-than-normal citrate content is associated with poor coagulation properties of milk. To identify the genes responsible for the variation of citrate content in milk in dairy cattle, the metabolic steps involved in citrate and fatty acid synthesis pathways in ruminant mammary tissue using RNA sequencing were studied. Genetic markers that could influence milk citrate content in Holstein cows were used in a marker-trait association study to ...


Effects Of Addition Of Somatic Cells To Caprine Milk On Cheese Quality, D. Sánchez-Macías, A. Morales-Delanuez, A. Torres, L. E. Hernández-Castellano, R. Jiménez-Flores, N Castro, A. Argüello Apr 2013

Effects Of Addition Of Somatic Cells To Caprine Milk On Cheese Quality, D. Sánchez-Macías, A. Morales-Delanuez, A. Torres, L. E. Hernández-Castellano, R. Jiménez-Flores, N Castro, A. Argüello

Dairy Science

Milk quality criteria and limits for somatic cell count (SCC) established in many countries make it difficult to maintain SCC of bulk tank goat milk below the threshold, due to non-infection factors linked to goat physiology. The aim of this study was to objectively verify the effects of SCC on fresh caprine milk cheese. Somatic cells were recovered from pooled healthy goat milk, and added to low SCC raw or pasteurised goat milk. Miniature cheeses were made and evaluated after 1 and 7 d. Somatic cells had a major effect on lipolysis, increasing free fatty acids regardless of whether milk ...


Culturally Speaking: Deliver The Full Benefits Of Cultures, Phillip Tong Feb 2013

Culturally Speaking: Deliver The Full Benefits Of Cultures, Phillip Tong

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


How Cultured Dairy Products Can Have A Long Shelf Life And A Clean Label, Phillip S. Tong Dec 2012

How Cultured Dairy Products Can Have A Long Shelf Life And A Clean Label, Phillip S. Tong

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Dietary Fat Composition Influences Tissue Lipid Profile And Gene Expression In Fischer-344 Rats, Albert L. Zhou, Korry J. Hintze, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Robert E. Ward Dec 2012

Dietary Fat Composition Influences Tissue Lipid Profile And Gene Expression In Fischer-344 Rats, Albert L. Zhou, Korry J. Hintze, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Robert E. Ward

Dairy Science

The AIN-76A diet causes fatty liver in rodents when fed for long periods of time. The aimof this study was to utilize fatty acid analysis and transcriptomics to investigate the effects of different fat sources in the AIN-76A diet on tissue lipid profiles and gene expression in male, weanling Fischer-344 rats. Animals were fed isocaloric diets that differed only in the fat source: (1) corn oil (CO) (2) anhydrous milk fat (AMF), and (3) AMF supplemented with 10 % phospholipids from the milk fat globule membrane (AMFMFGM). There were no differences in food intake, body weight, growth rate, or body fat ...


Production Of Highly Concentrated, Heat-Stable Hepatitis B Surface Antigen In Maize, Celine A. Hayden, Erin M. Egelkrout, Alessa M. Moscoso, Cristina Enrique, Todd K. Keener, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Jeffrey C. Wong, John A. Howard Oct 2012

Production Of Highly Concentrated, Heat-Stable Hepatitis B Surface Antigen In Maize, Celine A. Hayden, Erin M. Egelkrout, Alessa M. Moscoso, Cristina Enrique, Todd K. Keener, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Jeffrey C. Wong, John A. Howard

Dairy Science

Plant-based oral vaccines are a promising emergent technology that could help alleviate disease burden worldwide by providing a low-cost, heat-stable, oral alternative to parenterally administered commercial vaccines. Here, we describe high-level accumulation of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) at a mean concentration of 0.51%TSP in maize T1 seeds using an improved version of the globulin1 promoter. This concentration is more than fourfold higher than any previously reported lines. HBsAg expressed in maize seeds was extremely heat stable, tolerating temperatures up to 55 °C for 1 month without degradation. Optimal heat stability was achieved after oil extraction of ...


Cultures And Stabilizers In Cultured Dairy Foods, Phillip S. Tong Sep 2012

Cultures And Stabilizers In Cultured Dairy Foods, Phillip S. Tong

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Developing Monitoring Methods For Leptasterias Spp. As Sentinel Species In Detecting Local Environmental Changes, Zachary Sturbaum, Kathryn Nuessly, Riley J. Smith, C. Sarah Cohen Aug 2012

Developing Monitoring Methods For Leptasterias Spp. As Sentinel Species In Detecting Local Environmental Changes, Zachary Sturbaum, Kathryn Nuessly, Riley J. Smith, C. Sarah Cohen

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Leptasterias spp., a six-rayed sea star, is found in rocky intertidal habitats ranging from Alaska to central California. Leptasterias spp. can be monitored on a broad scale throughout their range by a variety of means using timed counts and random plot censusing in order to detect both large-scale and local-level changes in the environment due to climate change, land-based human activity, or other environmental events. Leptasterias brood their young externally until the embryos grow into fully developed juveniles. These juveniles disperse by crawling away, limiting their dispersal potential. This localized dispersal provides an opportunity to use Leptasterias spp. as sentinel ...