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Effects Of Varying Doses Of Oral Bisphenol A Consumption On Type 2 Diabetes Risk Markers In Healthy Adults, Todd Hagobian, Alyssa Bird, Sean Stanelle, Dana Williams, Andrew Schaffner, Suzanne Phelan Jan 2018

Effects Of Varying Doses Of Oral Bisphenol A Consumption On Type 2 Diabetes Risk Markers In Healthy Adults, Todd Hagobian, Alyssa Bird, Sean Stanelle, Dana Williams, Andrew Schaffner, Suzanne Phelan

Kinesiology

In animals, oral consumption of bisphenol A (BPA) alters diabetes risk markers but studies in humans are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of varying doses of oral BPA consumption on diabetes risk markers. Eleven healthy, college students (21.0 ± 0.8 yrs; 24.2 ± 3.9 kg/m2) were randomized in a double-blinded, cross-over fashion separated by >1 week to oral consumption of Placebo (PL), deuterated BPA at 4 mg/kg-BW (BPA-4), and deuterated BPA at 50 mg/kg-BW (BPA-50). Total BPA, glucose, insulin, C-Peptide, and other risk markers were assessed at baseline, minutes ...


Developmental Trajectories Of Bottle-Feeding During Infancy And Their Association With Weight Gain, Alison K. Ventura Mar 2017

Developmental Trajectories Of Bottle-Feeding During Infancy And Their Association With Weight Gain, Alison K. Ventura

Kinesiology

Objective: To describe patterns of bottle-feeding across the first year postpartum and explore whether bottle-feeding trajectories are differentially associated with infant weight gain.

Method: Data came from 1291 mothers who participated in the Infant Feeding Practices Study 2. Mothers completed a prenatal questionnaire and monthly surveys of infant feeding and growth between birth and 12 months. Group-based trajectory mixture modeling was used to describe developmental trajectories of bottle-feeding intensities across the first year. Growth curve modeling was used to explore associations between bottle-feeding intensity trajectory group membership and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) trajectories from birth to 12 months.

Results: Four qualitatively ...


Randomized Intervention Trial To Decrease Bisphenol A Urine Concentrations In Women: Pilot Study, Hagobian Todd Ph.D., Allison Smouse, Mikaela Streeter, Chole Wurst, Andrew Schaffner, Suzanne Phelan Feb 2017

Randomized Intervention Trial To Decrease Bisphenol A Urine Concentrations In Women: Pilot Study, Hagobian Todd Ph.D., Allison Smouse, Mikaela Streeter, Chole Wurst, Andrew Schaffner, Suzanne Phelan

Kinesiology

In today's uncertain market and continuously evolving technology, managing manufacturing systems are more complex than ever. This paper studies the dynamics of managing variety and volume to enhance value creation in manufacturers implementing system level advanced and automated manufacturing technology (AAM1). The demand is composed of heterogeneous customers who make purchasing decisions depending on the variety levels and lead times of the firm's product offerings. The cost structure adopted calculates profit as the difference between customer value creation rate (VCR) and costs associated with the process of creating this value. Reported results contribute to the variety and volume ...


An Experimental Approach To Study Individual Differences In Infants' Intake And Satiation Behaviors During Bottle-Feeding, Alison K. Ventura, Julie A. Mennella Feb 2017

An Experimental Approach To Study Individual Differences In Infants' Intake And Satiation Behaviors During Bottle-Feeding, Alison K. Ventura, Julie A. Mennella

Kinesiology

Background: As a group, bottle-fed infants are at higher risk for rapid weight gain compared with breast-fed infants. However, little is known about individual differences in feeding behaviors of bottle-feeding infants, as well as maternal and infant characteristics associated with bottle-feeding outcomes.

Methods: We conducted a 2-day, within-subject study of 21 formula-feeding dyads; the within-subject factor was feeding condition: mother-led (ML; mothers were given the instruction to feed their infants as they typically would) vs. infant-led (IL; the experimenter ensured feeding began when infants signaled hunger and ended when they rejected the bottle on three consecutive occasions). Intake was determined ...


Barriers To Physical Activity And Healthy Eating In Children As Perceived By Low-Income Parents: A Case Study, David W. Hey, Kristina M. Kelly, Stephanie Teaford, Ann Yelmokas Mcdermott May 2015

Barriers To Physical Activity And Healthy Eating In Children As Perceived By Low-Income Parents: A Case Study, David W. Hey, Kristina M. Kelly, Stephanie Teaford, Ann Yelmokas Mcdermott

Kinesiology

During the past three decades the prevalence of childhood obesity has steadily increased in the United States. Causes of childhood obesity are complex and include numerous individual and environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to determine parent perceptions on the social-ecological barriers (community, school, and family) to physical activity and healthy eating, perceived specific to their children. Self-reported data gathered from a 50-item questionnaire and six focus groups were conducted with parents (n=43) enrolled in the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program. Participants (16 to 67 years old) were predominately female (88.4%), Hispanic (67%), low income ...


Spatial Clustering Of Physical Activity And Obesity In Relation To Built Environment Factors Among Older Women In Three U.S. States, Kosuke Tamura, Robin C. Puett, Jaime E. Hart, Heather A. Starnes, Francine Laden, Philip J. Troped Dec 2014

Spatial Clustering Of Physical Activity And Obesity In Relation To Built Environment Factors Among Older Women In Three U.S. States, Kosuke Tamura, Robin C. Puett, Jaime E. Hart, Heather A. Starnes, Francine Laden, Philip J. Troped

Kinesiology

Background

Identifying spatial clusters of chronic diseases has been conducted over the past several decades. More recently these approaches have been applied to physical activity and obesity. However, few studies have investigated built environment characteristics in relation to these spatial clusters. This study’s aims were to detect spatial clusters of physical activity and obesity, examine whether the geographic distribution of covariates affects clusters, and compare built environment characteristics inside and outside clusters.

Methods

In 2004, Nurses’ Health Study participants from California, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania completed survey items on physical activity (N = 22,599) and weight-status (N = 19,448). The ...


Factorial Validity Of An Abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale For Seniors In The Nurses’ Health Study, Heather A. Starnes, Meghan H. Mcdonough, Kosuke Tamura, Peter James, Francine Laden, Philip J. Troped Oct 2014

Factorial Validity Of An Abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale For Seniors In The Nurses’ Health Study, Heather A. Starnes, Meghan H. Mcdonough, Kosuke Tamura, Peter James, Francine Laden, Philip J. Troped

Kinesiology

Background

Using validated measures of individuals’ perceptions of their neighborhood built environment is important for accurately estimating effects on physical activity. However, no studies to date have examined the factorial validity of a measure of perceived neighborhood environment among older adults in the United States. The purpose of this measurement study was to test the factorial validity of a version of the Abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS-A) modified for seniors in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS).

Findings

A random sample of 2,920 female nurses (mean age = 73 ± 7 years) in the NHS cohort from California, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania ...


Learning Design Through The Lens Of Service: A Qualitative Study, David W. Hey, Lynne A. Slivovsky, Brian P. Self, James Widmann, J. Kevin Taylor Apr 2014

Learning Design Through The Lens Of Service: A Qualitative Study, David W. Hey, Lynne A. Slivovsky, Brian P. Self, James Widmann, J. Kevin Taylor

Kinesiology

Twenty-four senior-level capstone engineering design projects were completed at a large, public, primarily undergraduate university involving 85 students (70 male and 15 female). All projects involved the design of equipment to facilitate physical activity for people with disabilities. The effects on: i) learning design, ii) attitude towards people with disabilities, iii) motivation to complete team design projects and iv) interdisciplinary collaboration were analyzed through 24 one-hour focus groups. We explored the student experience using a constructivist approach and grounded theory. Four major themes (with associated sub-themes) emerged from our data analysis: learning design (project management, iterative design process, and user-centered ...


Relationships Between The Built Environment And Walking And Weight Status Among Older Women In Three U.S. States, Philip J. Troped, Heather A. Starnes, Robin C. Puett, Kosuke Tamura, Ellen K. Cromley, Peter James, Eran Ben-Joseph, Steven J. Melly, Francine Laden Jan 2014

Relationships Between The Built Environment And Walking And Weight Status Among Older Women In Three U.S. States, Philip J. Troped, Heather A. Starnes, Robin C. Puett, Kosuke Tamura, Ellen K. Cromley, Peter James, Eran Ben-Joseph, Steven J. Melly, Francine Laden

Kinesiology

There are few studies of built environment associations with physical activity and weight status among older women in large geographic areas that use individual residential buffers to define environmental exposures. Among 23,434 women (70.0±6.9 years; range = 57-85) in 3 states, relationships between objective built environment variables and meeting physical activity recommendations via walking and weight status were examined. Differences in associations by population density and state were explored in stratified models. Population density (odds ratio (OR)=1.04 [1.02,1.07]), intersection density (ORs=1.18-1.28), and facility density (ORs=1.01-1.53) were ...


School Gardens, David W. Hey Sep 2013

School Gardens, David W. Hey

Kinesiology

School gardens can have great promise as they can positively impact children's food choices by improving their preferences for vegetables, increasing their nutrition knowledge, and prevent nutritionally related diseases (i.e., diabetes and obesity). In their natural state, fruits and vegetables have high water and fiber content and are low in calories and energy density. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that the use of a garden as part of an outdoor environmental studies program can have a beneficial impact on performance of standardized achievement tests, as well as attention and enthusiasm for learning in school children.

In June of ...


Promoting Weight Loss Before Pregnancy: Feasible Or Futile?, Suzanne Phelan, Todd Hagobian, Anna Brannen, Ana Stewart, Brianna Schmid, Leonard Cedars Sep 2013

Promoting Weight Loss Before Pregnancy: Feasible Or Futile?, Suzanne Phelan, Todd Hagobian, Anna Brannen, Ana Stewart, Brianna Schmid, Leonard Cedars

Kinesiology

Pre-pregnancy obesity is a well-established risk factor for several adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, including gestational diabetes, hypertension, cesarean sections, and fetal macrosomia. Weight loss before pregnancy could help prevent such complications, but the feasibility of such an approach remains unknown. The current study examined the feasibility of a 3-month pre-pregnancy behavioral weight loss program in 12 overweight/obese women planning pregnancy. The 3 month program resulted in an average 5.4 ± 3.0 kg weight loss and significant improvements in self-monitoring, physical activity, eating and exercise self-efficacy, and healthy eating (p < 0.04). By the end of the 9 month follow-up, half of sample (n = 6) had conceived. Women reported significant increases in weekly or more frequent self-weighing (p < 0.0001), counting calories (p < 0.001), consuming fruit and vegetables (p = 0.007), and cutting out fat (p = 0.0001) and junk foods (p = 0.002). A lifestyle modification program to promote weight loss before pregnancy promoted clinically significant weight loss and appeared feasible.


Residential Summer Camp: A New Venue For Nutrition Education And Physical Activity Promotion, Alison K. Ventura, Barry A. Garst May 2013

Residential Summer Camp: A New Venue For Nutrition Education And Physical Activity Promotion, Alison K. Ventura, Barry A. Garst

Kinesiology

Background

Millions of children attend residential summer camps each year. However, few studies have examined the potential of camps for obesity prevention efforts. Research in the domain of positive youth development has shown that camp programs as short as one week have both short- and long-term positive effects on self-esteem, self-efficacy and other youth outcomes. The objective of the present study was to highlight the potential of resident camps as promising venues for the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity behaviors in the children who attend.

Methods

Data for this study came from the American Camp Association 2007 Emerging ...


Early Influences On The Development Of Food Preferences, Alison K. Ventura, John Worobey May 2013

Early Influences On The Development Of Food Preferences, Alison K. Ventura, John Worobey

Kinesiology

The ability to perceive flavors begins in utero with the development and early functioning of the gustatory and olfactory systems. Because both amniotic fluid and breast milk contain molecules derived from the mother’s diet, learning about flavors in foods begins in the womb and during early infancy. This early experience serves as the foundation for the continuing development of food preferences across the lifespan, and is shaped by the interplay of biological, social, and environmental factors. Shortly after birth, young infants show characteristic taste preferences: sweet and umami elicit positive responses; bitter and sour elicit negative responses. These taste ...


Lifestyle Interventions To Reduce Obesity And Diabetes, Todd Alan Hagobian, Suzanne Phelan Mar 2013

Lifestyle Interventions To Reduce Obesity And Diabetes, Todd Alan Hagobian, Suzanne Phelan

Kinesiology

The majority of US adults are overweight or obese, which is a primary risk factor for type 2 diabetes and other chronic diseases. Recent advances in behavioral treatment of obesity have produced significant short- and longterm weight losses that reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This article reviews key components of effective behavioral treatment interventions, including diet, exercise, and behavioral and psychosocial strategies. The authors review newer treatment modalities that may enhance dissemination (Internet, smartphone) and discuss applications to clinical practice. Practitioners face multiple barriers to effectively delivering lifestyle interventions in today’s health care setting ...


Race, Sexual Orientation And Gender Identity/Expression In Athletics, Nevin Caple, Jillian Ross, Camille O'Bryant, Lea Robinson, Alpha Alexander, Yolanda Jackson, Dora Dome Jan 2013

Race, Sexual Orientation And Gender Identity/Expression In Athletics, Nevin Caple, Jillian Ross, Camille O'Bryant, Lea Robinson, Alpha Alexander, Yolanda Jackson, Dora Dome

Kinesiology

No abstract provided.


Free Amino Acid Content In Infant Formulas, Alison K. Ventura, Ana San Gabriel, Mariko Hirota, Julie A. Mennella Aug 2012

Free Amino Acid Content In Infant Formulas, Alison K. Ventura, Ana San Gabriel, Mariko Hirota, Julie A. Mennella

Kinesiology

Purpose

– Infant formula is the sole nutrition and food source for many infants. Information on the free amino acid (FAA) content of formulas, particularly those that are protein hydrolysate based, is limited, despite emerging evidence for the role of FAAs in regulating eating behaviour. The purpose of this paper is to measure levels of essential, semi‐essential, and nonessential FAAs in commercially available infant formulas to provide a foundation for future research examining the influence of FAAs on infant development.

Design/methodology/approach

– Using an automatic amino acid analyzer, we measured the concentrations of FAAs in four types of formula ...


Parental Diet And Risk Of Retinoblastoma Resulting From New Germline Rb1 Mutation, Greta R. Bunin, Marilyn Tseng, Yimei Li, Anna T. Meadows, Arupa Ganguly Jul 2012

Parental Diet And Risk Of Retinoblastoma Resulting From New Germline Rb1 Mutation, Greta R. Bunin, Marilyn Tseng, Yimei Li, Anna T. Meadows, Arupa Ganguly

Kinesiology

We conducted a case–control study of sporadic bilateral retinoblastoma, which results from a new germline RB1 mutation, to investigate the role of parents' diet before their child's conception. Parents of 206 cases from nine North American institutions and 269 controls participated; of these, fathers of 184 cases and 223 controls and mothers of 204 cases and 260 controls answered a food frequency questionnaire administered by phone about their diet in the year before the child's conception. Cases provided DNA for RB1 mutation testing. We assessed parents' diet by examining 19 food groups. Father's intake of dairy ...


Socio-Economic Position And Lower Dietary Moderation Among Chinese Immigrant Women In The Usa, Marilyn Tseng, Carolyn Y. Fang Mar 2012

Socio-Economic Position And Lower Dietary Moderation Among Chinese Immigrant Women In The Usa, Marilyn Tseng, Carolyn Y. Fang

Kinesiology

Objective: To examine associations of education and occupation, as indicators of socio-economic position (SEP), with dietary intake and diet quality in a sample of Chinese immigrant women.

Design: Cross-sectional. Data collection included four days of dietary recalls and information on education and current occupation for participants and their spouses.

Setting: Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Subjects: Chinese immigrant women (n 423) recruited from October 2005 to April 2008.

Results: In multivariate models, both higher education level and occupation category were significantly associated with higher energy density and intake of energy and sugar. Education was additionally associated with intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (P ...


Effects Of Chainring Type (Circular Vs. Rotor Q-Ring) On 1km Time Trial Performance Over Six Weeks In Competitive Cyclists And Triathletes, Christiane R. O'Hara, Robert D. Clark, Todd A. Hagobian, Karen Mcgaughey Mar 2012

Effects Of Chainring Type (Circular Vs. Rotor Q-Ring) On 1km Time Trial Performance Over Six Weeks In Competitive Cyclists And Triathletes, Christiane R. O'Hara, Robert D. Clark, Todd A. Hagobian, Karen Mcgaughey

Kinesiology

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of chainring type (circular vs. the non- circular Rotor Q-Ring) on performance during a 1km time trial and physiological responses over a six week period. Eight competitive male cyclists and triathletes were pre-tested using the original circular chainring. Graded submaximal exercise tests were followed by the 1km time trial with subjects using their own racing bicycle. The circular chainrings were then removed and replaced with Rotor Q-Rings during the intervention period. Subjects trained and raced with this alteration to their bicycles and repeated the submaximal and 1km performance tests for ...


A Behavioral Weight Gain Intervention In Pregnancy: A Cost-Benefit Analysis, Keenan Yanit, Suzanne Phelan, Rachel A. Pilliod, Katherine A. Volpe, Aaron B. Caughey Jan 2012

A Behavioral Weight Gain Intervention In Pregnancy: A Cost-Benefit Analysis, Keenan Yanit, Suzanne Phelan, Rachel A. Pilliod, Katherine A. Volpe, Aaron B. Caughey

Kinesiology

OBJECTIVE: Prior studies have demonstrated that behavioral interventions during pregnancy could prevent excessive gestational weight gain. This study investigates the cost of such interventions, taking into account the costs and benefits associated with outcomes of gestational weight gain according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) weight gain recommendations.

STUDY DESIGN: A decision analytic model was built using TreeAge software that compared routine prenatal care vs. routine prenatal care plus a behavioral intervention to prevent excessive gestational weight gain in the 1,528,000 normal weight women who are pregnant each year in the U.S. The Fit for Delivery ...


The Economic Impact Of Gestational Weight Gain According To Iom Guidelines, Keenan Yanit, Suzanne Phelan, Rachel A. Pilliod, Katherine A. Volpe, Aaron B. Caughey Jan 2012

The Economic Impact Of Gestational Weight Gain According To Iom Guidelines, Keenan Yanit, Suzanne Phelan, Rachel A. Pilliod, Katherine A. Volpe, Aaron B. Caughey

Kinesiology

OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate the costs and outcomes associated with keeping gestational weight gain within the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations.

STUDY DESIGN: A decision analytic model was built using TreeAge software that compared the cost of gestational weight gain categorized by staying within versus exceeding the IOM guidelines in normal weight and obese women. We assumed the obesity prevalence from the most recent data in 2008 and applied to the estimated 4,000,000 million births per year. Outcomes included: gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, macrosomia (>4500g), small-forgestational age, postterm delivery, cesarean delivery, postpartum weight retention, and child obesity ...


Perceived Built Environment And Physical Activity In U.S. Women By Sprawl And Region, Philip J. Troped, Kosuke Tamura, Heather A. Whitcomb, Francine Laden Nov 2011

Perceived Built Environment And Physical Activity In U.S. Women By Sprawl And Region, Philip J. Troped, Kosuke Tamura, Heather A. Whitcomb, Francine Laden

Kinesiology

Background

A number of studies have demonstrated relationships between the perceived built environment and physical activity among adults. However, little is known about whether these associations differ by U.S. region and level of urban sprawl.

Purpose

To examine associations between the perceived built environment and physical activity in U.S. women by region and urban sprawl.

Methods

Nurses' Health Study II participants (N=68,968) completed four perceived neighborhood environment survey items in 2005. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations with meeting physical activity recommendations, adjusting for demographic and weight-status variables, and stratifying by region and sprawl. Data ...


Eating Frequency Is Higher In Weight Loss Maintainers And Normal-Weight Individuals Than In Overweight Individuals, Jessica L. Bachman, Suzanne Phelan, Rena R. Wing, Hollie A. Raynor Nov 2011

Eating Frequency Is Higher In Weight Loss Maintainers And Normal-Weight Individuals Than In Overweight Individuals, Jessica L. Bachman, Suzanne Phelan, Rena R. Wing, Hollie A. Raynor

Kinesiology

Eating frequency has been negatively related to body mass index (BMI). The relationship between eating frequency and weight loss maintenance is unknown. This secondary analysis examined eating frequency (self-reported meals and snacks consumed per day) in weight loss maintainers (WLM) who had reduced from overweight/obese to normal weight, normal weight (NW) individuals, and overweight (OW) individuals. Data collected July 2006 to March 2007 in Providence, RI, included three 24-hour dietary recalls (2 weekdays, 1 weekend day) analyzed using Nutrient Data System for Research software from 257 adults (WLM n=96, 83.3% women aged 50.0±11.8 years ...


Trails And Physical Activity: A Review, Heather A. Starnes, Philip J. Troped, David B. Klenosky, Angela M. Doehring Nov 2011

Trails And Physical Activity: A Review, Heather A. Starnes, Philip J. Troped, David B. Klenosky, Angela M. Doehring

Kinesiology

To provide a synthesis of research on trails and physical activity from the public health, leisure sciences, urban planning, and transportation literatures. Methods: A search of databases was conducted to identify studies published between 1980 and 2008. Results: 52 studies were identified. The majority were cross-sectional (92*%) and published after 1999 (11%). The evidence for the effects of trails on physical activity was mixed among 3 intervention and 5 correlational studies. Correlates of trail use were examined in 13 studies. Several demographic (eg, race, education, income) and environmental factors (eg, land-use mix and distance to trail) were related to trail ...


Capstone Experiences: Effects Of Adapted Physical Activity Design Projects On Attitudes And Learning, David W. Hey, Bridie Jean Mccarey, Lynne A. Slivovsky, J. Kevin Taylor, Brian Self, James Widmann Oct 2011

Capstone Experiences: Effects Of Adapted Physical Activity Design Projects On Attitudes And Learning, David W. Hey, Bridie Jean Mccarey, Lynne A. Slivovsky, J. Kevin Taylor, Brian Self, James Widmann

Kinesiology

Eight innovative senior level capstone engineering projects were completed at California Polytechnic State University (2008-present) involving (n=28) students (23 male/5 female). All projects involved the design of equipment to facilitate physical activity for people with disabilities. The effects on: i) learning design, ii) attitude towards people with disabilities, and iii) motivation to complete team design projects were analyzed through eight one-hour focus groups. This paper presents focus group findings using a constructivist approach and grounded theory to explore the overall student “learn by doing” experience. Results: (1) Approximately 19 (70%) of the students claimed the adapted physical activity ...


Diabetes Prevalence Is Associated With Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D And 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D In Us Middle-Aged Caucasian Men And Women: A Cross-Sectional Analysis Within The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal And Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, Kaye E. Brock, Wen-Yi Huang, David R. Fraser, Liang Ke, Marilyn Tseng, Rebecca S. Mason, Rachael Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon, D. Michal Freedman, Jiyoung Ahn, Ulrike Peters, Catherine Mccarty, Bruce W. Hollis, Regina G. Ziegler, Mark P. Purdue, Barry I. Graubard Aug 2011

Diabetes Prevalence Is Associated With Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D And 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D In Us Middle-Aged Caucasian Men And Women: A Cross-Sectional Analysis Within The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal And Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, Kaye E. Brock, Wen-Yi Huang, David R. Fraser, Liang Ke, Marilyn Tseng, Rebecca S. Mason, Rachael Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon, D. Michal Freedman, Jiyoung Ahn, Ulrike Peters, Catherine Mccarty, Bruce W. Hollis, Regina G. Ziegler, Mark P. Purdue, Barry I. Graubard

Kinesiology

Hypovitaminosis D may be associated with diabetes, hypertension and CHD. However, because studies examining the associations of all three chronic conditions with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(0H)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(0H)2D) are limited, we examined these associations in the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial (n 2465). Caucasian PLCO participants selected as controls in previous nested case-control studies of 25(0H)D and 1,25(0H)2D were included in this analysis. Diabetes, CHD and hypertension prevalence, risk factors for these conditions and intake of vitamin D and Ca ...


Innate And Learned Preferences For Sweet Taste During Childhood, Alison K. Ventura, Julie A. Mennella Jul 2011

Innate And Learned Preferences For Sweet Taste During Childhood, Alison K. Ventura, Julie A. Mennella

Kinesiology

Purpose of review: In nature, carbohydrates are a source of energy often equated with sweetness, the detection of which is associated with powerful hedonic appeal. Intakes of processed carbohydrates in the form of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages have risen consistently among all age groups over the last two decades. In this review, we describe the biological underpinnings that drive the consumption of sweet-tasting foods among pediatric populations.

Recent findings: Scientific literature suggests that children's liking for all that is sweet is not solely a product of modern-day technology and advertising but reflects their basic biology. In fact, heightened ...


Physical Activity Patterns Using Accelerometry In The National Weight Control Registry, Victoria A. Catenacci, Gary K. Grunwald, Jan P. Ingebrigtsen, John M. Jakicic, Michael D. Mcdermott, Suzanne Phelan, Rena R. Wing, James O. Hill, Holly R. Wyatt Jun 2011

Physical Activity Patterns Using Accelerometry In The National Weight Control Registry, Victoria A. Catenacci, Gary K. Grunwald, Jan P. Ingebrigtsen, John M. Jakicic, Michael D. Mcdermott, Suzanne Phelan, Rena R. Wing, James O. Hill, Holly R. Wyatt

Kinesiology

The National Weight Control Registry (NWCR) was established in 1993 to examine characteristics of successful weight-loss maintainers. This group consistently self-reports high levels of physical activity. The aims of this study were to obtain objective assessments of physical activity in NWCR subjects and compare this to physical activity in both normal-weight and overweight controls. Individuals from the NWCR (n = 26) were compared to a never‑obese normal-weight control group matched to the NWCR group’s current BMI (n = 30), and an overweight control group matched to the NWCR group’s self-reported pre-weight-loss BMI (n = 34). Objective assessment of physical activity ...


Practitioner Advice And Gestational Weight Gain, Suzanne Phelan, Maureen G. Phipps, Barbara Abrams, Francine Darroch, Andrew Schaffner, Rena R. Wing Apr 2011

Practitioner Advice And Gestational Weight Gain, Suzanne Phelan, Maureen G. Phipps, Barbara Abrams, Francine Darroch, Andrew Schaffner, Rena R. Wing

Kinesiology

Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate receipt of gestational weight gain advice in prenatal care and ideal and expected gestational weight gain outcomes for normal weight and overweight/obese women.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of normal weight (n=203) and overweight/obese (n=198) women in early (<16 >weeks) pregnancy.

Results: Less than half of participants (41.7%) reported receiving weight gain advice from a practitioner. In multivariate models, pregravid weight status was not significantly related to receiving advice. However, women with lower income (odds ratio [OR] 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-0.77 ...


Dietary Energy Density And Successful Weight Loss Maintenance, Hollie A. Raynor, Emily L. Walleghen, Jessica L. Bachman, Shannon M. Looney, Suzanne Phelan, Rena R. Wing Apr 2011

Dietary Energy Density And Successful Weight Loss Maintenance, Hollie A. Raynor, Emily L. Walleghen, Jessica L. Bachman, Shannon M. Looney, Suzanne Phelan, Rena R. Wing

Kinesiology

Research shows a positive relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and body mass index (BMI), but dietary ED of weight loss maintainers is unknown. This preliminary investigation was a secondary data analysis that compared self-reported dietary ED and food group servings consumed in overweight adults (OW: BMI=27–45 kg/m2), normal weight adults (NW: BMI=19–24.9 kg/m2), and weight loss maintainers (WLM: current BMI=19–24.9 kg/m2 [lost≥10% of maximum body weight and maintained loss for ≥5 years]) participating in 2 studies, with data collected from July 2006 to March 2007. Three 24-h ...