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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Scale-Invariant Geometric Data Analysis (Sigda), Marina Girgis, Max Robinson Aug 2018

Scale-Invariant Geometric Data Analysis (Sigda), Marina Girgis, Max Robinson

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The purpose of this research is to introduce a new data analysis method called Scale Invariant Geometric Data Analysis (SIGDA). SIGDA has been shown to be more informative than more common data analysis methods, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA). SIGDA is used to visualize complex data sets in a way that accurately preserves data patterns and behavior. SIGDA is designed to preserve relative ratios in a numerical matrix, and the number of entries has to be more than the total number of rows and columns. Our research involved providing a simple explanation of SIGDA's mathematical process—simple enough ...


Optimization Of A Genomic Editing System Using Crispr/Cas9-Induced Site-Specific Gene Integration, Jillian L. Mccool Ms., Nick Hum, Gabriela G. Loots Aug 2016

Optimization Of A Genomic Editing System Using Crispr/Cas9-Induced Site-Specific Gene Integration, Jillian L. Mccool Ms., Nick Hum, Gabriela G. Loots

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The CRISPR-Cas system is an adaptive immune system found in bacteria which helps protect against the invasion of other microorganisms. This system induces double stranded breaks at precise genomic loci (1) in which repairs are initiated and insertions of a target are completed in the process. This mechanism can be used in eukaryotic cells in combination with sgRNAs (1) as a tool for genome editing. By using this CRISPR-Cas system, in addition to the “safe harbor locus,” ROSAβ26, the incorporation of a target gene into a site that is not susceptible to gene silencing effects can be achieved through few ...


Data Development And Analysis Pathways For Marine Mammals And Turtles: Creating A User Interface, Sarina Fernandez, Warren Asfazadour, Eric Archer, Lisa Komoroske Aug 2016

Data Development And Analysis Pathways For Marine Mammals And Turtles: Creating A User Interface, Sarina Fernandez, Warren Asfazadour, Eric Archer, Lisa Komoroske

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

A major obstacle in genetic research is developing streamlined methods for analyzing large amounts of data. The statistical computer programming language R provides users with the ability to develop packages containing specific functions in order to create more accessible data analysis pipelines. However, writing code in R can still be intimidating to those with little to no coding experience. Fortunately, the R package shiny provides a framework for developing web applications based on R functions. Using shiny, we developed a user-friendly web application containing functions of the R package strataG. The strataG package contains several functions for summarizing genetic data ...


Using High Throughput Genomic Sequencing To Predict Ecological Impacts On Sea Turtle Populations, Lesley Anderson Aug 2015

Using High Throughput Genomic Sequencing To Predict Ecological Impacts On Sea Turtle Populations, Lesley Anderson

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Marine turtles are long-lived, migratory vertebrates that encounter a variety of human and natural stressors throughout their lives. Understanding the biology and threats of these animals is challenging because they are hard to observe, and can migrate across whole ocean basins. Minimally invasive sampling techniques (e.g., blood samples) allow us to learn about their physiology, genetics, and the environmental conditions they have experienced. In this project, we developed a novel method to extract the RNA from whole green and loggerhead turtle blood from animals inhabiting a variety of sites across the Pacific Ocean. Some habitats are more pristine, while ...


Characterization Of Putative Wnt3a-Inducible Enhancers, Katelynn C. Lee, Nicholas Hum, Aimy Sebastian, Gabriela Loots Aug 2015

Characterization Of Putative Wnt3a-Inducible Enhancers, Katelynn C. Lee, Nicholas Hum, Aimy Sebastian, Gabriela Loots

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The Wnt signaling pathway has been previously shown to play a major role in regulating bone metabolism and it is emerging as a target for the therapeutic intervention of bone thinning disorders such as osteoporosis. Several Wnt proteins have been shown to be expressed in bone and mutations in Wnt pathway members such as Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and Wnt inhibitor Sost have been shown to be associated with low or high bone mass disorders, however, very little is known about specific roles played by different Wnt ligands in bone development, repair and remodeling. To identify downstream targets of Wnt signaling ...


The Proteomic Response In The Crustacean Molting Gland Of Land Crab Gecarcinus Lateralis In Response To Artificially Induced Molting Throughout Its Molting Cycle., Andrea Reider, Talia B. Head, Lars Tomanek, Donald L. Mykles Jan 2015

The Proteomic Response In The Crustacean Molting Gland Of Land Crab Gecarcinus Lateralis In Response To Artificially Induced Molting Throughout Its Molting Cycle., Andrea Reider, Talia B. Head, Lars Tomanek, Donald L. Mykles

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Molting in crustaceans is a highly complex physiological process involving negative regulation by two paired endocrine glands, the X-organ/sinus gland complex (XO/SG) and the Y-organ (YO). The XO/SG complex is responsible for making molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) which negatively regulates synthesis of molting hormones (ecdysteroids) by the YO. Eyestalk ablation (ESA) removes the source of MIH and provides an experimental means to manipulate and induce molting, although the physiological effects of ESA on the YO have not been fully characterized. Analysis of gene expression in the XOs and YOs has lead to the development of a proposed molecular ...


Estimating Migration Rates Between Populations Of Zostera Marina In The San Francisco Bay, Elizabeth S. Gutierrez Sep 2014

Estimating Migration Rates Between Populations Of Zostera Marina In The San Francisco Bay, Elizabeth S. Gutierrez

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Eelgrass (Zostera marina) is a highly clonal marine angiosperm that can also reproduce sexually through flowering and seed formation. In a previous study, Fst values from six microsatellite loci suggested that a perennial San Francisco Bay subpopulation at Point Molate (Richmond, California) was able to recover from a drastic 2006 die-off through seed recruitment from neighboring eelgrass subpopulations, changing its reproductive strategy from clonal to sexual. Although Fst measures continue to be widely used in population genetics, the assumptions under which they operate are not always appropriate given certain circumstances, such small population sizes and/or asymmetrical migration rates. Our ...


Measuring Radiation Exposure In Human Blood Using Gene Expression, Krystal Naranjo, Melissa Bentley, Harsha Konery, Matthew Coleman Jan 2014

Measuring Radiation Exposure In Human Blood Using Gene Expression, Krystal Naranjo, Melissa Bentley, Harsha Konery, Matthew Coleman

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Mammalian cells are known to express genes that are associated with repairing damaged DNA. The transcript CDKN1A is one of several cell cycle regulator genes expressed in response to cell damage by ionizing radiation (IR). In this study, male and female lymphocytes; previously exposed ex vivo to IR, were used to demonstrate linear gene expression responses that may vary between genders. We used qRT-PCR to generate response curves for CDKN1A. No differences were identified for the endogenous control gene GAPDH. CDKN1A expression demonstrated average fold changes well above three fold for three of the four healthy patient donors at 24 ...


Creating A Package In R, Brit Schneiders, Eric Archer Aug 2013

Creating A Package In R, Brit Schneiders, Eric Archer

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

In a time of increasingly efficient technology and data production, scientists are producing data faster than it can be analyzed. Therefore, user accessibility to data analysis is becoming more and more critical. In general, researchers have a set of raw data and want an efficient means to their final analysis. A package serves as that means by creating a set of functions and making them accessible to the user. Often, a user has a small piece of code to run (a single R script, for example), and that script requires the use of certain functions, which are contained in a ...


Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling For Predicting Caffeine/Theophylline-Ciprofloxacin Interactions, David M. Ng, Ali Navid Aug 2013

Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling For Predicting Caffeine/Theophylline-Ciprofloxacin Interactions, David M. Ng, Ali Navid

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Dynamics of interactions between the drugs caffeine, theophylline, and ciprofloxacin are predicted using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Pharmacokinetic means the model determines where the drugs are distributed in the body over time. Physiologically-based means the anatomy and physiology of the human body are reflected in the structure and functioning of the model. Multiple drugs can interact to increase or decrease their beneficial and/or undesired effects. This is important because some common substances, such as caffeine in coffee, soft drinks, and energy drinks, are actually drugs that affect the body. Ciprofloxacin is an inhibitor of caffeine and theophylline metabolism; such ...


Identifying Molecular Markers Associated With Salt And Boron Tolerance In Poplar Trees, Darshanpreet Gill, Nathan Follen, Davis W. Cheng, Kyan Salehi, Gary Banuelos, James P. Prince Aug 2013

Identifying Molecular Markers Associated With Salt And Boron Tolerance In Poplar Trees, Darshanpreet Gill, Nathan Follen, Davis W. Cheng, Kyan Salehi, Gary Banuelos, James P. Prince

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Standard irrigation practices promote salt and boron accumulation in soils on the Westside of Central California. The build-up of these inorganic salts leads to the degradation of arable land and reduction of crop production. Different clones of poplar trees have been shown to grow in salt- and boron-contaminated soils, and in doing so, gradually remove significant amounts of these inorganic salts from the soil. In an effort to identify molecular markers linked with salt and boron tolerance in poplars, 31 PCR primer pairs have been designed based on candidate genes identified from the literature, and an additional 31 PCR primer ...


A Genetic Survey Of English Sole Populations In The Salish Sea, Elizabeth S. Gutierrez, Gary A. Winans, Jon Baker, Amanda Cope Aug 2012

A Genetic Survey Of English Sole Populations In The Salish Sea, Elizabeth S. Gutierrez, Gary A. Winans, Jon Baker, Amanda Cope

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

This summer I interned at the Northwest Fisheries Science Center in Seattle, WA and participated in NOAA’s Salish Sea Project. The Salish Sea Project’s goal is to identify genetically distinctive groups of species in the Salish Sea that may have unique evolutionary and/or adaptive backgrounds. These findings will allow NOAA to promote and monitor the natural production of species in the Salish Sea, to select representative populations for experimental work regarding pollution, ocean acidification and climate change, to contribute to managing the ecosystem for intra- and inter-species diversity, and to help make informed decisions about adaptive management ...


Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling Of Acetaminophen Metabolism And Toxicity, David M. Ng, Ali Navid Aug 2012

Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling Of Acetaminophen Metabolism And Toxicity, David M. Ng, Ali Navid

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Acetaminophen is a common analgesic and antipyretic. Metabolism of acetaminophen and acetaminophen-induced liver necrosis are predicted using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Pharmacokinetic means the model determines where the drug is distributed in the body over time. Physiologically-based means the anatomy and physiology of the human body is reflected in the structure and functioning of the model. Acetaminophen is usually safe and effective when taken as recommended, but consumption at higher levels may lead to liver damage. Additionally, other factors such as alcoholic liver disease, smoking, and malnutrition affect the maximum safe dose of acetaminophen.


Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling For Predicting Drug-Drug Interactions, David M. Ng, Ali Navid Aug 2011

Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling For Predicting Drug-Drug Interactions, David M. Ng, Ali Navid

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Dynamics of interactions between the drugs caffeine and ciprofloxacin are predicted using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Pharmacokinetic means the model determines where the drugs are distributed in the body over time. Physiologically-based means the anatomy and physiology of the human body is reflected in the structure and functioning of the model. Multiple drugs can interact to increase or decrease their beneficial and/or undesired effects. This is important because some common substances, such as caffeine in coffee and soft drinks, are actually drugs that affect the body. By implementing the model as a computer program, it is relatively straightforward to ...