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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Cal Poly Basic Needs Task Force Report - Fall 2018, Aydin Nazmi Oct 2018

The Cal Poly Basic Needs Task Force Report - Fall 2018, Aydin Nazmi

Food Science and Nutrition

No abstract provided.


Testing Predictions Used To Build An Agrivoltaics Installation On A Small-Scale Educational Model, Katie Kinney, Rebecca Minor, Greg Barron-Gafford Oct 2016

Testing Predictions Used To Build An Agrivoltaics Installation On A Small-Scale Educational Model, Katie Kinney, Rebecca Minor, Greg Barron-Gafford

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Models are valuable tools for explaining and testing systems. Small-scale models can be especially useful for educational purposes. For models to be useful, they have to accurately depict the larger system that they are describing. A novel man-made system, known as an agrivoltaic structure, is being constructed at Biosphere 2 near Oracle, Arizona. The word agrivoltaic is a combination of agriculture and photovoltaics, or solar farming. My research involved creating a small-scale version of this system for educational purposes. The model of this system tested two predictions: that plants will grow better in the shade of a panel and that ...


Determining Antimicrobial Activity In Hydrolysates Obtained From Buttermilk Substrates By Trypsin And Pepsin, Deborah Kim, Karen Ramun, Stephanie Carpintero, Suyapa Padillo, Antonio-Jose Trujillo, Rafael Jimenez-Flores Aug 2015

Determining Antimicrobial Activity In Hydrolysates Obtained From Buttermilk Substrates By Trypsin And Pepsin, Deborah Kim, Karen Ramun, Stephanie Carpintero, Suyapa Padillo, Antonio-Jose Trujillo, Rafael Jimenez-Flores

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Milk proteins within their structure and sequence, contain peptides that exhibit antithrombotic, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, and other bioactivities. These peptides are released as the enzymes cleave milk proteins at certain locations of the amino acid chains. In this research, four different substrates were hydrolyzed with the gastrointestinal enzymes, pepsin and trypsin. The substrates were buttermilk (BM) and whey buttermilk (WBM), which are waste products of butter and cheese production, and supercritical CO2 fluid (SFE) treated buttermilk (S-BM) and whey buttermilk (S-WBM). SFE acts as a solvent which removes triglycerides from the substrates and changes the overall composition of samples ...


Bacterial Expression Of Plant Pyruvate Kinase, Kristina Fuller Jan 2015

Bacterial Expression Of Plant Pyruvate Kinase, Kristina Fuller

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Pyruvate kinases serve an important role in regulating glycolysis pathways. Different pyruvate kinase isozymes can dictate which of several different products will be formed during the final step of glycolysis. Being able to reliably copy active pyruvate kinases (PK) would allow study of the different isozymes, with the goal of eventually creating plants that are more nutritionally beneficial for humans. This study focused on improving the protocol for replicating each of two isolated PK isozymes from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous attempts had resulted in the PK denaturing and consequently precipitating out of solution and so we manipulated the ...


Aquaponics And Basil Plant Density, Danika L. Macmaster, Brook Murphy, Dudley Burton Aug 2014

Aquaponics And Basil Plant Density, Danika L. Macmaster, Brook Murphy, Dudley Burton

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Aquaponics is the use of water from a fish tank to provide nutrients to plants in a soil-less environment. The rocks cultivate the bacteria that turns the ammonia into nitrates that the plants need, and the plant bed functions as a filter for the fish tank. In this study, with the guidance of Doctor Dudley Burton, Doctor Brook Murphy, we researched the optimal plant density for basil in an Aquaponics system. We attempted to control or measure all the other variables to consider, as to isolate the variable of distance between plants. The water flow was spread through the plant ...


Characterization Of Bacillus Bacterial Strains; Optimum Growth Temperature, Proteolytic And Lipolytic Activity, Jamie Anne Boring Aug 2013

Characterization Of Bacillus Bacterial Strains; Optimum Growth Temperature, Proteolytic And Lipolytic Activity, Jamie Anne Boring

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Characterization of Bacillus bacterial strains is an important step in identifying and removing biofilms contaminating processing equipment. These biofilms lead to large amounts of spores in the final product. Strains that produce spoilage enzymes cause off-flavors, structural defects and reduced shelf life of milk products. Using four treatments, we determined the best growth protocol for each strain to use in future experiments. Treatment 1: 80 o C heat shock and 32 o C 24hr incubation, Treatment 2: 80o C/ 55 o C, Treatment 3: 100 o C/ 32 o C, Treatment 4: 100 o C/ 55 o C. Our ...


Effects Of Composition And Separation Techniques On The Structure Of Aggregates In The Milk Fat Globular Membrane, Tristan Dilbeck, Jose Ibarra, Rafael Jimenez-Flores, Tracey Nguyen Aug 2013

Effects Of Composition And Separation Techniques On The Structure Of Aggregates In The Milk Fat Globular Membrane, Tristan Dilbeck, Jose Ibarra, Rafael Jimenez-Flores, Tracey Nguyen

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The milk fat globular membrane (MFGM) is a complex structure composed mainly of phospholipids, sphingolipids, and membrane specific proteins. The composition and size of the MFGM differs based on the isolation, purification, and techniques used in analysis of the membrane as well as physiological, chemical, and mechanical factors present during its creation. The purpose of this experiment is to analyze the effects of separation techniques and composition of lipids and proteins on the structure of aggregates in the MFGM. The aggregates found in whey protein isolate (95% pure whey protein), whey buttermilk (whey protein and phospholipids), and sweet buttermilk (whey ...


Editorial: The Nutrition Transition- The Same, But Different, Aydin Nazmi, C. Monteiro Apr 2013

Editorial: The Nutrition Transition- The Same, But Different, Aydin Nazmi, C. Monteiro

Food Science and Nutrition

No abstract provided.


Using Stable Isotope Analysis Of Zooplankton To Document Trophic And Biogeochemical Changes In The San Francisco Estuary, Steven C. Westbrook, Julien Moderan Jan 2013

Using Stable Isotope Analysis Of Zooplankton To Document Trophic And Biogeochemical Changes In The San Francisco Estuary, Steven C. Westbrook, Julien Moderan

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Zooplankton represent a vital link between phytoplankton and fish, like the endangered Delta Smelt. Human interferences (nitrates from waste water, flow alteration, invasive species introduction…) have altered the structure of the San Francisco Estuary (SFE) ecosystem. We use stable isotope analysis to improve our knowledge of the planktonic food web in the SFE and gain insights into its evolution over the past decades. We use the ratios of certain isotopes (Nitrogen, Carbon, Sulfur, etc.) in different species of zooplankton to tell us what it is feeding on as well as the trophic level it feeds in. My research focused on ...


Food Fortification Improves The Intake Of All Fortified Nutrients, But Fails To Meet The Estimated Dietary Requirements For Vitamins A And B6, In Lactating South African Women, Peggy C. Papathakis, Kerry E. Pearson Oct 2012

Food Fortification Improves The Intake Of All Fortified Nutrients, But Fails To Meet The Estimated Dietary Requirements For Vitamins A And B6, In Lactating South African Women, Peggy C. Papathakis, Kerry E. Pearson

Food Science and Nutrition

Objective To investigate the impact of fortification by comparing food records and selected biochemical indicators of nutritional status pre- and post-fortification.

Design Mean intake from 24 h recalls (n 142) was compared with the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) to determine the proportion with inadequate intake. In a subsample (n 34), diet and serum retinol, folate, ferritin and Zn were compared pre- and post-fortification for fortified nutrients vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, Fe and Zn.

Setting South Africa.

Subjects Breast-feeding women (ninety-four HIV-infected, forty eight HIV-uninfected) measured at ∼6, 14, 24 weeks, and 9 and 12 months postpartum.

Results ...


Seasonality Of Infant Feeding Practices In Three Brazilian Birth Cohorts, David A. González-Chica, Helen Gonçalves, Aydin Nazmi, Iná S. Santos, Aluísio J. D. Barros, Alicia Matijasevich, Cesar G. Victora Jun 2012

Seasonality Of Infant Feeding Practices In Three Brazilian Birth Cohorts, David A. González-Chica, Helen Gonçalves, Aydin Nazmi, Iná S. Santos, Aluísio J. D. Barros, Alicia Matijasevich, Cesar G. Victora

Food Science and Nutrition

Background We assessed the influence of season of birth on duration of breastfeeding and other feeding patterns in three population-based birth cohort studies in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil.

Methods In 1982, 1993 and 2004, all hospital-born children in the city were enrolled in three cohort studies (n =  5914, 5249 and 4287, respectively). Children and their mothers were periodically visited in the first 2 years of life, to collect information on the duration of breastfeeding and the ages at which different types of foods were introduced on a regular basis. Two independent variables were studied: month of birth and ...


Hunger-Free Communities: Characterizing Vulnerable Populations In San Luis Obispo County, Aydin Nazmi, Alexandra Lund Jan 2012

Hunger-Free Communities: Characterizing Vulnerable Populations In San Luis Obispo County, Aydin Nazmi, Alexandra Lund

Food Science and Nutrition

No abstract provided.


Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy And Risk Factors For Cardiovascular Disease In Adulthood, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Denise P. Gigante, Aydin Nazmi, Vera Maria F. Silveira, Isabel Oliveira, Cesar G. Victora Dec 2011

Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy And Risk Factors For Cardiovascular Disease In Adulthood, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Denise P. Gigante, Aydin Nazmi, Vera Maria F. Silveira, Isabel Oliveira, Cesar G. Victora

Food Science and Nutrition

Objective: This study was aimed at assessing the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on metabolic cardiovascular risk factors in early adulthood in a Brazilian birth cohort, after controlling for possible confounding variables and health behaviors in early adulthood.

Methods: In 1982, the maternity hospitals in Pelotas, southern Brazil, were visited and all births were identified. Those livebirths whose family lived in the urban area of the city were studied prospectively. In 2004–2005, we attempted to follow the whole cohort, the subjects were interviewed, examined and blood sample was collected. The following outcomes were studied: blood pressure; HDL cholesterol ...


Effect Of Tannin Additions Postfermentation With Gelatin Remediation In Paso Robles Cabernet Sauvignon, Briana Heywood, Geraldine S.P. Ritchie Sep 2011

Effect Of Tannin Additions Postfermentation With Gelatin Remediation In Paso Robles Cabernet Sauvignon, Briana Heywood, Geraldine S.P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

The resultant color of a Cabernet Sauvignon wine connotes overall quality. Therefore, it is in the best interests of a winery to produce a well-balanced wine, containing the deepest color possible, using the least amount of additives. This experiment studied the effects of adding ColorPro, VRSupra, and Gelatin Extra No.1 to Cabernet Sauvignon fruit from Paso Robles to determine if anthocyanin and tannin levels changed with respect to the aforementioned supplements. To increase color and tannin extraction, ColorPro was added to the grape must prior to fermentation. A tannin powder, VRSupra, was added later in the winemaking process to ...


The Influence Of Persistent Pathogens On Circulating Levels Of Inflammatory Markers: A Cross-Sectional Analysis From The Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis, Aydin Nazmi, Ana V. Diez-Roux, Nancy S. Jenny, Michael Y. Tsai, Moyses Szklo, Allison E. Aiello Nov 2010

The Influence Of Persistent Pathogens On Circulating Levels Of Inflammatory Markers: A Cross-Sectional Analysis From The Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis, Aydin Nazmi, Ana V. Diez-Roux, Nancy S. Jenny, Michael Y. Tsai, Moyses Szklo, Allison E. Aiello

Food Science and Nutrition

Background: Systemic inflammation is linked to cardiovascular risk, but the influence of persistent pathogens, which are conventionally dichotomously categorized, on circulating levels of inflammatory markers is not clear. Antibody levels of pathogens have not been examined in relation to inflammation.
Methods: Using data from a subsample of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we examined circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen in relation to five common persistent pathogens: cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus-1, Hepatitis A virus, Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae. We tested the hypothesis that the number of seropositive pathogens (based on conventional cut-off points) would not ...


Cross-Sectional And Longitudinal Associations Of Neighborhood Characteristics With Inflammatory Markers: Findings From The Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis, Aydin Nazmi, Ana Diez Roux, Nalini Ranjit, Teresa E. Seeman, Nancy S. Jenny Nov 2010

Cross-Sectional And Longitudinal Associations Of Neighborhood Characteristics With Inflammatory Markers: Findings From The Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis, Aydin Nazmi, Ana Diez Roux, Nalini Ranjit, Teresa E. Seeman, Nancy S. Jenny

Food Science and Nutrition

We investigated cross-sectional associations of neighborhood deprivation, problems, safety, and cohesion with circulating levels of fibrinogen, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein (n=5370) and longitudinal associations with changes in IL-6 over a 3–4 year period (n=946). In cross-sectional analyses, higher levels of neighborhood deprivation and problems were associated with higher levels of all three inflammatory markers, whereas higher levels of safety were associated with lower levels. Fibrinogen remained associated with all neighborhood characteristics except cohesion and IL-6 remained associated with safety after adjustment for race and SES. In longitudinal analyses, higher levels of neighborhood deprivation and problems, and lower ...


Quantifying Dissolved Carbon Dioxide Concentrations In Fermenting Red Musts, David M. Goldfarb, Steven D. Colome, Marci Norkin, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie Jun 2010

Quantifying Dissolved Carbon Dioxide Concentrations In Fermenting Red Musts, David M. Goldfarb, Steven D. Colome, Marci Norkin, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

The concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide (DCOn2) is recognized as being high during alcoholic fermentation, but there is little data to indicate the actual concentrations and how they vary with extent of the fermentation or winemaking operations. The presence of the inert gas is important in protecting the juice or must from oxidation. In addition, carbon dioxide (COn2) is a recognized greenhouse gas, and the contribution of fermenting juice and musts to atmospheric COn2 cannot be put in perspective or modeled unless one has a better idea of DCOn2 and whether supersaturation is occurring throughout fermentation ...


Empirical Study Of Carbon Dioxide Released To The Atmosphere During Commercial Red Grape Fermentation, Steven D. Colome, David M. Goldfarb, Marci Norkin, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie Jun 2010

Empirical Study Of Carbon Dioxide Released To The Atmosphere During Commercial Red Grape Fermentation, Steven D. Colome, David M. Goldfarb, Marci Norkin, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a pollutant (greenhouse gas) that is emitted during winemaking but not currently regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency. While winery CO2 emissions have been modeled, they have never been measured continuously or confirmed during a commercial fermentation. As international interest increases in greenhouse gases, it is important to know the amount of CO2 release and the determining factors; yeast strain, temperature, and dissolved CO2 are potentially important parameters. The study was designed to quantify emissions and test a theoretical model for atmospheric release of CO2 during alcoholic fermentation in a commercial winery. Gas release was channeled ...


Effect Of Bentonite Additions Prior To Fermentation On Protein Stability In Edna Valley Sauvignon Blanc, Tymari Lore, Matthew Brain, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie Jun 2010

Effect Of Bentonite Additions Prior To Fermentation On Protein Stability In Edna Valley Sauvignon Blanc, Tymari Lore, Matthew Brain, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

Sauvignon blanc often requires large amounts of bentonite in order to remove haze proteins and make the wine heat stable. However, large bentonite additions can affect the sensory perception of the wine. We studied the effect of adding small amounts of bentonite before fermentation on the subsequent amount required after fermentation to heat stabilize the wine. Protein stability was evaluated in two lots of Sauvignon blanc juice from two blocks of the same Edna Valley vineyard. Bentonite (Volclay KWK, American Colloid Co.), 4.6 g suspended in 200 mL water, was added to 19 L of juice prior to fermentation ...


Lifecourse Socioeconomic Trajectories And C-Reactive Protein Levels In Young Adults: Findings From A Brazilian Birth Cohort, Aydin Nazmi, I. O. Oliveira, Bernardo L. Horta, D. P. Gigante, Cesar G, Victora Apr 2010

Lifecourse Socioeconomic Trajectories And C-Reactive Protein Levels In Young Adults: Findings From A Brazilian Birth Cohort, Aydin Nazmi, I. O. Oliveira, Bernardo L. Horta, D. P. Gigante, Cesar G, Victora

Food Science and Nutrition

Socioeconomic factors are associated with cardiovascular disease. C-reactive protein (CRP) is increasingly implicated as a candidate linking conventional risk factors and atherosclerosis. The impact of early- and later-life socioeconomic status (SES) on CRP levels has not been widely investigated and a handful of studies from high-income countries are inconsistent. We set out to examine the associations between lifecourse socioeconomic indicators (family income at birth, maternal education, family income at age 23 and own education) on CRP levels in young adults belonging to the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study (n = 5914). Early-life SES showed significant and graded associations with CRP ...


How Can I Protect My Grapes And Juice From Spoilage During Transport To The Winery?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie Jan 2010

How Can I Protect My Grapes And Juice From Spoilage During Transport To The Winery?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

No abstract provided.


How Should I Calculate And Make Water Additions To Facilitate The Fermentation Of Red Musts?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie Jan 2010

How Should I Calculate And Make Water Additions To Facilitate The Fermentation Of Red Musts?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

No abstract provided.


What Is Lysozyme And Why Is It Used In Winemaking?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie Jan 2010

What Is Lysozyme And Why Is It Used In Winemaking?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

No abstract provided.


How Can I Estimate When To Fortify A Fermenting Juice To Achieve Desired Sugar And Alcohol Concentrations?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie Jan 2010

How Can I Estimate When To Fortify A Fermenting Juice To Achieve Desired Sugar And Alcohol Concentrations?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

No abstract provided.


Growth From Birth To Adulthood And Abdominal Obesity In A Brazilian Birth Cohort, D. A. Gonzalez, Aydin Nazmi, C. G. Victoria Jan 2010

Growth From Birth To Adulthood And Abdominal Obesity In A Brazilian Birth Cohort, D. A. Gonzalez, Aydin Nazmi, C. G. Victoria

Food Science and Nutrition

Background: Rapid weight gain in childhood may increase the risk of chronic adult diseases. Few studies have examined the effects of lifecourse weight gain on waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR).
Objective: To evaluate the effects of birthweight and weight gain from birth to age 23 years on WC, HC, and WHR in young adults.
Design: Population-based birth cohort study started in 1982. A sample of 856 individuals was examined in 2006. Conditional growth analyses were carried out with adjustment for confounders. WC and HC were also mutually adjusted.
Results: Weight gains during all age ranges ...


How Should I Calculate And Make Additions Of Grape Concentrate To Juice, Musts And Wines?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie Jan 2010

How Should I Calculate And Make Additions Of Grape Concentrate To Juice, Musts And Wines?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

No abstract provided.


What Is Saignée And How Will It Affect My Red Wine?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie Jan 2010

What Is Saignée And How Will It Affect My Red Wine?, Geraldine S. P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

No abstract provided.


Childhood Poverty And Abdominal Obesity In Adulthood: A Systematic Review, David González, Aydin Nazmi, Cesar G. Victoria Sep 2009

Childhood Poverty And Abdominal Obesity In Adulthood: A Systematic Review, David González, Aydin Nazmi, Cesar G. Victoria

Food Science and Nutrition

Adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood can have lasting effects on health, but evidence is lacking from prospective studies concerning the effects of early poverty on abdominal obesity in adulthood. Cross-sectional studies in adults from middle and high-income countries show that current socioeconomic status is inversely related to obesity in women, but the pattern in men is not consistent. A systematic review was undertaken to assess the influence of early socioeconomic status on waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-hip ratio in adulthood. Thirteen relevant articles were located (five cross-sectional and eight cohort), including only one from a middle-income country and the ...


Life-Course Socio-Economic Factors, Skin Colour And Abdominal Obesity In Adulthood In A Brazilian Birth Cohort, David A. Gonzalez, Aydin Nazmi, John S. Yudkin, Cesar G. Victora Aug 2009

Life-Course Socio-Economic Factors, Skin Colour And Abdominal Obesity In Adulthood In A Brazilian Birth Cohort, David A. Gonzalez, Aydin Nazmi, John S. Yudkin, Cesar G. Victora

Food Science and Nutrition

Objective:Obesity is an increasingly prevalent nutritional disorder throughout the world. In particular, abdominal obesity is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of skin colour and life-course socio-economic indicators on waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist:hip ratio (WHR) in young adults.

Design:Population-based birth cohort study. Individuals born in 1982 in Pelotas (southern Brazil) were visited on a number of occasions from birth to age 23–24 years. A sample of the cohort was sought in 2006 and 972 individuals were located. The analysis was restricted to individuals with ...


Epidemiology Of Early And Late Growth In Height, Leg And Trunk Length: Findings From A Birth Cohort Of Brazilian Males, D. P. Gigante, Aydin Nazmi, R. C. Lima, F. C. Barros, Cesar G. Victora Mar 2009

Epidemiology Of Early And Late Growth In Height, Leg And Trunk Length: Findings From A Birth Cohort Of Brazilian Males, D. P. Gigante, Aydin Nazmi, R. C. Lima, F. C. Barros, Cesar G. Victora

Food Science and Nutrition

Background/Objective:To investigate socioeconomic, gestational and early life exposures as potential determinants of total height, leg and trunk length.

Subjects/Methods:Male subjects from the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study were examined in 1986 at home, and in 2000 when registering at the local army base. The follow-up rate was 79%. Standing and sitting heights were measured on both occasions. Leg length was calculated as the difference between standing and sitting heights. Outcome measures were height, leg and trunk length at 4 and 18 years and growth in this period. Complete data were obtained for 2012 participants, representing 71 ...