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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Identification Of Microorganisms Isolated From Mars-Bound Spacecraft Using Maldi-Tof, Melanie K. Phillips Sep 2016

Identification Of Microorganisms Isolated From Mars-Bound Spacecraft Using Maldi-Tof, Melanie K. Phillips

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The primary goal of the Biotechnology and Planetary Protection Group (BPPG) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is to prevent microbial contamination between Earth and other planetary bodies. This helps preserve the ability to study other worlds as they exist in their natural states and protects our biosphere from extraterrestrial life. The process for identifying microbes located on space-bound hardware in JPL can be more efficient and precise by using the technique called matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF). Once this identification technique is fully implemented, the process time will be reduced from two weeks to one ...


Optimization Of A Genomic Editing System Using Crispr/Cas9-Induced Site-Specific Gene Integration, Jillian L. Mccool Ms., Nick Hum, Gabriela G. Loots Aug 2016

Optimization Of A Genomic Editing System Using Crispr/Cas9-Induced Site-Specific Gene Integration, Jillian L. Mccool Ms., Nick Hum, Gabriela G. Loots

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The CRISPR-Cas system is an adaptive immune system found in bacteria which helps protect against the invasion of other microorganisms. This system induces double stranded breaks at precise genomic loci (1) in which repairs are initiated and insertions of a target are completed in the process. This mechanism can be used in eukaryotic cells in combination with sgRNAs (1) as a tool for genome editing. By using this CRISPR-Cas system, in addition to the “safe harbor locus,” ROSAβ26, the incorporation of a target gene into a site that is not susceptible to gene silencing effects can be achieved through few ...


Chemical Oxygen Demand Reduction Using The Algae Dunaliella Primolecta And Chlorella Vulgaris, Angeles L. Mora, Alejandro Hernandez, Alejandro Calderón-Urrea Aug 2015

Chemical Oxygen Demand Reduction Using The Algae Dunaliella Primolecta And Chlorella Vulgaris, Angeles L. Mora, Alejandro Hernandez, Alejandro Calderón-Urrea

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Farm industry wastewater is characterized by high organic materials and by high chemical oxygen demand (COD). Farms with large livestock and poultry operations can be a major source of wastewater thus a major concern for effective environmental and industrial management. Effective environmental and industrial management are high in cost therefor biofuels produced from plants have a potential of replacing a portion of fossil fuel consumption with a renewable efficient alternative. Due to California’s water crisis in the recent years, it is questioned if a biological treatment system that uses algal growth to create renewable energy in the form of ...


Characterization Of Putative Wnt3a-Inducible Enhancers, Katelynn C. Lee, Nicholas Hum, Aimy Sebastian, Gabriela Loots Aug 2015

Characterization Of Putative Wnt3a-Inducible Enhancers, Katelynn C. Lee, Nicholas Hum, Aimy Sebastian, Gabriela Loots

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The Wnt signaling pathway has been previously shown to play a major role in regulating bone metabolism and it is emerging as a target for the therapeutic intervention of bone thinning disorders such as osteoporosis. Several Wnt proteins have been shown to be expressed in bone and mutations in Wnt pathway members such as Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and Wnt inhibitor Sost have been shown to be associated with low or high bone mass disorders, however, very little is known about specific roles played by different Wnt ligands in bone development, repair and remodeling. To identify downstream targets of Wnt signaling ...


The Proteomic Response In The Crustacean Molting Gland Of Land Crab Gecarcinus Lateralis In Response To Artificially Induced Molting Throughout Its Molting Cycle., Andrea Reider, Talia B. Head, Lars Tomanek, Donald L. Mykles Jan 2015

The Proteomic Response In The Crustacean Molting Gland Of Land Crab Gecarcinus Lateralis In Response To Artificially Induced Molting Throughout Its Molting Cycle., Andrea Reider, Talia B. Head, Lars Tomanek, Donald L. Mykles

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Molting in crustaceans is a highly complex physiological process involving negative regulation by two paired endocrine glands, the X-organ/sinus gland complex (XO/SG) and the Y-organ (YO). The XO/SG complex is responsible for making molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) which negatively regulates synthesis of molting hormones (ecdysteroids) by the YO. Eyestalk ablation (ESA) removes the source of MIH and provides an experimental means to manipulate and induce molting, although the physiological effects of ESA on the YO have not been fully characterized. Analysis of gene expression in the XOs and YOs has lead to the development of a proposed molecular ...


Detection Of Viable Microorganisms Using Propidium Monoazide, Erik J. Mcfarland, Adrian Ponce Dr. Jan 2013

Detection Of Viable Microorganisms Using Propidium Monoazide, Erik J. Mcfarland, Adrian Ponce Dr.

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a molecular tool used to assess viability of microorganisms. Currently, PMA is thought to discern viability through membrane permeability; PMA enters only membrane compromised cells, irreversibly crosslinks to theirDNAand precipitates theDNAout of solution, preventing it from being amplified during polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using PMA on a sample of live and dead microorganisms results in only theDNAof living organisms being amplified and identified. Therefore, a comparison ofPCRresults with and without PMA allows one to determine the live fraction and total population, respectively.

Current literature provides conflicting evidence as to the effectiveness of the technique. Our research ...


Developing Monitoring Methods For Leptasterias Spp. As Sentinel Species In Detecting Local Environmental Changes, Zachary Sturbaum, Kathryn Nuessly, Riley J. Smith, C. Sarah Cohen Aug 2012

Developing Monitoring Methods For Leptasterias Spp. As Sentinel Species In Detecting Local Environmental Changes, Zachary Sturbaum, Kathryn Nuessly, Riley J. Smith, C. Sarah Cohen

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Leptasterias spp., a six-rayed sea star, is found in rocky intertidal habitats ranging from Alaska to central California. Leptasterias spp. can be monitored on a broad scale throughout their range by a variety of means using timed counts and random plot censusing in order to detect both large-scale and local-level changes in the environment due to climate change, land-based human activity, or other environmental events. Leptasterias brood their young externally until the embryos grow into fully developed juveniles. These juveniles disperse by crawling away, limiting their dispersal potential. This localized dispersal provides an opportunity to use Leptasterias spp. as sentinel ...


Quantification And In Vitro Analysis Of Nanolipoproteins (Nlps) Containing Adjuvants, Purna Venkataraman, Craig Blanchette, Nicholas O. Fischer Aug 2012

Quantification And In Vitro Analysis Of Nanolipoproteins (Nlps) Containing Adjuvants, Purna Venkataraman, Craig Blanchette, Nicholas O. Fischer

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) self-assemble into nanoscale structures that can be used as vaccines or drug delivery agents. Due to the nature of the NLPs, a variety of immune stimulating compounds or adjuvants can be readily incorporated into NLPs: a characteristic difficult to engineer into most other nanoscale platforms. In light of this, a method for quantifying the amount adjuvant actually incorporated into NLPs is a question of high importance. Through the use of reverse phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and an Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (ELSD), standard curves can be constructed by analyzing mixtures of NLP components of known concentration ...


Forward Osmosis Bag: Ground Testing The Prospect Of Using Alternative Water Sources For Drinking Water, Michaela Marie Brant, Ariella Yendler, Mona Hammoudeh, Michael T. Flynn Aug 2011

Forward Osmosis Bag: Ground Testing The Prospect Of Using Alternative Water Sources For Drinking Water, Michaela Marie Brant, Ariella Yendler, Mona Hammoudeh, Michael T. Flynn

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

On the STS-135 Space Shuttle mission, to be launched July 8, 2011, a forward osmosis bag (FOB) study will be conducted. At NASA Ames this summer, the ground truth testing is being conducted for results comparisons. The FOB technology is derived from a commercial product, the X-Pack water filter. Forward osmosis operates by utilizing an established concentration gradient across a semi-permeable membrane to move water molecules from one side of the membrane to the other. This concept is exploited to harvest drinking water from grey water sources such as urine, sea water, or vehicle water. In this experiment, potassium chloride ...


Interspecies Comparison Of Αii-Spectrin Abundance Between Chinook Salmon And Steelhead, Brielle D. Kemis, Ann L. Miracle, Katie A. Wagner, Christa M. Woodley Aug 2011

Interspecies Comparison Of Αii-Spectrin Abundance Between Chinook Salmon And Steelhead, Brielle D. Kemis, Ann L. Miracle, Katie A. Wagner, Christa M. Woodley

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Salmonids, such as Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss), are a staple economic, recreational, tribal, and environmental resource, yet many populations are unsustainable. This study was part of a broad scale effort to monitor the impact of downstream migration obstacles on juvenile salmonid health and survival, which is an essential step towards increasing Smolt-to-Adult Return ratios (SARs). The objective of this study was to determine if juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead exhibit differing quantities of alphaII-Spectrin Breakdown Products (SBDPs) over two consecutive spring migration periods, indicative of neurogenesis rate and/or biological response to head injury. AlphaII-Spectrin is ...


Performance Screening Of Chemostat Adapted Recombinant Zymomonas Mobilis Strains, Deirdre M. Beard, Nancy Dowe Jan 2011

Performance Screening Of Chemostat Adapted Recombinant Zymomonas Mobilis Strains, Deirdre M. Beard, Nancy Dowe

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Corn stover biomass can be pretreaed and hydrolyzed into soluble sugars to be fermented by microorganisms to ethanol. NREL has developed a recombinant bacteria Zymomonas mobilis 8b that metabolizes both five and six carbon sugars. During pretreatment, toxic inhibitors such as furfural and acetate are produced. NREL has made an attempt to adapt two sub-strains of Z. mobilis 8b to acetate and furfural by using a chemostat method. During the chemostat process, cultures were frozen back in glycerol and saved. In this study, those frozen cultures were revived and analyzed for performance in environments with varying concentrations of furfural and ...