# Life Sciences Commons™

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## Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

May 2017

#### Environmental And Climatic Constraints On Large-Scale Camelina Production In Eastern Arkansas, Benjamin Robert Tracy

##### Theses and Dissertations

Camelina sativa is a cold weather crop that is typically grown in semi-arid environments in the Western United States, usually as a spring crop, but sometimes during the winter. Research analyzing climate data and soil hydrology is important to better understand the environmental and terrain conditions necessary for Camelina farming wherever it is proposed for large-scale production. This study focused on various conditions and constraints pertaining to the potential for Camelina as a crop biofuel in Eastern Arkansas. Due to interest in the economic potential of crop biofuels in this area, and in particular the low input costs for Camelina ...

#### Quantifying Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Dynamics With Mechanistically-Based Biogeochemistry Models And In Situ And Remotely Sensed Data, Shaoqing Liu

##### Open Access Dissertations

Terrestrial ecosystem plays a critical role in the global carbon cycle and climate system. Therefore, it is important to accurately quantify the carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystem under future climatic change condition. This dissertation evaluates the regional carbon dynamics by using upscaling approach, mechanistically-based biogeochemistry models and in situ and remotely sensed data.

The upscaling studies based on FLUXNET network has provided us the spatial and temporal pattern of the carbon fluxes but it fails to consider the atmospheric CO2 effect given its important physiological role in carbon assimilation. In the second chapter, we consider the effect of atmospheric CO2 ...

#### The Effects Of Including Almonds In An Energy-Restricted Diet On Weight, Body Composition, Visceral Adipose Tissue, Blood Pressure And Cognitive Function, Jaapna Dhillon

##### Open Access Dissertations

Inclusion of almonds in an energy restricted diet has been reported to enhance or have no effect on weight loss. Their effects specifically on visceral fat stores during energy restriction have not been widely examined. Additionally, almond consumption has been associated with reduced blood pressure, but whether this is linked to or is independent of changes of body composition has not been examined. Moreover, almond consumption during energy restriction may be an effective strategy for reversing the negative effects of dieting on cognitive performance. The unique nutrient profile of almonds also has the potential to influence cognitive function post-prandially. The ...

#### The Influence Of Strength-Training Exercises On The Functional Fitness In Older Adults, Susie Engle

##### Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of strength-training exercises on the functional fitness in older adults. The original convenience sample consisted of 658 participants who attended group strength-training classes offered through the Cooperative Extension Service. The Senior Fitness Test was used to assess baseline fitness levels at the beginning and end of the 12-week strength-training program. Data was collected from 2008 to 2015. Of the 658 participants, 110 were aged 60 to 94 and presented posttest scores occurring approximately 12 weeks after pretest dates. Of the 110 subjects, 99 were female and 11 were male. The ...

May 2016

#### Proteomic Characterization Of Eggshell Membranes And Their Effect On Poultry Physiology And Immunity, Sarbjeet Kaur Makkar

##### Theses and Dissertations

The use of antibiotics in poultry growth and disease control has led to antibiotics resistant problem in human beings, which is a big concern among consumers. With the necessity for judicious use of antibiotics in poultry production, alternative strategies to improve disease resistance in poultry production are necessary. The research is more inclined towards using the natural products available to grow healthier and antibiotic free meat animals. In the context of exploring natural and sustainable resource of alternative to antibiotics, the biochemical milieu of eggshell membranes (ESM) were analyzed by using mass spectrometry techniques including matrix assisted laser desorption ionization ...

#### Nutritional Deficiencies During The Harvest Season According To Household Consumption And Level Of Nutritional Knowledge: A Case Study Of Northern Mozambique, Maggie Jo Hansen

##### Theses and Dissertations

Mozambique is classified as a low income country, the lowest development classification defined by the World Bank. It is underdeveloped in food security, agricultural production, and nutritional status, and research shows its residents are not foreign to poverty and malnutrition. Low protein, starchy foods (maize, rice, wheat, cassava) comprise the majority of the Mozambican diet; these starchy foods are the most available for consumption. Although availability impacts diet, educational barriers may also threaten the knowledge of nutrition and perceptions of healthy foods. Illiteracy and lack of education are extreme challenges to disseminating nutritional education efforts in the rural Nampula region ...

#### In Vivo Periodical Monitoring Of Immune Cell Infiltration In Response To Feathers And Intramuscular Injection Of Ionps Using The Pulp (Dermis) Of Growing Feathers As Test Site Tissue In Chickens, Olfat Taleb Alaamri

##### Theses and Dissertations

The applications of nanoparticles are growing, but little is known about their interactions with the immune system as most studies did not use suitable in vivo test systems. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the utility of chicken growing feathers as an in vivo test site for iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP) interactions with the immune system. The first objective of this study was to monitor leukocyte infiltration into the growing feather pulp upon the administration of IONP and IO-mIgG preparations. The second objective was to test the utility of IONPs as vaccine adjuvants by monitoring primary and memory ...

Portion Size Communication By Means Of Package Design, Tami J. Strickland Dec 2015

#### Portion Size Communication By Means Of Package Design, Tami J. Strickland

##### Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative study assessed consumers’ current methods of determining portion sizing of chicken products and examined their perceptions of how effectively three package designs communicate portion size. Everett M. Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations (DI) Theory analyzes the characteristics of the consumer of the innovation (adopter) and the impact these characteristics have on adopting new innovations. The innovation in this study will be the prototype packaging. Focusing on Rogers’ adopter characteristics and defined proprietary consumer segmentation characteristics, this study will be pivotal for future package design projects targeting nutrition education.

Focus group questions were scrutinized through a pilot study and revised ...

Dec 2015

#### Responses Of Two Strains Of Broilers To Diets Varying In Essential Amino Acid Density And Energy Levels, Tyler James Clark

##### Theses and Dissertations

The responses of two different commercial strains of broilers to diets varying in overall amino acid levels and metabolizable energy levels were observed. Amino acid levels used were 80%, 90%, 100%, 110%, 120%, and 130% of Ross recommended minimum digestable levels of essential amino acids. Energy levels used were either below or above Ross recommended metabolizable energy levels. Diets were fed for 56 days. The two strains were a fast growing broiler strain and a slower growing broiler strain. A selection of birds from each pen was processed at 35, 43, and 56 days of age. Average body weights, cumulative ...

#### The Effect Of Balance-Based Torso-Weighting On Mobility, Gait, Balance, Postural Control, And Falls Efficacy In Mobility Limited Older Adults, Jennifer L. Vincenzo

##### Theses and Dissertations

Exercise is a known intervention to prevent fall risk among older adults; however, adherence is poor. Therefore, it is of interest to determine if other interventions improve function and decrease fall risk among older adults. Balance-Based Torso-Weighting (BBTW) is a non-exercise intervention that improves functional measures among adults with multiple sclerosis, yet the effectiveness of BBTW has not been assessed among older adults without progressive neurological disorders. We conducted a double-blind, randomized study to analyze the effect of BBTW on functional measures and falls efficacy among community-dwelling, mobility limited older adults after 5 days of wearing BalanceWear® for 4 hours ...

Oct 2014

#### Postural Sway In Infants At Low And High Risk For Autism Spectrum Disorder, Rachel C. Harris

##### Open Access Theses

ABSTRACT Harris, Rachel C. M. S., Purdue University, December 2014. Postural Control in Infants at Low and High Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder. Major Professor: Laura J. Claxton. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder more commonly known for deficits in social and communication skills. More recently, aspects of motor development have been shown to be delayed in children with ASD, including deficits in their postural control abilities. Children with ASD have difficulty integrating information from their sensory systems to help control their balance. Infants at risk for ASD and infants who are later diagnosed with ASD have delays ...

#### The Impact Of An Omega-3 Enriched Diet On Hyperactivity And Biochemistry In An Animal Model For Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Nadine M. Hammoud

##### Open Access Theses

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most diagnosed behavioral disorder in children. It affects around 5% of children worldwide and 11% of children in the United States, with rates increasing. Pharmaceutical treatments, such as amphetamines and methylphenidates, are not effective for everyone and are known to have unwanted side effects. While the etiology of the disorder is not yet fully understood, there are clear genetic and environmental components. Nutritional insufficiencies have recently become a popular environmental risk factor under investigation. Essential fatty acids (EFA), omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in particular, are needed for proper brain development and function. Our ...

Consumer Perceptions Of Child-Friendly Shaped Healthy Fruit And Vegetable Snacks, Selena Lauren Baker Apr 2014

#### Consumer Perceptions Of Child-Friendly Shaped Healthy Fruit And Vegetable Snacks, Selena Lauren Baker

##### Open Access Theses

Fruits and vegetables (FV) are widely recognized as healthful foods by the public, and most individuals are aware of dietary guidance recommendations to consume more FV. However, actual consumption of FV has been and continues to be low in the United States and many other countries, despite public health efforts to change this trend. The sub-optimal intake of FV among children and adolescents is of particular concern due to high nutrient requirements for proper growth and development during these life stages. Fruit and vegetable intake patterns in childhood have been shown to track into later life and may affect individuals ...

#### Efficacy Of Manual Dishwashing And Sanitizer Wiping In Removing Food Soils From Chel Knives, Xiaodi Sun

##### Open Access Theses

Improperly cleaned and sanitized chef knives may present a potential contamination risk and thus be a risk for foodborne illness. Therefore, ensuring effective cleaning and sanitization of knife surfaces may help prevent the spread of foodborne pathogens. The primary objective of this research was to compare the efficacies of two different cleaning methods (three-compartment manual dishwashing and sanitizer wiping) at removing food soils from contaminated chef knives using procedures that are typical of restaurant kitchens. Knife wiping and washing procedures were determined and standardized according to an observation of knife cleaning behavior in a kitchen. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence was ...

Post-Exercise And Post-Recovery Blood Lactate In Peripheral Arterial Disease, Rebecca Kate Roderick Dec 2013

#### Post-Exercise And Post-Recovery Blood Lactate In Peripheral Arterial Disease, Rebecca Kate Roderick

##### Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to observe how the presence of peripheral arterial disease affects the level of post-exercise blood lactate and post-recovery blood lactate during and following the six-minute walk test (6MWT). The 6MWT was administered to 49 participants (33 classified as Non-PAD and 16 classified as PAD) over the age of 50 with no uncontrolled cardiovascular or metabolic diseases or a cardiovascular event in the previous 6 months. Results demonstrated that no significant statistical difference exists between the presence of PAD and resting blood lactate (F = 0.86, p = .36), post-exercise blood lactate (F= 0.48, p ...

Evaluation Of Shake Weight Protocol In Senior Populations, Isaac F. Cook Dec 2013

#### Evaluation Of Shake Weight Protocol In Senior Populations, Isaac F. Cook

##### Theses and Dissertations

The Shake Weight® (SW®) is designed to improve muscular fitness in a quick and inexpensive way. This study aimed to determine if the SW® was an effective tool at improving muscular fitness, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in post-menopausal women. Participants were 17 healthy, post-menopausal women from aMidwestern University and divided into two training (SW® and HIT) interventions that lasted 10 weeks. HIT participants performed three sets of 8 repetitions at 80% of their estimated 1RM for the chest press, leg press, lat pulldown, and seated row. SW® participants performed the exercises prescribed by the SW® manufacturer. Changes ...

Aug 2013

#### The Interactive Effects Of Multiple Stressors On Lithobates Catesbeianus And Anaxyrus Americanus, Matthew Kyle Holden

##### Theses and Dissertations

Amphibian populations worldwide have experienced dramatic declines, and many species have already become locally, regionally, or globally extirpated with thousands more being threatened with extinction. These declines have occurred more rapidly in amphibians than any other group of vertebrates, which is especially concerning to scientists because amphibians serve as indicator species of overall environmental health. Major causes for amphibian declines are discussed in Chapter 1 and include: habitat modification and destruction, commercial over-exploitation, introduced species, environmental contaminants, global climate change, and infectious diseases.

Chapter 2 discusses the major research aspects of the thesis by examining the interactive effects of multiple ...

#### Evaluating Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Changing Herd Sire Genetics On Arkansas Cow-Calf Operations, Daniel Keeton

##### Theses and Dissertations

This research looks at impacts of changing sires, and thus bull genetics, on cow-calf operations of varying land and herd sizes in the state of Arkansas. A 2012 Across-Breed EPD table, adjusted to the Angus breed, was used to estimate breed sire effects on birth weight and weaning weight of the herd's offspring (Kuehn and Thallman 2012a). Together with modified animal performance, the use of 2012 and most recent five- and ten- year Arkansas state average prices, allowed the evaluation of changing herd sires by accounting for breed type and hide color differences in prices. Using a spreadsheet tool ...

The Impact Of Parent Education On Parental Feeding Practices, Larra Kolby Brawley Aug 2013

#### The Impact Of Parent Education On Parental Feeding Practices, Larra Kolby Brawley

##### Theses and Dissertations

This research looked at the potential impact that parent education may have on the feeding practices of parents of young children. Since eating behaviors are a national concern for both children and adults, it's important to examine how we can create not just healthier children but, as a result, healthier adults. This study utilized an intervention that was an adapted version of a healthy eating curriculum created by Sesame Workshop and the California WIC association with the intention of improving parental feeding practices through a behavior-based approach. Previous research with this curriculum has addressed only low-income populations, with a ...

Effects Of Using Canola Meal As A Protein Source In Broiler Diets, Charles Danny Bradley Jr May 2013

#### Effects Of Using Canola Meal As A Protein Source In Broiler Diets, Charles Danny Bradley Jr

##### Theses and Dissertations

Six experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of broilers fed canola meal. Experiment 1 assessed performance and carcass yields when broilers were fed various combinations of canola and soybean meal in nutritionally balanced diets based on digestible amino acid values. The results suggested that canola meal can be used in isocaloric diets as a partial replacement for Soybean meal.

Experiment 2 assessed broiler performance and carcass yields when using various levels of canola meal in broiler diets with a constant level of supplemental poultry oil. The resulting data suggested when diets are formulated with a constant level of supplemental ...

Response Of Broiler Chickens To Variation In Dietary Nutrient Content, Sarah Diane Goodgame Dec 2012

#### Response Of Broiler Chickens To Variation In Dietary Nutrient Content, Sarah Diane Goodgame

##### Theses and Dissertations

Rising feed costs, environmental pollution concerns targeted at animal agriculture, a worldwide focus on sustainability and the never ending battle to improve production and efficiency within the poultry industry challenges nutritionists to focus on products to improve nutrient digestibility and decrease feed costs while at the same time maximizing performance. The research presented in this dissertation focuses on improving nutrient utilization of protein sources with protein liberating enzymes currently available commercially. The research also conducted addresses the addition of crystalline amino acids valine and isoleucine and their effect on improving efficiency of broilers.

The first research project compared the efficacy ...

Superfund Evaluation: The Families Of Tar Creek, Gary D. Wilson Aug 2012

#### Superfund Evaluation: The Families Of Tar Creek, Gary D. Wilson

##### Theses and Dissertations

The Tar Creek Superfund Site is located in far northeastern Oklahoma near the Oklahoma/Kansas border in Ottawa County. The Site generally consists of a forty-square-mile area which is also part of the larger Tri-State Mining District that includes areas of Kansas and Missouri. The Site includes parts of five communities: Picher, Cardin, Quapaw, North Miami, and Commerce in Oklahoma. It also includes Treece, Kansas, and affects a total population of roughly 30,000 residents. Following Superfund designation, families in the Tar Creek area had to decide whether to accept or reject buy-out offers. This project explored the decision-making processes ...

Aug 2012

#### The Role Of Antioxidant Rich Berries In The Prevention Of Postmenopausal Bone Loss, Lydia Karimi Kaume

##### Theses and Dissertations

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most prevalent form of osteoporosis and results in fragility fractures. Smoking is one of the major risk factors for osteoporosis and is known to aggravate bone loss in postmenopausal women due to increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Diet-based interventions using berries have shown bone protective affects in animal studies partially due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of their phenolic compounds. The goal of this research was to determine the effects of antioxidant-rich fruits in the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss. Our first study examined the dose dependent effects of blackberries in preventing bone loss in an ...

Food Environment And Childhood Obesity, Yucong Jiao Aug 2012

#### Food Environment And Childhood Obesity, Yucong Jiao

##### Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines whether children's food environment, especially food stores that have fresh produce, affects obesity prevalence among elementary school children in the state of Arkansas. Misclassified food outlet types in the Dun and Bradstreet commercial data set were first corrected and then food environment measures were computed and aggregated to geographic regions corresponding to school attendance areas. After applying classical panel estimation, it was found that the fixed effects model fit the data best. Results indicate that an additional supermarket within a one-mile radial of the census neighborhood block center will bring down childhood obesity prevalence by 0 ...

#### Analyzing Spring Freeze Impacts On Deciduous Forest Productivity Using Modis Satellite Imagery, Karl Lintvedt

##### Theses and Dissertations

The impacts of an April 2007 spring freeze event on the productivity of deciduous broadleaf forest were analyzed using geographic information system (GIS) tools. Forest productivity was modeled using the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), as recorded by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor. Measures of spatial autocorrelation were used to quantify the degree of spatial congruence between a map depicting the severity of the freeze event, and maps modeling forest productivity throughout the year. The results show a geographic correlation between the unseasonably low minimum temperatures sustained during the freeze and the unusually low forest productivity that followed ...

#### Hospitality Students Perceptions About High Risk Behaviors In Relation To Destructive Behaviors And Decision Making, Boris A. Roslov

##### Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated hospitality students' perceptions regarding alcohol consumption and personal actions related to high risk behaviors. Those behaviors included: sexual encounters and binge drinking, and their effect on academic tasks and performance. The study investigated whether the hospitality student who is employed full time consumes alcohol at a higher level than a hospitality student does that is not employed full time.

Examining Activity Levels And Motor Proficiency: A Comparison Of Children Who Are Overweight And At A Healthy Weight To Their Parents And Peers, Aaron Copeland, Maresa Madsen, Riley Phelps, Brandon Richards May 2011

#### Examining Activity Levels And Motor Proficiency: A Comparison Of Children Who Are Overweight And At A Healthy Weight To Their Parents And Peers, Aaron Copeland, Maresa Madsen, Riley Phelps, Brandon Richards

##### UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships and differences between motor proficiency, activity level, and parental activity level in children who are at a healthy weight and children who are overweight or obese.

Methods: Forty-four children (26 children at a healthy weight and 18 children who were overweight or obese) between the ages of 8-16 (BMI: 14.3-43.6 kg/m2) and 36 parents (BMI: 18.1-44.7) participated in this study. Children and parents wore StepWatch activity monitors (SAM) to measure activity levels over a 72 hour period. Tests reflecting several determinants of motor performance were ...

#### Persistent Oral Dyskinesias Induced By Long-Term Haloperidol Treatment Is Dissociated From Changes In Neostriatal B(Max) And Mrna Content For Dopamine D(2) Receptors, Nuoyu Huang

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Due to the presumed associations of dopamine (DA) receptor supersensitivity phenomena in both long-term neuroleptic-treated tardive dyskinetic rats and neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine (n6-OHDA)-lesioned rats, we studied the influence of haloperidol on n6-OHDA-lesioned rats. At 3 days after birth rats received 6-OHDA-HBr (200 $\mu$g, bilateral intracerebroventricularly; desipramine pretreatment, 20 mg/kg, 1h) or vehicle. Two months later haloperidol (1.5/kg/day $\times$ 2 days/week for 4 weeks, then 1.5 mg/kg/day, every day for 10 months) was added to the drinking water. Spontaneous oral activity of intact and n6-OHDA-lesioned rats receiving haloperidol was reached and maintained ...