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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression In Mesenteric Adipose Tissue During Acute Experimental Colitis, William Conan Mustain, Marlene E. Starr, Joseph Daniel Valentino, Donald A. Cohen, Daiki Okamura, Chi Wang, B. Mark Evers, Hiroshi Saito Dec 2013

Inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression In Mesenteric Adipose Tissue During Acute Experimental Colitis, William Conan Mustain, Marlene E. Starr, Joseph Daniel Valentino, Donald A. Cohen, Daiki Okamura, Chi Wang, B. Mark Evers, Hiroshi Saito

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Production of inflammatory cytokines by mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Animal models of colitis have demonstrated inflammatory changes within MAT, but it is unclear if these changes occur in isolation or as part of a systemic adipose tissue response. It is also unknown what cell types are responsible for cytokine production within MAT. The present study was designed to determine whether cytokine production by MAT during experimental colitis is depot-specific, and also to identify the source of cytokine production within MAT.

METHODS: Experimental colitis was induced in 6-month-old C57BL ...


Bioengineered Lysozyme Reduces Bacterial Burden And Inflammation In A Murine Model Of Mucoid Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lung Infection, Charlotte C. Teneback, Thomas C. Scanlon, Matthew J. Wargo, Jenna L. Bement, Karl E. Griswold, Laurie W. Leclair Aug 2013

Bioengineered Lysozyme Reduces Bacterial Burden And Inflammation In A Murine Model Of Mucoid Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lung Infection, Charlotte C. Teneback, Thomas C. Scanlon, Matthew J. Wargo, Jenna L. Bement, Karl E. Griswold, Laurie W. Leclair

Open Dartmouth: Peer-reviewed articles by Dartmouth faculty

The spread of drug-resistant bacterial pathogens is a growing global concern and has prompted an effort to explore potential adjuvant and alternative therapies derived from nature's repertoire of bactericidal proteins and peptides. In humans, the airway surface liquid layer is a rich source of antibiotics, and lysozyme represents one of the most abundant and effective antimicrobial components of airway secretions. Human lysozyme is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, ac


Effects Of Prior Acute Exercise On Circulating Cytokine Concentration Responses To A High-Fat Meal, Josef Brandauer, Rian Q. Landers-Ramos, Nathan T. Jenkins, Espen E. Spangenburg, James M. Hagberg, Steven J. Prior Aug 2013

Effects Of Prior Acute Exercise On Circulating Cytokine Concentration Responses To A High-Fat Meal, Josef Brandauer, Rian Q. Landers-Ramos, Nathan T. Jenkins, Espen E. Spangenburg, James M. Hagberg, Steven J. Prior

Health Sciences Faculty Publications

High-fat meal consumption alters the circulating cytokine profile and contributes to cardiometabolic diseases. A prior bout of exercise can ameliorate the triglyceride response to a high-fat meal, but the interactive effects of exercise and high-fat meals on cytokines that mediate cardiometabolic risk are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of prior exercise on the responses of circulating tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, leptin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) to a high-fat meal. Ten healthy men were studied before ...


Rip3: A Molecular Switch For Necrosis And Inflammation, Kenta Moriwaki, Francis Ka-Ming Chan Aug 2013

Rip3: A Molecular Switch For Necrosis And Inflammation, Kenta Moriwaki, Francis Ka-Ming Chan

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3/RIPK3) has emerged as a critical regulator of programmed necrosis/necroptosis, an inflammatory form of cell death with important functions in pathogen-induced and sterile inflammation. RIP3 activation is tightly regulated by phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and caspase-mediated cleavage. These post-translational modifications coordinately regulate the assembly of a macromolecular signaling complex termed the necrosome. Recently, several reports indicate that RIP3 can promote inflammation independent of its pronecrotic activity. Here, we review our current understanding of the mechanisms that drive RIP3-dependent necrosis and its role in different inflammatory diseases.


Regulation Of Lipid Homeostasis, Inflammatory Signalling And Atherosclerosis By The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta, Lazar A. Bojic Jun 2013

Regulation Of Lipid Homeostasis, Inflammatory Signalling And Atherosclerosis By The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta, Lazar A. Bojic

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that has been implicated in metabolic and inflammatory regulation. The molecular and physiological mechanisms by which PPARδ activation regulates lipid metabolism, inflammatory signaling and protection from atherosclerosis in states of metabolic disturbance such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, were investigated in a series of in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro experiments demonstrated that PPARδ activation inhibits atherogenic lipoprotein-induced lipid accumulation and the associated proinflammatory responses. The primary mechanisms for these effects were increased fatty acid β-oxidation, decreased lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, reduced MAPK signaling and improved insulin ...


House Finch Populations Differ In Early Inflammatory Signaling And Pathogen Tolerance At The Peak Of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Infection, James S. Adelman, Laila Kirkpatrick, Jessica L. Grodio, Dana M. Hawley May 2013

House Finch Populations Differ In Early Inflammatory Signaling And Pathogen Tolerance At The Peak Of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Infection, James S. Adelman, Laila Kirkpatrick, Jessica L. Grodio, Dana M. Hawley

James S. Adelman

Host individuals and populations often vary in their responses to infection, with direct consequences for pathogen spread and evolution. While considerable work has focused on the mechanisms underlying differences in resistance—the ability to kill pathogens— we know little about the mechanisms underlying tolerance— the ability to minimize fitness losses per unit pathogen. Here, we examine patterns and mechanisms of tolerance between two populations of house finches (Haemorhous [formerly Carpodacus] mexicanus) with different histories with the bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). After infection in a common environment, we assessed two metrics of pathology, mass loss and eye lesion severity, as ...


Inflammatory Breast Cancer: The Immune Perspective, Evan N. Cohen May 2013

Inflammatory Breast Cancer: The Immune Perspective, Evan N. Cohen

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most insidious form of locally advanced disease. Although rare and less than 2% of all breast cancer, IBC is responsible for up to 10% of all breast cancer deaths. Despite the name, very little is known about the role of inflammation or immune mediators in IBC. Therefore, we analyzed blood samples from IBC patients and non-IBC patients, as well as healthy donor controls to establish an IBC-specific profile of peripheral blood leukocyte phenotype and function of T cells and dendritic cells and serum inflammatory cytokines.

Emerging evidence suggests that host factors in the microenviromement ...


Expression Of Itgb8 In Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Highly And Directly Correlated With The Severity Of Coronary Atherosclerosis, Nancy Lee, Sarah M. Nicoloro, Juerg R. Straubhaar, Melinda Darrigo, Stanley Tam, Michael P. Czech, Timothy P. Fitzgibbons May 2013

Expression Of Itgb8 In Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Highly And Directly Correlated With The Severity Of Coronary Atherosclerosis, Nancy Lee, Sarah M. Nicoloro, Juerg R. Straubhaar, Melinda Darrigo, Stanley Tam, Michael P. Czech, Timothy P. Fitzgibbons

Senior Scholars Program

Background: In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been shown to express increased levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, TNFα) and decreased levels of anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective adipokines. However, it is not known whether or not inflammation in EAT is a primary cause or a secondary response to atherosclerosis. In order to better understand this pathophysiology, we tested the hypothesis that expression of certain genes in EAT would correlate with the degree of coronary atherosclerosis.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in gene expression in epicardial ...


Local Macrophage Proliferation In Adipose Tissue Is A Characteristic Of Obesity-Associated Inflammation: A Dissertation, Shinya U. Amano Mar 2013

Local Macrophage Proliferation In Adipose Tissue Is A Characteristic Of Obesity-Associated Inflammation: A Dissertation, Shinya U. Amano

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Obesity and diabetes are major public health problems facing the world today. Extending our understanding of adipose tissue biology, and how it changes in obesity, will hopefully better equip our society in dealing with the obesity epidemic. Macrophages and other immune cells accumulate in the adipose tissue in obesity and secrete cytokines that can promote insulin resistance. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are thought to originate from bone marrow-derived monocytes, which infiltrate the tissue from the circulation. Much work has been done to demonstrate that inhibition of monocyte recruitment to the adipose tissue can ameliorate insulin resistance. While monocytes can enter ...


Obesity And Adipose Tissue Expansion In Ossabaw Swine, Richard Joel Faris Jan 2013

Obesity And Adipose Tissue Expansion In Ossabaw Swine, Richard Joel Faris

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Obesity is characterized as a state of chronic low-grade inflammation, which originates in adipose tissue from adipocyte dysfunction as a consequence of adipocyte hypertrophy. Although rodent models have been pivotal to understanding the etiology of obesity and its co-morbidities, and the roles of specific genes, distinct differences between rodents and humans underscore the need for alternative comparative models. Swine are an attractive comparative model because of similar physiology and anatomy with humans. Ossabaw swine are of particular interest due to their "thrifty" genotype and predisposition to multiple risk factors for the metabolic syndrome.

Saturated fatty acids have the distinct ability ...


Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels And C-Reactive Protein In Persons With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, C. Anderson Johnson, Kalpana Poudel-Tandukar, Krishna C. Poudel, Masamine Jimba, Jun Kobayashi, Paula Palmer Jan 2013

Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels And C-Reactive Protein In Persons With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, C. Anderson Johnson, Kalpana Poudel-Tandukar, Krishna C. Poudel, Masamine Jimba, Jun Kobayashi, Paula Palmer

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has frequently been associated with vitamin D deficiency as well as chronic inflammatory response. We tested the hypothesis of an independent relationship between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) in a cohort of HIV-positive people. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 316 HIV-positive people (181 men and 135 women) aged 16 to 60 years residing in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Serum high-sensitivity CRP concentrations and serum 25(OH)D levels were measured by the latex agglutination nephelometry method and the competitive protein-binding assay, respectively. The relationship between serum ...


Microglial Activation Decreases Retention Of The Protease Inhibitor Saquinavir: Implications For Hiv Treatment, Shannon Dallas, Michelle L. Block, Deborah M. Thompson, Marcelo G. Bonini, Patrick T. Ronaldson, Reina Bendayan, David S. Miller Jan 2013

Microglial Activation Decreases Retention Of The Protease Inhibitor Saquinavir: Implications For Hiv Treatment, Shannon Dallas, Michelle L. Block, Deborah M. Thompson, Marcelo G. Bonini, Patrick T. Ronaldson, Reina Bendayan, David S. Miller

Anatomy and Neurobiology Publications

Background

Active HIV infection within the central nervous system (CNS) is confined primarily to microglia. The glial cell compartment acts as a viral reservoir behind the blood-brain barrier. It provides an additional roadblock to effective pharmacological treatment via expression of multiple drug efflux transporters, including P-glycoprotein. HIV/AIDS patients frequently suffer bacterial and viral co-infections, leading to deregulation of glial cell function and release of pro-inflammatory mediators including cytokines, chemokines, and nitric oxide.

Methods

To better define the role of inflammation in decreased HIV drug accumulation into CNS targets, accumulation of the antiretroviral saquinavir was examined in purified cultures of ...