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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Bioengineered Lysozyme Reduces Bacterial Burden And Inflammation In A Murine Model Of Mucoid Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lung Infection, Charlotte C. Teneback, Thomas C. Scanlon, Matthew J. Wargo, Jenna L. Bement, Karl E. Griswold, Laurie W. Leclair Aug 2013

Bioengineered Lysozyme Reduces Bacterial Burden And Inflammation In A Murine Model Of Mucoid Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lung Infection, Charlotte C. Teneback, Thomas C. Scanlon, Matthew J. Wargo, Jenna L. Bement, Karl E. Griswold, Laurie W. Leclair

Open Dartmouth: Peer-reviewed articles by Dartmouth faculty

The spread of drug-resistant bacterial pathogens is a growing global concern and has prompted an effort to explore potential adjuvant and alternative therapies derived from nature's repertoire of bactericidal proteins and peptides. In humans, the airway surface liquid layer is a rich source of antibiotics, and lysozyme represents one of the most abundant and effective antimicrobial components of airway secretions. Human lysozyme is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, ac


Regulation Of Lipid Homeostasis, Inflammatory Signalling And Atherosclerosis By The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta, Lazar A. Bojic Jun 2013

Regulation Of Lipid Homeostasis, Inflammatory Signalling And Atherosclerosis By The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta, Lazar A. Bojic

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that has been implicated in metabolic and inflammatory regulation. The molecular and physiological mechanisms by which PPARδ activation regulates lipid metabolism, inflammatory signaling and protection from atherosclerosis in states of metabolic disturbance such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, were investigated in a series of in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro experiments demonstrated that PPARδ activation inhibits atherogenic lipoprotein-induced lipid accumulation and the associated proinflammatory responses. The primary mechanisms for these effects were increased fatty acid β-oxidation, decreased lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, reduced MAPK signaling and improved insulin ...


Expression Of Itgb8 In Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Highly And Directly Correlated With The Severity Of Coronary Atherosclerosis, Nancy Lee, Sarah M. Nicoloro, Juerg R. Straubhaar, Melinda Darrigo, Stanley Tam, Michael P. Czech, Timothy P. Fitzgibbons May 2013

Expression Of Itgb8 In Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Highly And Directly Correlated With The Severity Of Coronary Atherosclerosis, Nancy Lee, Sarah M. Nicoloro, Juerg R. Straubhaar, Melinda Darrigo, Stanley Tam, Michael P. Czech, Timothy P. Fitzgibbons

Senior Scholars Program

Background: In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been shown to express increased levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, TNFα) and decreased levels of anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective adipokines. However, it is not known whether or not inflammation in EAT is a primary cause or a secondary response to atherosclerosis. In order to better understand this pathophysiology, we tested the hypothesis that expression of certain genes in EAT would correlate with the degree of coronary atherosclerosis.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in gene expression in epicardial ...


Molecular Basis Of Nod1 And Nod2 Signaling, Aaron Martin Ver Heul May 2013

Molecular Basis Of Nod1 And Nod2 Signaling, Aaron Martin Ver Heul

Theses and Dissertations

NOD1 and NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing proteins 1 and 2) are related innate immune receptors responsible for initiating a response to bacterial infection. They belong to a class of receptors known as Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), which are germline encoded immune receptors that mediate various innate immune responses. These receptors recognize conserved microbial motifs known as Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs). The PRR-PAMP paradigm forms the bedrock of how innate immunity is understood today. As two of the first intracellular PRRs discovered, NOD1 and NOD2 came to define an entire subclass of PRRs, the NOD-like receptors (NLRs). PRRs relay their signals ...


Ikkβ In Myeloid Cells Controls The Host Response To Lethal And Sublethal Francisella Tularensis Lvs Infection, Sylvia Samaniego, Kenneth B. Marcu Jan 2013

Ikkβ In Myeloid Cells Controls The Host Response To Lethal And Sublethal Francisella Tularensis Lvs Infection, Sylvia Samaniego, Kenneth B. Marcu

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology Faculty Publications

Background

The NF-κB activating kinases, IKKα and IKKβ, are key regulators of inflammation and immunity in response to infection by a variety of pathogens. Both IKKα and IKKβ have been reported to modulate either pro- or anti- inflammatory programs, which may be specific to the infectious organism or the target tissue. Here, we analyzed the requirements for the IKKs in myeloid cells in vivo in response to Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (Ft. LVS) infection.

Methods and Principal Findings

In contrast to prior reports in which conditional deletion of IKKβ in the myeloid lineage promoted survival and conferred resistance to ...


The Effects Of Heat Stress In Redox Balance And Inflammatory Signaling In Porcine Skeletal Muscle, Sandra Isabel Rosado Montilla Jan 2013

The Effects Of Heat Stress In Redox Balance And Inflammatory Signaling In Porcine Skeletal Muscle, Sandra Isabel Rosado Montilla

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Heat stress (HS) is a major concern for human health as well as for the swine industry. In 2012, HS resulted in the largest number of weather related human fatalities in the US. Animal production is also compromised as HS leads to poor sow performance, decreased carcass value and increased veterinary costs. However, the molecular effects of HS on skeletal muscle are still unclear. This study aimed to determine the extent to which HS disrupted redox balance and initiated an inflammatory response in oxidative and glycolytic porcine skeletal muscle. Moreover, we quantified the contribution of reduced feed intake to the ...


The Role Of Tipe2 In The Regulation Of Inflammation And Tumorigenesis, Derek Johnson Jan 2013

The Role Of Tipe2 In The Regulation Of Inflammation And Tumorigenesis, Derek Johnson

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

TIPE2 is a recently discovered regulator of immunity and inflammation. Here we describe a new function of TIPE2 in the regulation of Ras signaling and Tumorigenesis. By using various stimuli and inhibitors in T Cells and macrophages we discovered that TIPE2 is regulated at both the message and protein level by inflammatory stimuli. TIPE2 mRNA is regulated in the short to intermediate term by an NF-Kappa B induced micro RNA, and TIPE2 is also ubiquitylated and degraded, possibly by SCF-Beta TRCP. Mechanistically TIPE2 interacts with and inhibits the Ras-interacting domain of the RalGDS family of Ras effectors, leading to a ...