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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Mechanisms For Regulation Of Plant Kinesins, Anindya Ganguly, Ram Dixit Dec 2013

Mechanisms For Regulation Of Plant Kinesins, Anindya Ganguly, Ram Dixit

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Throughout the eukaryotic world, kinesins serve as molecular motors for the directional transport of cellular cargo along microtubule tracks. Plants contain a large number of kinesins that have conserved as well as specialized functions. These functions depend on mechanisms that regulate when, where and what kinesins transport. In this review, we highlight recent studies that have revealed conserved modes of regulation between plant kinesins and their non-photosynthetic counterparts. These findings lay the groundwork for understanding how plant kinesins are differentially engaged in various cellular processes that underlie plant growth and development.


Real-Time Qpcr Assay Development For Detection Of Bacillus Thuringiensis And Serratia Marcescens Dna And The Influence Of Complex Microbial Community Dna On Assay Sensitivity, Jonathan Segal Nov 2013

Real-Time Qpcr Assay Development For Detection Of Bacillus Thuringiensis And Serratia Marcescens Dna And The Influence Of Complex Microbial Community Dna On Assay Sensitivity, Jonathan Segal

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR) assays are an effective technique to detect biological warfare agents and surrogate organisms. In my study, primers were designed to detect chromosomal DNA of biological warfare agent surrogates B. thuringiensis and S. marcescens (representing B. anthracis and Y. pestis, respectively) via real-time qPCR. Species-level specificity of the primers was demonstrated through comparisons with a bacterial strain panel and corroborated by qPCR data. Additionally, the primer efficacy was tested when template DNA was spiked into metagenomic DNA extracted from clinical lung microbiome samples. The results showed that while detection of B. thuringiensis or S ...


Mscs-Like Mechanosensitive Channels In Plants And Microbes, Margaret E. Wilson, Grigory Maksaev, Elizabeth S. Haswell Aug 2013

Mscs-Like Mechanosensitive Channels In Plants And Microbes, Margaret E. Wilson, Grigory Maksaev, Elizabeth S. Haswell

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

The challenge of osmotic stress is something all living organisms must face as a result of environmental dynamics. Over the past three decades, innovative research and cooperation across disciplines have irrefutably established that cells utilize mechanically gated ion channels to release osmolytes and prevent cell lysis during hypoosmotic stress. Early electrophysiological analysis of the inner membrane of Escherichia coli identified the presence of three distinct mechanosensitive activities. The subsequent discoveries of the genes responsible for two of these activities, the mechanosensitive channels of large (MscL) and small (MscS) conductance, led to the identification of two diverse families of mechanosensitive channels ...


A Force Of Nature: Molecular Mechanisms Of Mechanoperception In Plants, Gabriele B. Monshausen, Elizabeth S. Haswell Aug 2013

A Force Of Nature: Molecular Mechanisms Of Mechanoperception In Plants, Gabriele B. Monshausen, Elizabeth S. Haswell

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

The ability to sense and respond to a wide variety of mechanical stimuli-gravity, touch, osmotic pressure, or the resistance of the cell wall-is a critical feature of every plant cell, whether or not it is specialized for mechanotransduction. Mechanoperceptive events are an essential part of plant life, required for normal growth and development at the cell, tissue, and whole-plant level and for the proper response to an array of biotic and abiotic stresses. One current challenge for plant mechanobiologists is to link these physiological responses to specific mechanoreceptors and signal transduction pathways. Here, we describe recent progress in the identification ...


Role Of Nucleation In Cortical Microtubule Array Organization: Variations On A Theme, Erica A. Fishel, Ram Dixit Jul 2013

Role Of Nucleation In Cortical Microtubule Array Organization: Variations On A Theme, Erica A. Fishel, Ram Dixit

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

The interphase cortical microtubules (CMTs) of plant cells form strikingly ordered arrays in the absence of a dedicated microtubule-organizing center. Considerable research effort has focused on activities such as bundling and severing that occur after CMT nucleation and are thought to be important for generating and maintaining ordered arrays. In this review, we focus on how nucleation affects CMT array organization. The bulk of CMTs are initiated from γ-tubulin-containing nucleation complexes localized to the lateral walls of pre-existing CMTs. These CMTs grow either at an acute angle or parallel to the pre-existing CMT. Although the impact of microtubule-dependent nucleation is ...


Immunomodulatory Activity Of Sambucus Mexicana And Trichostema Lanatum On Lps Stimulated Raw 264.7 Macrophage Cells, Victoria Hester, P. Matthew Joyner Jul 2013

Immunomodulatory Activity Of Sambucus Mexicana And Trichostema Lanatum On Lps Stimulated Raw 264.7 Macrophage Cells, Victoria Hester, P. Matthew Joyner

Featured Research

Chumash medicinal plants Sambucus mexicana (Mexican elderberry) and Trichostema lanatum (woolly blue curls) were tested for immunomodulatory activity. Anti-inflammatory effects were determined by treating LPS induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells with plant extracts and measuring the levels of cytokines: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). We hypothesized that both plants would exert immunomodulatory activity by reducing the pro-inflammatory production of TNF-alpha or by promoting M2 polarization with a concurrent increase in IL-10 production. At concentration 0.01 mg/mL woolly blue curls and Mexican elderberry demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity by reducing the concentration of TNF-alpha in vitro ...


An Ethnobotanical Approach To Finding Antimicrobial Compounds In Wooly Blue Curls (Trichostema Lanatum) Using A Kirby-Bauer Disc Diffusion Assay, Matthew C. Fleming, P. Matthew Joyner Jul 2013

An Ethnobotanical Approach To Finding Antimicrobial Compounds In Wooly Blue Curls (Trichostema Lanatum) Using A Kirby-Bauer Disc Diffusion Assay, Matthew C. Fleming, P. Matthew Joyner

Featured Research

Plants can be an important source of creativity and production of new drugs. In this study, extracts of wooly blue curls (Trichostema lanatum) were made using DMSO and tested for antimicrobial activity on a panel of bacteria commonly found in separate ecological niches. Wooly blue curls (WBC) was chosen due to its being recorded as a strong disinfectant by the Chumash people. It was found that WBC does exhibit antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria and not against gram negative bacteria. However, gram negative bacteria with reduced drug efflux function became susceptible to the WBC extract.


Integrating Art And Science In Undergraduate Education, Daniel Gurnon Feb 2013

Integrating Art And Science In Undergraduate Education, Daniel Gurnon

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty publications

The prevailing vision for undergraduate science education includes increased collaboration among teachers of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) and an overhaul of introductory courses [1][4]. But by staying within the borders of STEM, are we overlooking connections between the arts and innovative science? Likewise, are we missing an important opportunity to inspire and inform nonscientists? Here we explore how weaving the visual arts into a science curriculum can both help develop scientific imagination and engage nonscientists. As an example, we describe a recent collaboration between artists and scientists to create a series of science-inspired sculptures.


A Bacterial Symbiont Is Converted From An Inedible Producer Of Beneficial Molecules Into Food By A Single Mutation In The Gaca Gene, Pierre Stallforth, Debra A. Brock, Alexandra M. Cantley, Xiangjun Tian, David C. Queller, Joan E. Strassmann, Jon Clardy Jan 2013

A Bacterial Symbiont Is Converted From An Inedible Producer Of Beneficial Molecules Into Food By A Single Mutation In The Gaca Gene, Pierre Stallforth, Debra A. Brock, Alexandra M. Cantley, Xiangjun Tian, David C. Queller, Joan E. Strassmann, Jon Clardy

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Stable multipartite mutualistic associations require that all partners benefit. We show that a single mutational step is sufficient to turn a symbiotic bacterium from an inedible but host-beneficial secondary metabolite producer into a host food source. The bacteria's host is a "farmer" clone of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum that carries and disperses bacteria during its spore stage. Associated with the farmer are two strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, only one of which serves as a food source. The other strain produces diffusible small molecules: pyrrolnitrin, a known antifungal agent, and a chromene that potently enhances the farmer's spore ...


Biology And Ecology Of Glyphosate-Resistant Giant Ragweed, Kabelo Segobye Jan 2013

Biology And Ecology Of Glyphosate-Resistant Giant Ragweed, Kabelo Segobye

Open Access Theses

Giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) is a competitive annual plant found in disturbed landscapes and is the most troublesome weed in Indiana and the US Corn Belt. It is one of the most common and problematic weeds in corn and soybean production. The introduction of herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine in early 1970's provided farmers with a better and low-cost tool to control weeds. The use of glyphosate drastically increased after the development of glyphosate resistant agronomic crops in 1996 and was use as a post-emergence selective herbicide. This led to overreliance and repeated use of glyphosate for weed ...