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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Mechanisms Of Immunity And Pathology During Canine Leishmaniasis: Leading The Way To Prevention And Treatment, Kevin Jan Esch Jan 2013

Mechanisms Of Immunity And Pathology During Canine Leishmaniasis: Leading The Way To Prevention And Treatment, Kevin Jan Esch

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by certain species of the genus Leishmania results in a significant disease burden worldwide. This is most pronounced in some of the world's poorest communities. In South America and the Mediterranean basin, dogs are the major domestic reservoir for Leishmania infantum, one cause of human VL. In addition, dogs infected with L. infantum have an immune response and pathophysiology similar to human cases, making them a representative naturally-occurring animal model of VL. Chronic infection with Leishmania infantum can result in asymptomatic infection for a long period of time or symptomatic, potentially life-threatening visceralizing disease. Immunopathology ...


Polyanhydride Particle Platform For Design Of Novel Influenza Vaccines, Lucas Mark Huntimer Jan 2013

Polyanhydride Particle Platform For Design Of Novel Influenza Vaccines, Lucas Mark Huntimer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Vaccines remain the most effective medical intervention to disease in which effective vaccines are available. Designing vaccines that elicit protective immunity while minimizing adverse events is difficult. Exacerbating the challenges of vaccine design is the increased emphasis on using pure preparation of antigens that alleviate safety concerns but also show decreased potency. Therefore the need for safe adjuvants to boost immunity of subunit immunizations is great. This work demonstrates the capability of a novel bio-erodible polyanhydride particle platform to enhance humoral and cellular immunity. Encapsulation of 25 µg of Ovalbumin (Ova) antigen in microparticles elicits humoral immune responses equivalent to ...


Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Diagnostic Update And Search For Novel Modified Live Vaccines, Joshua Scott Ellingson Jan 2013

Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Diagnostic Update And Search For Novel Modified Live Vaccines, Joshua Scott Ellingson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus continues to be a significant problem for pork producers. The aim of this body of work was to help stakeholders control and prevention infection with this virus. A literature review of currently available diagnostic tests and guidelines for their interpretation serves as a resource for producers, practitioners, and researchers. The research focus was to evaluate two novel methods to develop improved modified live vaccines. The efficacy of viral chimeras constructed from a commercially available vaccine and a virulent wild-type isolate and the ability to attenuate wild-type isolates with a unique cell passage process are ...


Exercise-Mediated Changes In Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Production Of Ifnα And The Effects Of Moderate Intensity Exercise On Immune Response To Influenza Infection And Influenza Vaccine, Justus Hallam Jan 2013

Exercise-Mediated Changes In Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Production Of Ifnα And The Effects Of Moderate Intensity Exercise On Immune Response To Influenza Infection And Influenza Vaccine, Justus Hallam

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate exercise is associated with improved resistance to infection; it has also been shown that acute exhaustive exercise is associated with increased susceptibility to infection, particularly upper respiratory tract infections. Seasonal influenza virus is a contagious upper respiratory tract infection that can lead to widespread morbidity and mortality each year, despite the availability of a vaccine for influenza. Type I interferons (IFNs) are one of the body's first lines of defense against viral infection. Influenza vaccines containing interferon-alpha (IFNa) have been shown to increase antigen-specific antibody titer. The purpose of the experiments carried out in ...


Utilities Of Reverse Genetics System As A Platform For The Development Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome (Prrs) Virus Vaccine, Dong Sun Jan 2013

Utilities Of Reverse Genetics System As A Platform For The Development Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome (Prrs) Virus Vaccine, Dong Sun

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive disorder in breeding pigs and respiratory symptoms in pigs of all ages. The virus continues to bring significant economic losses to swine industry, and is considered to be one of the most important swine pathogens. Vaccination has been utilized to aid or facilitate PRRS control. Among various types of vaccines used, attenuated live virus vaccines appear to be more efficacious than killed virus vaccines. However, the effect of vaccination with attenuated live virus vaccines is crippled by several safety and efficacy issues. First, the vaccine development process is time-consuming. Second, the ...


Synthetic Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines Against Respiratory Pathogens, Kathleen Alaine Ross Jan 2013

Synthetic Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines Against Respiratory Pathogens, Kathleen Alaine Ross

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Avian influenza A H5N1 is rapidly gaining the potential to be the next influenza pandemic threat. Human cases of H5N1 have proven to be approximately 60% fatal with a growing number of strains becoming resistant to antiviral treatments. Therefore, there is a strong need for new research to develop a pandemic H5N1 avian influenza vaccine. In this work, a synthetic polyanhydride nanoparticle-based vaccine (or nanovaccine) platform for respiratory pathogens such as H5N1 was designed. In particular, the work focused on the design of a subunit vaccine based on antigens specific to H5N1 avian influenza.

Intranasal administration of vaccines can increase ...