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2013

Chemistry

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Articles 61 - 90 of 201

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Zinc Chemical Biology: The Pursuit Of The Intracellular Targets Of Zinquin, Andrew Nowakowski Aug 2013

Zinc Chemical Biology: The Pursuit Of The Intracellular Targets Of Zinquin, Andrew Nowakowski

Theses and Dissertations

Fluorescent sensors have been a main microscopic tools used to understand Zn2+ physiology on a cellular level. The use of the fluorescent Zn2+ sensor Zinquin (ZQ) and its analogues have revealed that transient Zn2+ is a chief component in a variety of biochemical pathways. Yet, little work has been performed to validate the exact targets of Zinquin in a cellular environment. The goals of this investigation are to determine the types of Zinquin reactions that take place in the cell as well as the identities of its cellular targets.

It has been hypothesized that Zinquin reacts with free Zn2+ within ...


Effects Of Composition And Separation Techniques On The Structure Of Aggregates In The Milk Fat Globular Membrane, Tristan Dilbeck, Jose Ibarra, Rafael Jimenez-Flores, Tracey Nguyen Aug 2013

Effects Of Composition And Separation Techniques On The Structure Of Aggregates In The Milk Fat Globular Membrane, Tristan Dilbeck, Jose Ibarra, Rafael Jimenez-Flores, Tracey Nguyen

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The milk fat globular membrane (MFGM) is a complex structure composed mainly of phospholipids, sphingolipids, and membrane specific proteins. The composition and size of the MFGM differs based on the isolation, purification, and techniques used in analysis of the membrane as well as physiological, chemical, and mechanical factors present during its creation. The purpose of this experiment is to analyze the effects of separation techniques and composition of lipids and proteins on the structure of aggregates in the MFGM. The aggregates found in whey protein isolate (95% pure whey protein), whey buttermilk (whey protein and phospholipids), and sweet buttermilk (whey ...


Single Step Synthesis Of Antibiotic Kanamycin Embedded Gold Nanoparticles For Efficient Antibacterial Activity, Shravan Gavva Aug 2013

Single Step Synthesis Of Antibiotic Kanamycin Embedded Gold Nanoparticles For Efficient Antibacterial Activity, Shravan Gavva

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Nanotechnology has become the most advanced type of drug delivery system within the last decade. This advancement shifted the focus on small carriers to increase the efficiency of the drugs. Among these, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were found to have profound biomedical applications. In current research, kanamycin embedded GNPs were prepared in a single step, single phase, and bio-friendly (green synthesis) procedure. The synthesized Kanamycin-GNPs (Kan-GNPs) were spherical in shape and had a size range of 15 ± 3 nm. The chosen kanamycin is an aminoglycosidic antibiotic that is isolated from Streptomyces kanamyceticus. These special antibiotic GNPs are further characterized using several ...


Effects Of Xanthan/Locust Bean Gum Mixtures On The Physicochemical Properties And Oxidative Stability Of Whey Protein Stabilized Oil-In-Water Emulsions, Goutham Puli Aug 2013

Effects Of Xanthan/Locust Bean Gum Mixtures On The Physicochemical Properties And Oxidative Stability Of Whey Protein Stabilized Oil-In-Water Emulsions, Goutham Puli

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Scientific evidence shows that dietary intake of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is beneficial to human health. Fish oil is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids. However, fish oil with high levels of omega-3 PUFA is very susceptible to oxidative deterioration during storage. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of xanthan gum (XG)-locust bean gum (LBG) mixtures on the physicochemical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) stabilized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing 20% v/v menhaden oil. The O/W emulsions containing XG/LBG mixtures were compared to emulsions with either XG or LBG ...


The Role Of Metallothionein In Zinc Homeostasis, Kelly L. Summers Jul 2013

The Role Of Metallothionein In Zinc Homeostasis, Kelly L. Summers

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The structure of the unique metal-binding protein, metallothionein (MT), consists of two metal-thiolate-clustered binding domains; the β-domain binds up to three divalent metals and the α-domain binds four. The mechanisms through which the metals are bound and arranged into domains, as well as the function of MT in metal ion homeostasis, remains largely unknown. By utilizing electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS) to identify each species, and by comparing the data with simulations, MT 1a was found to bind Zn2+ non-cooperatively. Through a competition experiment between MT and its individual domain peptides, MT was proposed to bind Zn2 ...


Studies Toward The Synthesis Of Lyconadin A And Cranomycin, Brad M. Loertscher Jul 2013

Studies Toward The Synthesis Of Lyconadin A And Cranomycin, Brad M. Loertscher

Theses and Dissertations

Lyconadin A is a pentacyclic Lycopodium alkaloid isolated from the club moss Lycopodium companatum with anticancer activity. Our approach sought to incorporate a 7-exo–6-exo acyl radical cyclization cascade to access the bicyclo[5.4.0]undecane framework of lyconadin A. Our studies created methodology for the synthesis of 5-alkyl and 3,5-dialkyl-6-carbomethoxy-2-pyridones and sterically demanding epoxide substrates. These epoxide substrates underwent an unanticipated Payne rearrangement.Cranomycin is a potent antibiotic with antiprotozoal activity. Structurally it is a cyclopentane ring system with substitution at each carbon in the ring. Another interesting structural aspect is the existence of three contiguous quaternary ...


Developmental Signaling Requires Inwardly Rectifying K+ Channels In Drosophila Melanogaster, Giri Raj Dahal Jul 2013

Developmental Signaling Requires Inwardly Rectifying K+ Channels In Drosophila Melanogaster, Giri Raj Dahal

Theses and Dissertations

Inwardly rectifying potassium (IRK/Kir) channels regulate intracellular K+ concentrations and membrane potential. Disruption of Kir2.1 causes dominantly inherited Andersen Tawil Syndrome (ATS). ATS patients suffer from cardiac arrhythmias, periodic paralysis, and cognitive impairment. These symptoms are consistent with current understanding of the role of ion channels in muscle cells and neurons. However, ATS symptoms also include craniofacial and digital deformities such as cleft palate, dental defects, wide set eyes, low set ears, and crooked or fused digits. These developmental defects were not consistent with current understanding of developmental signaling or previously described roles for ion channels. We found ...


The Role Of Smpb In Licensing Tmrna Entry Into Stalled Ribosomes, Mickey R. Miller Jul 2013

The Role Of Smpb In Licensing Tmrna Entry Into Stalled Ribosomes, Mickey R. Miller

Theses and Dissertations

Ribosomes translate the genetic information contained in mRNAs into protein by linking together amino acids with the help of aminoacyl-tRNAs. In bacteria, protein synthesis stalls when the ribosome reaches the 3'-end of truncated mRNA transcripts lacking a stop codon. Trans-translation is a conserved bacterial quality control process that rescues stalled ribosomes. Transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) and its protein partner SmpB mimic a tRNA by entering the A site of the ribosome and accepting the growing peptide chain. The ribosome releases the truncated mRNA and resumes translation on the tmRNA template. The open reading frame found on tmRNA encodes a peptide ...


Carcinogenic Adducts Induce Distinct Dna Polymerase Binding Orientations, Kyle B. Vrtis, Radoslaw P. Markiewicz, Louis J. Romano, David Rueda Jun 2013

Carcinogenic Adducts Induce Distinct Dna Polymerase Binding Orientations, Kyle B. Vrtis, Radoslaw P. Markiewicz, Louis J. Romano, David Rueda

Chemistry Faculty Research Publications

DNA polymerases must accurately replicate DNA to maintain genome integrity. Carcinogenic adducts, such as 2-aminofluorene (AF) and N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene (AAF), covalently bind DNA bases and promote mutagenesis near the adduct site. The mechanism by which carcinogenic adducts inhibit DNA synthesis and cause mutagenesis remains unclear. Here, we measure interactions between a DNA polymerase and carcinogenic DNA adducts in real-time by single-molecule fluorescence. We find the degree to which an adduct affects polymerase binding to the DNA depends on the adduct location with respect to the primer terminus, the adduct structure and the nucleotides present in the solution. Not only do the ...


Investigation Of Water-Molecule Complexes And Their Catalytic Effect On Important Atmospheric Reactions, Taylor Scott Cline Jun 2013

Investigation Of Water-Molecule Complexes And Their Catalytic Effect On Important Atmospheric Reactions, Taylor Scott Cline

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is a collection of works that investigates issues related to environmental chemistry. The first portion of this research explores the role of water vapor on the kinetics of important atmospheric reactions. Work is presented on the self-reaction of β-hydroxyethyl peroxy radical (β-HEP) and the catalytic increase in reaction rate by water vapor. β-HEP serves as a model system for investigating the possible role of water vapor in perturbing the kinetics and product branching ratio of atmospheric reactions of other alkyl peroxy radicals. The self-reaction rate coefficient of β-HEP was investigated between 276-296 K with 1.0 × 10^15 ...


A Computationally Designed Water-Soluble Variant Of A G-Protein-Coupled Receptor: The Human Mu Opioid Receptor, Jose Manuel Perez Aguilar, Jin Xi, Felipe Matsunaga, Xu Cui, Bernard Selling, Jeffery G. Saven, Renyu Liu Jun 2013

A Computationally Designed Water-Soluble Variant Of A G-Protein-Coupled Receptor: The Human Mu Opioid Receptor, Jose Manuel Perez Aguilar, Jin Xi, Felipe Matsunaga, Xu Cui, Bernard Selling, Jeffery G. Saven, Renyu Liu

Departmental Papers (Chemistry)

G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play essential roles in various physiological processes, and are widely targeted by pharmaceutical drugs. Despite their importance, studying GPCRs has been problematic due to difficulties in isolating large quantities of these membrane proteins in forms that retain their ligand binding capabilities. Creating water-soluble variants of GPCRs by mutating the exterior, transmembrane residues provides a potential method to overcome these difficulties. Here we present the first study involving the computational design, expression and characterization of water-soluble variant of a human GPCR, the human mu opioid receptor (MUR), which is involved in pain and addiction. An atomistic structure of ...


Miniaturized Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap Mass Analyzer, Junting Wang Jun 2013

Miniaturized Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap Mass Analyzer, Junting Wang

Theses and Dissertations

The electrostatic ion beam trap (EIBT) was designed by D. Zajfman during the previous decade. This ion trap combines many properties of the Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass analyzer and time-of-flight (TOF) mass analyzer. There are several advantages for the electrostatic ion beam trap. First, large mass-to-charge particles in an electrostatic field could be easier to analyze. Second, there is a folded flight path, which could make the mass analyzer smaller compared to conventional TOF mass analyzer. This principle of operation of this ion trap is analogous to an optical resonator. The ions are trapped in a voltage valley ...


Identification And Differentiation Of Tier 1 Bacterial Agents Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Dan Li Jun 2013

Identification And Differentiation Of Tier 1 Bacterial Agents Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Dan Li

Theses and Dissertations

A simple method was developed for detection and differentiation of five Tier 1 bacterial agents, including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei as well as their closely related near neighbors by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Generally, different classes of compounds can be used as biomarkers for biowarfare agent detection, including nucleic acids (i.e., DNA or RNA), proteins (i.e., antibodies), carbohydrates (i.e., sugars), lipopolysaccharides, lipids (i.e., fatty acids) and small molecules. One-step thermochemolysis (TCM) was developed to provide GC-MS detectable biomarker signatures, including sugars, fatty acids and small molecules. Solid phase micro-extraction ...


Overview Of The Recent Fda Process Validation Guidance For Medicinal Product Development And Manufacture, Nuala Calnan Jun 2013

Overview Of The Recent Fda Process Validation Guidance For Medicinal Product Development And Manufacture, Nuala Calnan

Conference Papers

This conference paper presents an overview of the recently published FDA Process Validation Guideline for the development and manufacture of medicinal drug products. It discusses the impacts of conducting life cycle based validation activities and highlights the future challenges in meeting the ongoing 'Continued Process Validation' (CPV) expectations of the regulator. It also presents the latest information on the EU draft Process Validation Guidance - due for publication in late 2013 / 2014.


Bacterial Spores Remain Viable After Electrospray Charging And Desolvation, Sara Nielson Pratt Jun 2013

Bacterial Spores Remain Viable After Electrospray Charging And Desolvation, Sara Nielson Pratt

Theses and Dissertations

The electrospray survivability of B. subtilis spores and E. coli was tested in atmospheric mobility experiments. E. coli did not survive electrospray charging and desolvation, but B. subtilis did. Experimental conditions ensured that any surviving bacteria were charged, desolvated, and de-agglomerated. B. subtilis was also found to survive both positive and negative electrospray and subsequent introduction into vacuum conditions. Attempts were made to measure the charge distribution of viable B. subtilis spores using electrostatic deflection. From those experiments, it was found that either the spores do not become highly charged under the electrospray conditions used or only spores in a ...


The Mathematics Of A Successful Deconvolution: A Quantitative Assessment Of Mixture-Based Combinatorial Libraries Screened Against Two Formylpeptide Receptors, Radleigh Santos, Jon R. Appel, Marc Giulianotti, Bruce S. Edwards, Larry A. Sklar, Richard A. Houghten, Clemencia Pinilla May 2013

The Mathematics Of A Successful Deconvolution: A Quantitative Assessment Of Mixture-Based Combinatorial Libraries Screened Against Two Formylpeptide Receptors, Radleigh Santos, Jon R. Appel, Marc Giulianotti, Bruce S. Edwards, Larry A. Sklar, Richard A. Houghten, Clemencia Pinilla

Mathematics Faculty Articles

In the past 20 years, synthetic combinatorial methods have fundamentally advanced the ability to synthesize and screen large numbers of compounds for drug discovery and basic research. Mixture-based libraries and positional scanning deconvolution combine two approaches for the rapid identification of specific scaffolds and active ligands. Here we present a quantitative assessment of the screening of 32 positional scanning libraries in the identification of highly specific and selective ligands for two formylpeptide receptors. We also compare and contrast two mixture-based library approaches using a mathematical model to facilitate the selection of active scaffolds and libraries to be pursued for further ...


Isolation, Characterization And Synthesis Of Asthma Inducing Fungal Glycolipid And Analytical Method Development For Novel Antimicrobial Peptide Mimics, Vinod Chaudhary May 2013

Isolation, Characterization And Synthesis Of Asthma Inducing Fungal Glycolipid And Analytical Method Development For Novel Antimicrobial Peptide Mimics, Vinod Chaudhary

Theses and Dissertations

NKT cells are an important part of human immune system and recognize a specific set of antigens called glycolipids. Only a handful of "natural" NKT cell antigens are known till date. Although NKT cells play a protective role against pathogenic organisms, imbalances in NKT cell functions are implicated in many diseases including asthma. Allergic asthma, a Th2 driven inflammation of airways, is primarily caused by inhalation of environmental allergens. In the last decade, inhaled allergen Aspergillus fumigatus has been under scrutiny for the presence of NKT cell antigens that might trigger asthma. We successfully isolated, characterized and synthesized a "natural ...


Synthesis And Immunological Evaluation Of Type I, Type Ii, And Gamma Delta Nkt Cell Antigens, Brian L. Anderson May 2013

Synthesis And Immunological Evaluation Of Type I, Type Ii, And Gamma Delta Nkt Cell Antigens, Brian L. Anderson

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the immune system is to protect our bodies from infection. One way it accomplishes this task is through the presentation of foreign pathogens to NKT cells. After an antigen is presented to the T cell receptor, activated NKT cells quickly release soluble chemical signals, termed chemokines and cytokines, that modulate the response of the immune system. Due to the immunological relevance of NKT cell activation, we developed and synthesised non-natural analogs of immunostimulatory type I, II, and gamma delta NKT cell antigens. The immunological evaluations of these analogs resulted in identification of sulfatide as a gamma delta ...


N→Π* Interactions Of Amides And Thioamides: Implications For Protein Stability, Robert W. Newberry, Brett Vanveller, Ilia A. Guzei, Ronald T. Raines May 2013

N→Π* Interactions Of Amides And Thioamides: Implications For Protein Stability, Robert W. Newberry, Brett Vanveller, Ilia A. Guzei, Ronald T. Raines

Brett VanVeller

Carbonyl–carbonyl interactions between adjacent backbone amides have been implicated in the conformational stability of proteins. By combining experimental and computational approaches, we show that relevant amidic carbonyl groups associate through an n→π* donor–acceptor interaction with an energy of at least 0.27 kcal/mol. The n→π* interaction between two thioamides is 3-fold stronger than between two oxoamides due to increased overlap and reduced energy difference between the donor and acceptor orbitals. This result suggests that backbone thioamide incorporation could stabilize protein structures. Finally, we demonstrate that intimate carbonyl interactions are described more completely as donor–acceptor ...


Maltoheptaose Promotes Nanoparticle Internalization By Escherichia Coli, H. Surangi N. Jayawardena, Kalana W. Jayawardana, Xuan Chen, Mingdi Yan May 2013

Maltoheptaose Promotes Nanoparticle Internalization By Escherichia Coli, H. Surangi N. Jayawardena, Kalana W. Jayawardana, Xuan Chen, Mingdi Yan

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Nanoparticles conjugated with D-maltoheptaose (G7) showed a striking increase in the surface adherence and internalization by E. coli. This applies to silica nanoparticles (SNP), magnetic nanoparticles (MNP), silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (SMNP) and silica-coated quantum dots (SQDs) ranging from a few to over a hundred nanometers in size, as well as wild type E. coli ATCC 33456, ORN 178, ORN 208 with the maltodextrin transport channel and the LamB mutant JW 3392-1 (Fig. 1). TEM images including the thin section samples revealed the uptake of nanoparticles in cell walls and inside the cytoplasm (Fig. 2). Unfunctionalized nanoparticles and nanoparticles functionalized with ...


Glyconanoparticle Uptake Profile In Lung Carcinoma Cells, Kalana W. Jayawardana, H. Surangi N. Jayawardena, Thareendra De Zoysa, Mingdi Yan May 2013

Glyconanoparticle Uptake Profile In Lung Carcinoma Cells, Kalana W. Jayawardana, H. Surangi N. Jayawardena, Thareendra De Zoysa, Mingdi Yan

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is responsible for nearly 85% of lung cancer, and early diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer can circumvent possible death. We focus on glyconanoparticles with a magnetic or a fluorescent core that act as multivalent glyco-scaffold to study cell surface interaction and internalization. The glyconanoparticles were synthesized by conjugating various carbohydrates on magnetic nanoparticles and fluorescent silica nanoparticles by a photocoupling technique developed in our laboratory. The size of nanoparticles used varies from 6 nm to 60 nm. The resulting glyconanoparticles were treated with human adenocarcinoma non-small lung epithelial cells (A549) and the primary small ...


An Alternative Ribozyme For The Rna Hypercycle, Ishak Elkhal May 2013

An Alternative Ribozyme For The Rna Hypercycle, Ishak Elkhal

Student Research Symposium

In the quest to forward understanding of the prebiotic world (specifically, the RNA World Hypothesis), one of the most interesting paradigms to consider is the potential for cooperative networks that may have driven molecular evolution forward. Such a network may exist as an RNA hypercycle, as proposed by Eigen (1977). Much progress has been made towards an RNA hypercycle-like system, especially using the Azoarcus ribozyme system demonstrated by Vaidya et al. (2012). The current work is dedicated to constructing a second model as a cooperative RNA network, utilizing a group I intron from Coxiella burnetii (Cbu1917). The intron was constructed ...


Quorum Sensing And Metabolism In Marine Environments, Amanda May May 2013

Quorum Sensing And Metabolism In Marine Environments, Amanda May

Doctoral Dissertations

Quorum sensing (QS) is a phenomenon that allows bacteria to communicate with each other. Small molecules known as autoinducers are synthesized and released by bacteria, and once enough members of the community are around to ensure survival, i.e. quorum, a phenotype, e.g. bioluminescence, is expressed. There are two types of QS molecules, intra- and inter-species.

S-4,5-Dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD) is a byproduct of the activated methyl cycle which recycles methionine. This has led to the discussion as to whether DPD is a metabolic byproduct or is the interspecies signal as proposed previously. The detection and quantitation of ...


High-Throughput Approaches For The Assessment Of Factors Influencing Bioavailability Of Small Molecules In Pre-Clinical Drug Development, Megan Marie Mccallum May 2013

High-Throughput Approaches For The Assessment Of Factors Influencing Bioavailability Of Small Molecules In Pre-Clinical Drug Development, Megan Marie Mccallum

Theses and Dissertations

A bioactive molecule must pass many hurdles to be designated as a "good" pharmaceutical lead or hit compound. It should have a significant activity, selectivity, bioavailability, and metabolic half-life. Many factors have been identified that influence the free drug concentration or bioavailability of orally administered drugs in the earliest development stages. In vitro pre-clinical assays have been developed to measure these parameters. The small molecule properties that are investigated here include aqueous solubility, permeability, reactivity (electrophilicity), small molecule-protein binding, and displacement of protein-bound molecules (drug-drug interactions). The development of rapid and miniaturized assays to quantify these factors is presented herein ...


Methods In Metallomics, Proteomics, And Toxicology: Development And Applications Of Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry And Native Sds-Page, William John Wobig May 2013

Methods In Metallomics, Proteomics, And Toxicology: Development And Applications Of Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry And Native Sds-Page, William John Wobig

Theses and Dissertations

Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is a bio-analytical method used to separate proteins in solution into an array of individual bands of proteins in a gel matrix. Current PAGE methods, however, have severe limitations in simultaneously maintaining a protein's native structure and association with transition metals while providing adequate resolution. Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) provides a means to perform trace to ultra-trace level inorganic analysis of solid samples such as dried PAGE gels containing metallo-protein arrays. Current LA-ICP-MS methods involving the analysis of PAGE gels, however, have been limited in their effective use by inadequate limits ...


Towards The Use Of Time-Resolved X-Ray Crystallography In Mechanistic Studies Of Cytochrome C Nitrite Reductase From Shewanella Oneidensis, Matthew David Youngblut May 2013

Towards The Use Of Time-Resolved X-Ray Crystallography In Mechanistic Studies Of Cytochrome C Nitrite Reductase From Shewanella Oneidensis, Matthew David Youngblut

Theses and Dissertations

A high-yield expression and purification of Shewanella oneidensis cytochrome c nitrite reductase (ccNiR), and its characterization by a variety of methods, notably Laue crystallography, is reported. A key component of the expression system is an artificial ccNiR gene in which the N-terminal signal peptide from the highly expressed S. oneidensis protein "Small Tetra-heme c" replaces the wild-type signal peptide. This gene, inserted into the plasmid pHSG298 and expressed in S. oneidensis TSP-C strain, generated approximately 20 mg crude ccNiR/L culture, compared with 0.5-1 mg/L for untransformed cells. Purified ccNiR exhibited nitrite and hydroxylamine reductase activities comparable to ...


The Use Of P53-Derived Stapled Peptides As Affinity Isolation Reagents, Kathryn Margaret Headley May 2013

The Use Of P53-Derived Stapled Peptides As Affinity Isolation Reagents, Kathryn Margaret Headley

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

The transcription factor p53 can induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in response to cellular distress. Cancer cells often display increased cell survival. In most cases, this is due to a p53-related defect, such as mutation, deletion, degradation, or sequestration. HDM2 and HDMX are homologous proteins that regulate the function of p53, and their over-expression can lead to an ineffective p53 response. Various inhibitors, including hydrocarbon stabilized alpha-helices of p53 (SAH-p53s), have been developed to target HDM2 and HDMX and restore functionality to the p53 pathway. It has been recently found that SAH-p53 factors also elicit cell death responses in ...


Characterization Of Dap2 (Defense-­‐Associated Aspartic Protease-­‐2) In Arabidopsis Thaliana And Determining Its Role In Plant Defense Responses, Kemardo Kitaro Henry May 2013

Characterization Of Dap2 (Defense-­‐Associated Aspartic Protease-­‐2) In Arabidopsis Thaliana And Determining Its Role In Plant Defense Responses, Kemardo Kitaro Henry

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Plants defend themselves from invading pathogens by coordinating activity of several plant defense-­‐associated genes. Defense-­‐Associated Aspartic Protease-­‐1 (DAP1) gene of Arabidopsis encodes for an atypical aspartic protease with a putative proteolytic activity. The DAP1 is a negative regulator of plant immunity and the transgenic plants ectopically expressing this genes support pathogen growth and pathogenicity. The Arabidopsis genome has another putative protese that has ~75% homology to DAP1 present in close proximity and therefore was named DAP2. Here, I describe the role of the DAP2 gene in plant defense responses. Two independent knockout dap2 mutants are found to ...


Vitamin B12-Based Bioconjugate Probes For In Vitro And In Vivo Imaging, Anna Kahkoska May 2013

Vitamin B12-Based Bioconjugate Probes For In Vitro And In Vivo Imaging, Anna Kahkoska

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. This year, an estimated 577,190 Americans will die as a result of this family of diseases. Finding cancer at its most treatable stage gives patients the greatest chance of recovery; novel imaging agents that target primary and metastasized tumors offer hope for improved prognoses in the future. Based on the hypothesis that vitamin B12 (B12) and its association with specific transport proteins could offer selective access to cancer cell lines, a series of B12-based imaging agents were synthesized, characterized, and assayed for both in vitro and in ...


Investigations Toward Tunability Of Mechanical, Thermal, And Impact Properties Of Thiol-Ene Networks For Novel High Energy Absorbing Materials, Olivia Devon Mcnair May 2013

Investigations Toward Tunability Of Mechanical, Thermal, And Impact Properties Of Thiol-Ene Networks For Novel High Energy Absorbing Materials, Olivia Devon Mcnair

Dissertations

The UV polymerization of thiols with electron rich alkenes is a highly resourceful reaction that has been utilized by scientists within various disciplines to produce an even more versatile display of applications. This dissertation focuses on a newer application, thiol-ene network (TEN) materials for energy absorption devices. TEN networks display a host of positive polymer properties such as low stress, high optical clarity and uniformity, but they also suffer from unfavorable mechanical properties such as low toughness and elongation at break. The poor mechanical properties demonstrated by TENs prohibit them as choice materials for applications requiring thicker material forms, including ...