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2013

Cell Biology

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Articles 31 - 60 of 230

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Analysis Of In Vitro Insulin-Resistance Models And Their Physiological Relevance To In Vivo Diet-Induced Adipose Insulin Resistance, Kinyui Alice Lo, Adam Labadorf, Norman J. Kennedy, Myoung Souk Han, Yoon Sing Yap, Bryan Matthews, Xiaofeng Xin, Lei Sun, Roger J. Davis, Harvey F. Lodish, Ernest Fraenkel Oct 2013

Analysis Of In Vitro Insulin-Resistance Models And Their Physiological Relevance To In Vivo Diet-Induced Adipose Insulin Resistance, Kinyui Alice Lo, Adam Labadorf, Norman J. Kennedy, Myoung Souk Han, Yoon Sing Yap, Bryan Matthews, Xiaofeng Xin, Lei Sun, Roger J. Davis, Harvey F. Lodish, Ernest Fraenkel

Davis Lab Publications

Diet-induced obesity (DIO) predisposes individuals to insulin resistance, and adipose tissue has a major role in the disease. Insulin resistance can be induced in cultured adipocytes by a variety of treatments, but what aspects of the in vivo responses are captured by these models remains unknown. We use global RNA sequencing to investigate changes induced by TNF-alpha, hypoxia, dexamethasone, high insulin, and a combination of TNF-alpha and hypoxia, comparing the results to the changes in white adipose tissue from DIO mice. We found that different in vitro models capture distinct features of DIO adipose insulin resistance, and a combined treatment ...


Developmental Profile And Sexually Dimorphic Expression Of Kiss1 And Kiss1r In The Fetal Mouse Brain, John Gabriel Knoll, Colin M. Clay, Gerrit J. Bouma, Timothy R. Henion, Gerald A. Schwarting, Robert P. Millar, Stuart A. Tobet Oct 2013

Developmental Profile And Sexually Dimorphic Expression Of Kiss1 And Kiss1r In The Fetal Mouse Brain, John Gabriel Knoll, Colin M. Clay, Gerrit J. Bouma, Timothy R. Henion, Gerald A. Schwarting, Robert P. Millar, Stuart A. Tobet

Schwarting Lab Publications

The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG) is a complex neuroendocrine circuit involving multiple levels of regulation. Kisspeptin neurons play essential roles in controlling the HPG axis from the perspectives of puberty onset, oscillations of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron activity, and the pre-ovulatory LH surge. The current studies focus on the expression of kisspeptin during murine fetal development using in situ hybridization (ISH), quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR (QPCR), and immunocytochemistry. Expression of mRNA coding for kisspeptin (KISS1) and its receptor KISS1R was observed at embryonic (E) day 13 by ISH. At E13 and other later ages examined, Kiss1 signal in individual ...


Sting-Irf3 Pathway Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress With Hepatocyte Apoptosis In Early Alcoholic Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Timea Csak, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo Oct 2013

Sting-Irf3 Pathway Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress With Hepatocyte Apoptosis In Early Alcoholic Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Timea Csak, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

Gastroenterology Publications

Emerging evidence suggests that innate immunity drives alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and that the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3),a transcription factor regulating innate immune responses, is indispensable for the development of ALD. Here we report that IRF3 mediates ALD via linking endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with apoptotic signaling in hepatocytes. We found that ethanol induced ER stress and triggered the association of IRF3 with the ER adaptor, stimulator of interferon genes (STING), as well as subsequent phosphorylation of IRF3. Activated IRF3 associated with the proapoptotic molecule Bax [B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)-associated X protein] and contributed to hepatocyte apoptosis ...


Development Of A Conditional Mesd (Mesoderm Development) Allele For Functional Analysis Of The Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Family In Defined Tissues, Andrew V. Taibi, Janet K. Lighthouse, Richard C. Grady, Kenneth R. Shroyer, Bernadette Holdener Oct 2013

Development Of A Conditional Mesd (Mesoderm Development) Allele For Functional Analysis Of The Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Family In Defined Tissues, Andrew V. Taibi, Janet K. Lighthouse, Richard C. Grady, Kenneth R. Shroyer, Bernadette Holdener

Department of Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

The Low-density lipoprotein receptor-Related Protein (LRP) family members are essential for diverse processes ranging from the regulation of gastrulation to the modulation of lipid homeostasis. Receptors in this family bind and internalize a diverse array of ligands in the extracellular matrix (ECM). As a consequence, LRPs regulate a wide variety of cellular functions including, but not limited to lipid metabolism, membrane composition, cell motility, and cell signaling. Not surprisingly, mutations in single human LRPs are associated with defects in cholesterol metabolism and development of atherosclerosis, abnormalities in bone density, or aberrant eye vasculature, and may be a contributing factor in ...


Directed Cell Migration In Multi-Cue Environments, Laura Lara Rodriguez, Ian C. Schneider Oct 2013

Directed Cell Migration In Multi-Cue Environments, Laura Lara Rodriguez, Ian C. Schneider

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Cell migration plays a critical role in development, angiogenesis, immune response, wound healing and cancer metastasis. During these processes, cells are often directed to migrate towards targets by sensing aligned fibers or gradients in concentration, mechanical properties or electric field. Often times, cells must integrate migrational information from several of these different cues. While the cell migration behavior, signal transduction and cytoskeleton dynamics elicited by individual directional cues has been largely determined, responses to multiple directional cues are much less understood. However, initial work has pointed to several interesting behaviors in multi-cue environments, including competition and cooperation between cues to ...


Cyld Deubiquitinates Rip1 In The Tnfalpha-Induced Necrosome To Facilitate Kinase Activation And Programmed Necrosis, David M. Moquin, Thomas Mcquade, Francis Ka-Ming Chan Oct 2013

Cyld Deubiquitinates Rip1 In The Tnfalpha-Induced Necrosome To Facilitate Kinase Activation And Programmed Necrosis, David M. Moquin, Thomas Mcquade, Francis Ka-Ming Chan

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Necroptosis/programmed necrosis is initiated by a macro-molecular protein complex termed the necrosome. Receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1/RIP1) and RIP3 are key components of the necrosome. TNFalpha is a prototypic inducer of necrosome activation, and it is widely believed that deubiquitination of RIP1 at the TNFR-1 signaling complex precedes transition of RIP1 into the cytosol where it forms the RIP1-RIP3 necrosome. Cylindromatosis (CYLD) is believed to promote programmed necrosis by facilitating RIP1 deubiquitination at this membrane receptor complex.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate that RIP1 is indeed the primary target of CYLD in TNFalpha-induced programmed necrosis. We ...


Id2 Complexes With The Snag Domain Of Snai1 Inhibiting Snai1-Mediated Repression Of Integrin Beta4, Cheng Chang, Xiaofang Yang, Bryan Pursell, Arthur M. Mercurio Oct 2013

Id2 Complexes With The Snag Domain Of Snai1 Inhibiting Snai1-Mediated Repression Of Integrin Beta4, Cheng Chang, Xiaofang Yang, Bryan Pursell, Arthur M. Mercurio

Cancer Biology Publications

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental process that underlies development and cancer. Although the EMT involves alterations in the expression of specific integrins that mediate stable adhesion to the basement membrane, such as alpha6beta4, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we report that Snai1 inhibits beta4 transcription by increasing repressive histone modification (trimethylation of histone H3 at K27 [H3K27Me3]). Surprisingly, Snai1 is expressed and localized in the nucleus in epithelial cells, but it does not repress beta4. We resolved this paradox by discovering that Id2 complexes with the SNAG domain of Snai1 on the beta4 promoter and constrains ...


Establishing The Role Of The Pancreatic Transcription Factor Mist1 In Xbp1-Mediated Maintenance Of Pancreatic Acinar Cell Homeostasis, David Alan Hess Oct 2013

Establishing The Role Of The Pancreatic Transcription Factor Mist1 In Xbp1-Mediated Maintenance Of Pancreatic Acinar Cell Homeostasis, David Alan Hess

Open Access Dissertations

Pancreatic acinar cells (PACs) continuously produce more protein than any other cell type in the human body. As a result, PACs and other specialized secretory cells have a constant demand placed on their protein synthetic and packaging machinery. When demand for secreted products exceeds the capacity of the cell's basal protein production facilities, dangerous accumulations of misfolded proteins can build up, resulting in a condition known as ER stress. To ameliorate this stress, secretory cells activate a coordinated, three-part compensatory network collectively known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) to both expand the capacity of the ER and directly ...


Measuring And Modeling The Response Characteristics Of The Environmental Phosphate Transducer In Escherichia Coli, Chetan Sood Oct 2013

Measuring And Modeling The Response Characteristics Of The Environmental Phosphate Transducer In Escherichia Coli, Chetan Sood

Open Access Dissertations

The PhoR/PhoB two-component system in Escherichia coli is a biological transducer that senses the limitation of environmental inorganic orthophosphate, the bacteria's preferred source of the essential nutrient phosphate, and transmits that information to the interior of the cell initiating a response that mitigates phosphate starvation. In the first part of this study, we present and apply a fluorescence microscopy technique to measure, in vivo, the dynamic response characteristics of the transducer with single-cell resolution. We report that the transience in the PhoR/PhoB TCS response is consistent with the transducer having a threshold sensitivity to the concentration of ...


Inductive Asymmetric Cell Division: The Wrm Leads The Way, Takao Ishidate, Soyoung Kim, Craig C. Mello, Masaki Shirayama Oct 2013

Inductive Asymmetric Cell Division: The Wrm Leads The Way, Takao Ishidate, Soyoung Kim, Craig C. Mello, Masaki Shirayama

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications

C. elegans, with its invariant cell lineage, provides a powerful model system in which to study signaling-dependent asymmetric cell division. The C. elegans β-catenin-related protein, WRM-1, specifies endoderm at the 4-cell stage during the first cell signaling-induced asymmetric cell division of embryogenesis. During this interaction, Wnt signaling and the cell cycle regulator CDK-1 act together to induce the asymmetric cortical release of WRM-1 at prophase of the EMS cell cycle. Genetic studies suggest that release of WRM-1 unmasks a cortical site that drives EMS spindle rotation onto the polarized axis of the cell, simultaneously making WRM-1 available for nuclear translocation ...


A Novel Autophagy Regulatory Mechanism That Functions During Programmed Cell Death: A Dissertation, Tsun-Kai Chang Sep 2013

A Novel Autophagy Regulatory Mechanism That Functions During Programmed Cell Death: A Dissertation, Tsun-Kai Chang

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Autophagy is a cellular process that delivers cytoplasmic materials for degradation by the lysosomes. Autophagy-related (Atg) genes were identified in yeast genetic screens for vehicle formation under stress conditions, and Atg genes are conserved from yeast to human. When cells or animals are under stress, autophagy is induced and Atg8 (LC3 in mammal) is activated by E1 activating enzyme Atg7. Atg8-containing membranes form and surround cargos, close and mature to become the autophagosomes. Autophagosomes fuse with lysosomes, and cargos are degraded by lysosomal enzymes to sustain cell viability. Therefore, autophagy is most frequently considered to function in cell survival. Whether ...


Fgf2-Induced Effects On Transcriptome Associated With Regeneration Competence In Adult Human Fibroblasts, Olga Kashpur, David S. Lapointe, Sakthikumar Ambady, Elizabeth F. Ryder, Tanja Dominko Sep 2013

Fgf2-Induced Effects On Transcriptome Associated With Regeneration Competence In Adult Human Fibroblasts, Olga Kashpur, David S. Lapointe, Sakthikumar Ambady, Elizabeth F. Ryder, Tanja Dominko

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Adult human fibroblasts grown in low oxygen and with FGF2 supplementation have the capacity to tip the healing outcome of skeletal muscle injury - by favoring regeneration response in vivo over scar formation. Here, we compare the transcriptomes of control adult human dermal fibroblasts and induced regeneration-competent (iRC) fibroblasts to identify transcriptional changes that may be related to their regeneration competence.

RESULTS: We identified a unique gene-expression profile that characterizes FGF2-induced iRC fibroblast phenotype. Significantly differentially expressed genes due to FGF2 treatment were identified and analyzed to determine overrepresented Gene Ontology terms. Genes belonging to extracellular matrix components, adhesion molecules ...


Protein Kinase Ck2 Phosphorylates And Activates P21-Activated Kinase 1, Yong Jae Shin, Yong-Bae Kim, Jeong-Ho Kim Sep 2013

Protein Kinase Ck2 Phosphorylates And Activates P21-Activated Kinase 1, Yong Jae Shin, Yong-Bae Kim, Jeong-Ho Kim

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

Activation of the p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is achieved through a conformational change that converts an inactive PAK1 dimer to an active monomer. In this paper, we show that this change is necessary but not sufficient to activate PAK1 and that it is, rather, required for CK2-dependent PAK1S223 phosphorylation that converts a monomeric PAK1 into a catalytically active form. This phosphorylation appears to be essential for autophosphorylation at specific residues and overall activity of PAK1. A phosphomimetic mutation (S223E) bypasses the requirement for GTPases in PAK1 activation, whereas the constitutive activity of the PAK1 mutant (PAK1H83,86L), postulated to mimic ...


Identification Of Proteins Potentially Involved In The Formation Of Lafora Bodies, A Hallmark Of Lafora Disease, Elham Schokraie, Oliver Kötting, Matthew S. Gentry Sep 2013

Identification Of Proteins Potentially Involved In The Formation Of Lafora Bodies, A Hallmark Of Lafora Disease, Elham Schokraie, Oliver Kötting, Matthew S. Gentry

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Presentations

Lafora Disease (LD) is a fatal teenage-onset progressive myoclonus epilepsy. It is characterized by the formation of Lafora bodies (LBs), deposits of abnormally branched, insoluble, hyperphosphorylated glycogen-like polymers that are generally believed to trigger the development of the clinical symptoms of LD. 58% and 35% of the LD cases are caused by mutations in EPM2A (laforin) and EPM2B (malin), respectively. However, little is known about their function in LB formation. Two different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the accumulation of insoluble LBs: first, excessive glycogen phosphorylation and, second, an imbalance between glycogen synthesizing enzymes. The present study aims at ...


The Role Of Ykl-40 In The Progression Of Glioblastoma, Ralph Anthony Francescone Sep 2013

The Role Of Ykl-40 In The Progression Of Glioblastoma, Ralph Anthony Francescone

Open Access Dissertations

Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common brain cancer and one of the most fatal forms of cancer overall. The average survival time is 10-14 months, and less than 10% of patients survive more than 5 years after diagnosis. It is characterized by extreme vasculature, chemo/radioresistance, and invasiveness into the normal brain. The current standard of care, which includes surgical removal of tumor, radiation, and the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide, initially stunt tumor growth. Nevertheless, the tumor invariably rebounds and the patient succumbs to the disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new therapies for this devastating disease ...


Effects Of Phytochemicals From Rhodiola Crenulata On Highly Invasive Breast Cancer Cell Lines And Embryonic Models Of Migration, Adaris Rodriguez-Cortes Sep 2013

Effects Of Phytochemicals From Rhodiola Crenulata On Highly Invasive Breast Cancer Cell Lines And Embryonic Models Of Migration, Adaris Rodriguez-Cortes

Open Access Dissertations

The root of the Tibetan plant Rhodiola crenulata is part of eastern traditional medicine. Studies have suggested that members of the Rhodiola genus display anticancer properties. In this study we examine the effect of R. crenulata in a cellular model of invasive breast cancer, this disease being the second cause of cancer death among women in the US. Deregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been frequently observed in breast cancers and appears to have a key role in the transformation of benign cells to a malignant form. Although mutations of the Wnt growth factor are rarely observed in cancer ...


Brg1, A Swi/Snf Chromatin Remodeling Enzyme Atpase, Is Required For Maintenance Of Nuclear Shape And Integrity, Anthony N. Imbalzano, Karen M. Imbalzano, Jeffrey A. Nickerson Sep 2013

Brg1, A Swi/Snf Chromatin Remodeling Enzyme Atpase, Is Required For Maintenance Of Nuclear Shape And Integrity, Anthony N. Imbalzano, Karen M. Imbalzano, Jeffrey A. Nickerson

Imbalzano Lab Publications

We recently reported that reducing the levels of BRG1, the catalytic subunit of mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes, induces alterations in nuclear shape in a breast epithelial cell line. Immunostaining the BRG1 knockdown cells with nuclear lamina antibodies revealed a significantly increased frequency of grooves, or invaginations, in the nuclei. Disruption of each of the major cytoplasmic filament systems (actin, tubulin and cytokeratins) had no impact on the BRG1-dependent changes in nuclear shape, indicating that the observed changes in nuclear morphology are unlikely to be a result of alterations in the integrity of the nuclear-cytoplamic contacts in the cell ...


Mesenchymal Stem Cells Utilize Cxcr4-Sdf-1 Signaling For Acute, But Not Chronic, Trafficking To Gastric Mucosal Inflammation, Calin Stoicov, Hanchen Li, Jian Hua Liu, Jeanmarie Houghton Sep 2013

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Utilize Cxcr4-Sdf-1 Signaling For Acute, But Not Chronic, Trafficking To Gastric Mucosal Inflammation, Calin Stoicov, Hanchen Li, Jian Hua Liu, Jeanmarie Houghton

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter infection is the main risk factor in developing gastric cancer. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are non-hematopoietic stromal cells, which are able to differentiate into different cell lineages. MSC contribute to cancer development by forming the tumor directly, contributing to the microenvironment, or by promoting angiogenesis and metastasis. CXCR4/SDF-1 axis is used by MSC in trafficking, homing, and engraftment at chronic inflammation sites, and plays an important role in tumorigenesis.

AIM: To determine if CXCR4 receptor has a role in MSC contribution to the development of Helicobacter-mediated gastric cancer.

METHODS: SDF-1 and CXCR4 expression in mouse gastric mucosa ...


Fluorescence Microscopy Digital Deconvolution Comparison, George Mcnamara, Vinita Popat Aug 2013

Fluorescence Microscopy Digital Deconvolution Comparison, George Mcnamara, Vinita Popat

George McNamara

Presentation by Ms. Vinita Popat, Cornell University, 2013 summer student in Prof. Laurence J.N. Cooper lab, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX. Project was evaluation of several deconvolution software for improving (or making worse!) fluorescence microscopy Z-series.


Hiv-1 And The Nucleolus: A Role For Nucleophosmin/Npm1 In Viral Replication: A Dissertation, Tracy E. Schmidt Aug 2013

Hiv-1 And The Nucleolus: A Role For Nucleophosmin/Npm1 In Viral Replication: A Dissertation, Tracy E. Schmidt

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The nucleolus is a plurifunctional organelle with dynamic protein exchange involved in diverse aspects of cell biology. Additionally, the nucleolus has been shown to have a role in the replication of numerous viruses, which includes HIV-1. Several groups have reported HIV-1 vRNA localization within the nucleolus. Moreover, it has been demonstrated the HIV-1 Rev protein localizes to the nucleolus and interacts with nucleolar proteins, including NPM1. Despite evidence for a nucleolar involvement during replication, a functional link has not been demonstrated. I investigated whether introncontaining vRNAs have a Rev-mediated nucleolar localization step prior to export. Furthermore, I examined whether NPM1 ...


Analysis Of Subcellular Localization Patterns Suggest Non-Enzymatic Roles For Select Arogenate Dehydratases, Travis R. Howes Aug 2013

Analysis Of Subcellular Localization Patterns Suggest Non-Enzymatic Roles For Select Arogenate Dehydratases, Travis R. Howes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The final step of phenylalanine biosynthesis in planta is catalyzed by arogenate dehydratases (ADTs). Previously cloned ADT-CFP fusion genes were used to provide an in depth study of the subcellular localization of all six ADTs from Arabidopsis thaliana. Through co-localization of ADT-CFPs with a stroma-marker it is shown that most ADTs localize to stroma-filled projections from chloroplasts called stromules. The localization of ADT5 and ADT2 provide evidence for additional, non-enzymatic roles. In the case of ADT5, it is found to localize to the nucleus, suggestive of an uncharacterized nuclear role. The localization patterns of ADT2 are suggestive of a role ...


Early Innate Immunity Determines Outcome Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Pulmonary Infection In Rabbits, Selvakumar Subbian, Nirmalya Bandyopadhyay, Liana Tsenova, Paul O'Brien, Viraj Khetani, Nicole L. Kushner, Blas Peixoto, Patricia Soteropoulos, Joel S. Bader, Petros C. Karakousis, Dorothy Fallows, Gilla Kaplan Aug 2013

Early Innate Immunity Determines Outcome Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Pulmonary Infection In Rabbits, Selvakumar Subbian, Nirmalya Bandyopadhyay, Liana Tsenova, Paul O'Brien, Viraj Khetani, Nicole L. Kushner, Blas Peixoto, Patricia Soteropoulos, Joel S. Bader, Petros C. Karakousis, Dorothy Fallows, Gilla Kaplan

Publications and Research

Background: Pulmonary infection of humans by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), results in active disease in 5-10% of individuals, while asymptomatic latent Mtb infection (LTBI) is established in the remainder. The host immune responses that determine this differential outcome following Mtb infection are not fully understood. Using a rabbit model of pulmonary TB, we have shown that infection with the Mtb clinical isolate HN878 (a hyper-virulent W-Beijing lineage strain) leads to progressive cavitary disease similar to what is seen in humans with active TB. In contrast, infection with Mtb CDC1551 (a hyper-immunogenic clinical isolate) is efficiently ...


Lamin B1 Depletion In Senescent Cells Triggers Large-Scale Changes In Gene Expression And The Chromatin Landscape, Parisha P. Shah, Greg Donahue, Gabriel Otte, Brian C. Capell, David M. Nelson, Kajia Cao, Varun Aggarwala, Hazel A. Cruickshanks, Taranjit Singh Rai, Tony Mcbryan, Brian D. Gregory, Peter D. Adams, Shelley L. Berger Aug 2013

Lamin B1 Depletion In Senescent Cells Triggers Large-Scale Changes In Gene Expression And The Chromatin Landscape, Parisha P. Shah, Greg Donahue, Gabriel Otte, Brian C. Capell, David M. Nelson, Kajia Cao, Varun Aggarwala, Hazel A. Cruickshanks, Taranjit Singh Rai, Tony Mcbryan, Brian D. Gregory, Peter D. Adams, Shelley L. Berger

Departmental Papers (Biology)

Senescence is a stable proliferation arrest, associated with an altered secretory pathway, thought to promote tumor suppression and tissue aging. While chromatin regulation and lamin B1 down-regulation have been implicated as senescence effectors, functional interactions between them are poorly understood. We compared genome-wide Lys4 trimethylation on histone H3 (H3K4me3) and H3K27me3 distributions between proliferating and senescent human cells and found dramatic differences in senescence, including large-scale domains of H3K4me3- and H3K27me3-enriched “mesas” and H3K27me3-depleted “canyons.” Mesas form at lamin B1-associated domains (LADs) in replicative senescence and oncogene-induced senescence and overlap DNA hypomethylation regions in cancer, suggesting that pre-malignant senescent chromatin ...


P53'S Choice Of Myocardial Death Or Survival: Oxygen Protects Infarct Myocardium By Recruiting P53 On Nos3 Promoter Through Regulation Of P53-Lys118 Acetylation, Rajan Gogna, Esha Madan, Mahmood Khan, Uttam Pati, Periannan Kuppusamy Aug 2013

P53'S Choice Of Myocardial Death Or Survival: Oxygen Protects Infarct Myocardium By Recruiting P53 On Nos3 Promoter Through Regulation Of P53-Lys118 Acetylation, Rajan Gogna, Esha Madan, Mahmood Khan, Uttam Pati, Periannan Kuppusamy

Open Dartmouth: Peer-reviewed articles by Dartmouth faculty

Myocardial infarction, an irreversible cardiac tissue damage, involves progressive loss of cardiomyocytes due to p53-mediated apoptosis. Oxygenation is known to promote cardiac survival through activation of NOS3 gene. We hypothesized a dual role for p53, which, depending on oxygenation, can elicit apoptotic death signals or NOS3-mediated survival signals in the infarct heart. p53 exhibited a differential DNA-binding, namely, BAX-p53RE in the infarct heart or NOS3-p53RE in the oxygenated heart, which was regulated by oxygen-induced, post- translational modification of p53. In the infarct heart, p53 was heavily acetylated at Lys118 residue, which was exclusively reversed in the oxygenated heart, apparently regulated ...


Metformin-Induced Pedf Expression Regulates Cell Proliferation And Lipid Metabolism In Prostate Cancer Cells, Miguel Angel Tolentino Aug 2013

Metformin-Induced Pedf Expression Regulates Cell Proliferation And Lipid Metabolism In Prostate Cancer Cells, Miguel Angel Tolentino

Theses and Dissertations

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers in American males. A high fat diet and obesity accelerate PCa progression and increase the 1risk of death from disease. Epidemiological studies have indicated that PCa patients with type 2 diabetes have higher mortality rates than PCa patients without diabetes. Type 2 diabetics who are on metformin, a drug to control blood sugar levels, show a delay in PCa progression in comparison with PCa patients with type 2 diabetes who are not on metformin. It has been proposed that metformin inhibits proliferation via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or ...


Chromatin Insulators: Master Regulators Of The Eukaryotic Genome, Todd Andrew Schoborg Aug 2013

Chromatin Insulators: Master Regulators Of The Eukaryotic Genome, Todd Andrew Schoborg

Doctoral Dissertations

Proper organization of the chromatin fiber within the three dimensional space of the eukaryotic nucleus relies on a number of DNA elements and their interacting proteins whose structural and functional consequences exert significant influence on genome behavior. Chromatin insulators are one such example, where it is thought that these elements assist in the formation of higher order chromatin loop structures by mediating long-range contacts between distant sites scattered throughout the genome. Such looping serves a dual role, helping to satisfy both the physical constraints needed to package the linear DNA polymer within the small volume of the nucleus while simultaneously ...


A Force Of Nature: Molecular Mechanisms Of Mechanoperception In Plants, Gabriele B. Monshausen, Elizabeth S. Haswell Aug 2013

A Force Of Nature: Molecular Mechanisms Of Mechanoperception In Plants, Gabriele B. Monshausen, Elizabeth S. Haswell

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

The ability to sense and respond to a wide variety of mechanical stimuli-gravity, touch, osmotic pressure, or the resistance of the cell wall-is a critical feature of every plant cell, whether or not it is specialized for mechanotransduction. Mechanoperceptive events are an essential part of plant life, required for normal growth and development at the cell, tissue, and whole-plant level and for the proper response to an array of biotic and abiotic stresses. One current challenge for plant mechanobiologists is to link these physiological responses to specific mechanoreceptors and signal transduction pathways. Here, we describe recent progress in the identification ...


Mechanism Of Lpa-Induced Lipid Uptake In Macrophages, Kan Xu Aug 2013

Mechanism Of Lpa-Induced Lipid Uptake In Macrophages, Kan Xu

Masters Theses

Cardiovascular disease, currently the leading cause of mortality throughout the developed countries, is mainly caused by atherosclerosis, which is recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease. Atherosclerotic plaques are characterized by accumulations of lipid in arterial walls together with infiltration of macrophages. These macrophages differentiate from monocytes which transform into foam cells through phagocytizing various forms of lipid, are believed to be the main component of early atherosclerotic lesions.

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a potent bioactive lipid, regulates a broad range of cellular functions in various cell types. In our findings, LPA-induced macrophages may enhance the lipid uptake effect in both J774A ...


Recurrent Modification Of A Conserved Cis-Regulatory Element Underlies Fruit Fly Pigmentation Diversity, William A. Rogers, Joseph R. Salomone, David J. Tacy, Eric M. Camino, Kristen A. Davis, Mark Rebeiz, Thomas M. Williams Aug 2013

Recurrent Modification Of A Conserved Cis-Regulatory Element Underlies Fruit Fly Pigmentation Diversity, William A. Rogers, Joseph R. Salomone, David J. Tacy, Eric M. Camino, Kristen A. Davis, Mark Rebeiz, Thomas M. Williams

Biology Faculty Publications

The development of morphological traits occurs through the collective action of networks of genes connected at the level of gene expression. As any node in a network may be a target of evolutionary change, the recurrent targeting of the same node would indicate that the path of evolution is biased for the relevant trait and network. Although examples of parallel evolution have implicated recurrent modification of the same gene and cis-regulatory element (CRE), little is known about the mutational and molecular paths of parallel CRE evolution. InDrosophila melanogaster fruit flies, the Bric-à-brac (Bab) transcription factors control the development ...


Proteomic And Biochemical Studies Of Estrogen-Mediated Signaling And Novel Estrogen Receptor-Interacting Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Zhenqi Zhou Aug 2013

Proteomic And Biochemical Studies Of Estrogen-Mediated Signaling And Novel Estrogen Receptor-Interacting Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Zhenqi Zhou

Theses and Dissertations

Estrogen plays essential roles in the growth, development, and homeostasis of a number of tissues, and can also be linked to the growth of breast cancer. The biological activities of estrogen are mediated by estrogen receptors (ERs) ERá and ERâ, and also orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30). In order to identify novel proteins that are involved in ER-mediated actions of estrogen, we used mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomic methods to systematically profile global protein expression in responses to E2 (17â-estradiol) stimulation in human breast cancer cell, and identify and characterize cellular novel proteins that are associated with ERs in breast cancer ...