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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Peroxiredoxin 6 And Inflammation In Alzheimer's Disease, Jared Ferrell-Penniman Dec 2019

Peroxiredoxin 6 And Inflammation In Alzheimer's Disease, Jared Ferrell-Penniman

Biological Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is known for its debilitating symptoms and poor prognosis. However, despite intense research into neurodegenerative diseases, there are few therapies targeted at the underlying mechanisms of the disease. Oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation are cellular phenomena thought to be key to the progression of the disease. Critically, peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6), an antioxidant protein with multiple functions, has been identified from mammalian studies as a potential regulator of both OS and inflammation that may have a specific effect on AD. This project seeks to elucidate the role of Prx6 in AD as well as the underlying mechanisms ...


Towards A Unified Disease Mechanism For Trna Synthetase-Mediated Peripheral Neuropathy, Emily L. Spaulding Dec 2019

Towards A Unified Disease Mechanism For Trna Synthetase-Mediated Peripheral Neuropathy, Emily L. Spaulding

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a debilitating inherited peripheral neuropathy resulting in progressive distal muscle atrophy and loss of sensation. CMT is genetically heterogeneous, with mutations in over 80 different genes leading to demyelinating or axonal forms. There are genetically similar subgroups, including the largest protein family implicated in the disease, the tRNA synthetases (ARSs). ARSs are responsible for aminoacylation of tRNAs during translation and are therefore ubiquitously expressed and essential proteins. Dominant mutations in at least five ARSs cause axonal forms of CMT. How mutations in ARSs cause CMT is unclear, however, the similar clinical presentation of patients suggests shared ...


Theranostics For Antiretroviral Biodistribution And Pharmacokinetics, Brendan M. Ottemann Dec 2019

Theranostics For Antiretroviral Biodistribution And Pharmacokinetics, Brendan M. Ottemann

Theses & Dissertations

RATIONALE: Our laboratories birthed the field of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) theranostics. The new field allows simultaneous detection (diagnostics) and treatment (therapeutic) for the identification, treatment and inevitable elimination of virus in cell and tissue compartments. By employing theranostics, antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) can be tracked in lymph nodes, gut, spleen and liver. Cellular viral reservoirs including CD4+ T cell populations and mononuclear phagocytes (MP; monocytes, macrophages, microglia and dendritic cells) along with subcellular endosomal structures can now be targeted for drug delivery bringing therapeutics to areas where virus replicates. The overarching idea rests in improving precision targeted ARV delivery. Bringing ...


There Must Be Something In The Water: Understanding Pfas Contamination Of Groundwater As A National Security Issue, Kylie N. Ford Dec 2019

There Must Be Something In The Water: Understanding Pfas Contamination Of Groundwater As A National Security Issue, Kylie N. Ford

Student Theses 2015-Present

This report addresses the widespread pollution of domestic groundwater resources with Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) caused by firefighting activities performed at military installations across the United States. Two former military bases in Southeastern Pennsylvania are used as a single case study: the Naval Air Development Center (NADC) in Warminster and the Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base (NASJRB) in Horsham. Chapter 1 gives a history of domestic military bases from the perspective of the infrastructure buildup and downsizing that occurred over the 20th Century, along with the environmental degradation revealed during brownfield redevelopment. The chapter then gives specifics about ...


Characterization Of The Effect Of Exercise Dose And Integrative Nonpharmacological Therapies In The Treatment Of Chronic Pain, Anna M. Polaski Dec 2019

Characterization Of The Effect Of Exercise Dose And Integrative Nonpharmacological Therapies In The Treatment Of Chronic Pain, Anna M. Polaski

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chronic pain includes debilitating conditions affecting large populations of people throughout the world. These diseases are further complicated by comorbid psychological disorders which make chronic pain conditions difficult to treat. Nonpharmacological treatment options have more recently become an important mainstay of effective therapies and are currently being used to supplement or replace traditional pharmacological treatment methods. Exercise-based therapies in particular are of interest due to their demonstrated success in reducing pain symptoms as well as improving psychological outcomes. Dose is an important factor in being able to effectively prescribe treatments in the context of specific exercise interventions and specific pain ...


State-Dependent Mapping Of Glyr-Cholesterol Interactions By Coupling Crosslinking With Mass Spectrometry, Nicholas Ferraro Dec 2019

State-Dependent Mapping Of Glyr-Cholesterol Interactions By Coupling Crosslinking With Mass Spectrometry, Nicholas Ferraro

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The glycine receptor (GlyR) belongs to a superfamily of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) that mediate fast neurotransmission. GlyR typically modulates inhibitory transmission by antagonizing membrane depolarization through anion influx. Allosteric interactions between the receptor and its lipid surroundings affect receptor function, and cholesterol is essential for pLGIC activity. Human α1 GlyR was purified from baculovirus infected insect cells and reconstituted in unilamellar vesicles at cholesterol: lipid ratios below and above the cholesterol activity threshold with aliquots of azi-cholesterol. State-dependent crosslinking studies of receptors primarily in its resting (no glycine), desensitized (10mM glycine) and open (F207A/A288G, 30nM ivermectin) states ...


Nanomedicine-Driven Neuropathic Pain Relief In Rat Model Is Associated With Macrophage Polarity And Mast Cell Activation, Muzamil Saleem Dec 2019

Nanomedicine-Driven Neuropathic Pain Relief In Rat Model Is Associated With Macrophage Polarity And Mast Cell Activation, Muzamil Saleem

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

We explored the immune neuropathology underlying multi-day relief from neuropathic pain in a rat model initiated at the sciatic nerve by using a nanoemulsion-based nanomedicine as a biological probe. The nanomedicine is theranostic: both therapeutic (containing celecoxib drug) and diagnostic (containing near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye) and is small enough to be phagocytosed by circulating monocytes. A model of neuropathic pain is initiated by tying four 1mm spaced knots around the sciatic nerve with chromic gut suture, which results in neuroinflammation, and a resultant pain-like behavior manifests. We show that pain-like behavior reaches a plateau of maximum hypersensitivity 8 days post-surgery ...


Genetic Analysis Of A Novel Ftsk Homolog, Hfka, In Streptomyces Coelicolor Development-Associated Chromosome Segregation, Sumedha Sethi Dec 2019

Genetic Analysis Of A Novel Ftsk Homolog, Hfka, In Streptomyces Coelicolor Development-Associated Chromosome Segregation, Sumedha Sethi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A quintessential phenomenon occurring during prokaryotic development is accurate segregation of the replicated genomes into the daughter cells. Key energy-dependent processes like chromosome condensation and subcellular partitioning of the genomes are driven by conserved proteins like SMC, ParB, FtsK. During its complex developmental cycle, Streptomyces coelicolor segregates its genomes into chains of unicellular spores when its multigenomic syncytial aerial hyphae undergo division.

A novel ftsK-like gene, hfkA (Homolog of FtsK protein A), was examined for function and localization during development-associated chromosome segregation. Individual deletions did not affect segregation, but a ΔhfkA ΔftsK mutant exhibited 8% anucleate spores ...


Gingival Mscs Improve Bone Phenotype In Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis Via Programmed Cell Death Pathway, Sultan Alghaithi Dec 2019

Gingival Mscs Improve Bone Phenotype In Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis Via Programmed Cell Death Pathway, Sultan Alghaithi

Dental Theses

Estrogen deficiency-related osteoporosis is a skeletal system disorder that affects women after menopause taking a toll on financial and health institutions. Gingival Mesenchymal Stem cells (GMSCs) are a distinctive population of dental tissue-derived stem cells that possess uniquely high proliferation abilities and are capable of self-maintenance and multipotent differentiation. Their use has been investigated in different disease model applications, including cutaneous wound healing models, colitis, and allergy-related inflammatory disease models, but their effect on the bone phenotype of ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis hasn’t been explored. In our study, we show that a single systemic infusion of GMSCs elevated the bone mass ...


The Benefits Of Physical Activity And Sport On Mental Health And Well-Being In School-Aged Children, Ian Gilhousen Dec 2019

The Benefits Of Physical Activity And Sport On Mental Health And Well-Being In School-Aged Children, Ian Gilhousen

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

There is research that concludes that there are benefits of physical activity for young children. However, there is an area of research which is lacking the benefits that physical activity and sport have on mental health and well-being in school-aged children, specifically. Therefore, the purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on the benefits of physical activity and sport on mental health and well-being in school-aged children. Results determined that there are significant benefits, and a correlation between physical activity participation and overall mental health in school-aged children.


Concussion Assessment Management In High School And Collegiate Athletics, Erin Mcneely Dec 2019

Concussion Assessment Management In High School And Collegiate Athletics, Erin Mcneely

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Research indicates that protocol regarding concussion assessment management at the high school and collegiate level is advancing, however, there are holes in consistency that need to be filled in order to ensure accuracy. The purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on concussion assessment management in high school and collegiate athletics. The results indicate that the lack of consistency comes as a direct result of key factors including a school’s lack of funding and lack of resources, the emphasis placed on the self-efficacy of athletic trainers, and the willingness of athletic trainers to follow guidelines provided for ...


Modulating Mcm Levels Causes Differential Loading At Origins Of Replication And Changes Replication Timing, Livio Dukaj Dec 2019

Modulating Mcm Levels Causes Differential Loading At Origins Of Replication And Changes Replication Timing, Livio Dukaj

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

DNA replication is a highly complex part of cell metabolism that ensures safe propagation of the genome through tight regulation of the expression, localization, and activity of a large number of factors. Replication starts from distinct sites in the genome and initiation events are temporally ordered in a manner that is, on average, highly reproducible across cell populations. The specific order with which different parts of the genome are replicated has been proposed to be important to processes such as gene expression, cell differentiation, development, and genome evolution. Nevertheless, the fundamental mechanisms that are responsible for establishing these timing programs ...


Parents' Understanding Of The Impact On Sport Specialization, Samuel Lacelle Dec 2019

Parents' Understanding Of The Impact On Sport Specialization, Samuel Lacelle

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

The purpose of this synthesis project was to review the literature on parents’ understanding of the impact on sport specialization. An extensive literature review was completed in order to properly examine all the information available regarding the parent’s role when it comes to their child’s participation in sport and whether or not they are specializing in a specific sport. This review was done so by examining 16 peer reviewed articles on multiple web data bases. The research concluded that there should be a high emphasis on the child’s motor development at an early age (Goodway and Robinson ...


Robustness Mechanisms Of Temporal Cell-Fate Progression In C. Elegans, Orkan Ilbay Dec 2019

Robustness Mechanisms Of Temporal Cell-Fate Progression In C. Elegans, Orkan Ilbay

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Robustness is a ubiquitous property of biological systems, however, underlying mechanisms that help reinforce the optimal phenotypes despite environmental or physiological perturbations are poorly understood.

C. elegans development consists of four larval stages (L1-L4) and well-characterized invariant cell lineages, within which the heterochronic pathway controls the order and timing of cell-fates. Environmental or physiological stress signals can slow or temporarily halt larval stage progression; remarkably, however, temporal cell-fate progression remains unaffected.

We show that two widely conserved signaling pathways, insulin and TGF- β, that regulate C. elegans larval stage progression in response to starvation and crowding, respectively, also regulate a ...


Barriers To Physical Activity In Adolescents, Nicole Vojtisek Dec 2019

Barriers To Physical Activity In Adolescents, Nicole Vojtisek

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Abstract

Physical activity is an important component to living a healthy lifestyle; however, adolescents’ physical activity levels are often very low. Thus, the purpose of this synthesis was to examine barriers adolescents face when it comes to being physically active and find out how they can be prevented or overcome. The critical mass revealed several internal and external barriers that adolescents face. These include lack of motivation/interest, lack of resources, and increased screen time. Since the research is examining adolescents, parents also played a large role in the studies. In order to address some of the barriers, strategies focused ...


Best Management Practices For The Conservation Of Western Pond Turtle Populations In California, Cristina Yarnal Dec 2019

Best Management Practices For The Conservation Of Western Pond Turtle Populations In California, Cristina Yarnal

Master's Projects and Capstones

This project provides insight into western pond turtle (Actinemys marmorata) population health at sites in three states on the western part of the United States. Washington, Oregon and California have identified the western pond turtle as endangered, a critical and a species of special concern in that respective order. Washington has implemented a recovery plan for western pond turtles and Oregon has established best management practices for the conservation of native turtles. California has yet to establish any guidelines for the conservation of western pond turtles. This species is endemic to the western United States and has been suffering from ...


California Stream Condition Index (Csci) Score Analysis Of Streams Sampled From 1998 To 2017 In The San Francisco Bay Region, Jenna Rais Dec 2019

California Stream Condition Index (Csci) Score Analysis Of Streams Sampled From 1998 To 2017 In The San Francisco Bay Region, Jenna Rais

Master's Projects and Capstones

Human impacts to California’s streams have altered the state’s riparian and hydrological landscape. This is a critical issue with regard to natural resources, including ecosystem services such as water availability and water quality. Regulations have a limited amount of impact on the improvement of this landscape and can also become complicated by politics. Scientific advances have developed ways to quantify and describe the quality of streams, this includes the development of the California Stream Condition Index (CSCI) which is based on benthic macroinvertebrate (BMI) population numbers and functions. This index allows scientists to not only score the quality ...


The Role Of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis In Depression-Relevant Reward-Related Behaviours, Katrina Zmavc Dec 2019

The Role Of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis In Depression-Relevant Reward-Related Behaviours, Katrina Zmavc

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The variability in the symptomatology of depressive disorders and antidepressant treatment response has led to an increased interest in the molecular, cellular, and circuit mechanisms of many aspects of affect. Evidence suggests a reduction in adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) is associated with an increase in depression-like behaviour, though much of this evidence has been from studies using aversive tests (e.g., forced swim test). Here, I used touchscreen operant chambers, which allow for non-aversive and translational testing, to test the hypothesis that AHN plays a contributing role in emotion regulation. A panel of three touchscreen tests were chosen to assess ...


The Impact Of Performance Anxiety On Female Athletes, Nina Barbero Dec 2019

The Impact Of Performance Anxiety On Female Athletes, Nina Barbero

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

The purpose of this synthesis is to examine the impact of performance anxiety on female athletes. Articles reviewed were aimed at answering two questions, what are the major sources that contribute to performance anxiety, and how does anxiety impact female athletes. Delimiting variables were used to do an exhaustive data-based search which yielded 10 articles. The research studies synthesized through this project were analyzed with the goal of concluding about the impact of performance anxiety on female athletes. It was revealed that while females experience higher levels of cognitive anxiety compared to males, cognitive and somatic anxiety increases from training ...


Parent’S Perspectives Of Physical Activity Recreational Programs For Their Children With Disabilities, Scott Caracci Dec 2019

Parent’S Perspectives Of Physical Activity Recreational Programs For Their Children With Disabilities, Scott Caracci

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

The purpose of this synthesis was to examine parent's perspectives of physical activity recreational programs for their children with disabilities. The studies in the critical mass reviewed the different perceptions that parents relayed including benefits and positive outcomes such as, children being able to see themselves be successful and having their social skills increase as well as barriers to successful inclusion such as, not having the right equipment, not finding a program that works with their child or not being able to trust staff know how to appropriately work with their child. They also identified opportunities that could enhance ...


Positive Relationship Physical Activity Has On Cognitive Function In High School Students, Nicholas Zaccarella Dec 2019

Positive Relationship Physical Activity Has On Cognitive Function In High School Students, Nicholas Zaccarella

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Research shows a link between physical activity and cognitive function. This connection sheds light on the idea that physical activity can improve cognitive function. Penning et al., (2017) mentions that adolescents have high levels of sedentary behavior which makes them vulnerable for health concerns. During the school day students spend most of their time sitting and staying at a resting heart rate. Vazou, Pesce, Lakes, and Smiley-Owen (2019) found consistent evidence that aerobic or motor skill physical activity, enhanced children’s spatial abilities and working memory. Many hours were spent searching through data bases to find articles on this topic ...


Physical Activity Patterns Of Students From Low-Socioeconomic Status, Elizabeth Johnson Dec 2019

Physical Activity Patterns Of Students From Low-Socioeconomic Status, Elizabeth Johnson

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Research indicates that in today’s society, there is less and less physical activity happening amongst young children from low-socioeconomic households. The purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on physical activity patterns and behaviors of children from low socioeconomic families. Teachers, families, and communities can have an impact on the lives of these children. Results indicate that there are ways we can increase physical activity and positive behaviors amongst low-socioeconomic youth.


Characterization Of The Nuclear Pore Complex In Red Alga, Cyanidioschyzon Merolae, Michelle Veronin Dec 2019

Characterization Of The Nuclear Pore Complex In Red Alga, Cyanidioschyzon Merolae, Michelle Veronin

Health and Kinesiology Theses

Cyanidioschyzon merolae (C. merolae) is a primitive, unicellular species of red alga that is considered to be one of the simplest self-sustaining eukaryotes. The highly elementary nature of C. merolae makes it an excellent model organism for studying evolution as well as cell function and organelle communication. In our study, we hypothesize that C. merolae contains the minimal assembly of proteins to make up their Nuclear Pore Complexes (NPCs), and hence are the first ancestral NPCs. NPCs are essential for basic nuclear transport in the cell. They are embedded in the double membrane of the nucleus, the nuclear envelope (NE ...


Arthropod Diversity In Contrasting Ontario Peatlands, Grace Carscallen Dec 2019

Arthropod Diversity In Contrasting Ontario Peatlands, Grace Carscallen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Peatlands are important wetland systems, but dominant macroarthropod groups endemic to peatlands and the environmental factors that affect them are poorly represented in the literature. I examined the richness, abundance, and community composition of soil and surface dwelling macroarthropods using emergence traps, peat sorting, and pitfall traps in two Ontario fens differing in water table, nutrient level, and vegetation. I found 218 arthropod morphospecies, with each site having a similar richness of emergent arthropods, but patterns of community composition differed between the two sites. The Carex (sedge) dominated site had twice as many emergent individuals, and total abundances declined dramatically ...


A Multivariate Ecological Approach To Delineate Unionid Freshwater Mussel Species, Ava M. Laszlo Dec 2019

A Multivariate Ecological Approach To Delineate Unionid Freshwater Mussel Species, Ava M. Laszlo

Biology Theses

Freshwater mussels represent one of the most imperiled faunal groups on the planet and are critical to freshwater ecosystems. If mussel species are not carefully defined, our conservation plans may miss differences in the habitat needs of different species and the conservation strategies may not be as successful. Because ecological niche models can be used to provide evidence to support similar or dissimilar ecological niches and habitat requirements, I used modelling to forecast suitable habitat for Fusconaia askewi and F. lananensis, two purported threatened Texas species. The modeling results indicated that these species are not ecologically different. Based upon this ...


Narratives Of Canadian Identity At The Ultimate Fighting Championship, Jared V. Walters Dec 2019

Narratives Of Canadian Identity At The Ultimate Fighting Championship, Jared V. Walters

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the use of representations and symbols of Canadian identity within the event coverage produced by the Ultimate Fighting Championship Corporation, in the context of its two key events, Ultimate Fighting Championship, and Fight Night, produced in Canada. To establish the historical context in which the sport developed in Canada, a narrative historiography of the political and legal struggles that led to the legalization and increasing popularity of Mixed Martial Arts, and the UFCC’s version of the sport, in particular. This first major part of the dissertation is contained in Study 1 ...


The Training Of A Para Powerlifter: A Case Study Of Adaptive Monitoring, Training And Overcoming, Derek Wilcox Dec 2019

The Training Of A Para Powerlifter: A Case Study Of Adaptive Monitoring, Training And Overcoming, Derek Wilcox

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Paralympic athletes (PA) appear to be more prone to chronic overuse injuries from daily wheelchair or crutch use. Over half of these injuries are shoulder related which can deleteriously impact quality of life. Adaptive powerlifters (AP) are a subdivision of Paralympic athletes and are at a higher risk for catastrophic injuries as compared to their counterparts, due to the compound of fatigue and lifting of maximal weights. For this reason, it is vital to have well-designed training plans for these athletes in order to preserve quality of life and maximize performance in competition. Unfortunately, there is a lack of literature ...


Chasing The Genetics Of Ascites In Broilers Using Whole Genome Resequencing, Alia Parveen Dec 2019

Chasing The Genetics Of Ascites In Broilers Using Whole Genome Resequencing, Alia Parveen

Theses and Dissertations

We are using whole genome resequencing to identify chromosomal regions associated with resistance or susceptibility to ascites, a form of pulmonary hypertension syndrome, meat-type chickens. Previous Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) have identified regions on chromosomes 2, 9 and Z. Despite several GWAS and further genotyping, there are no reliable or potential markers for ascites phenotype. We have completed screening of Copy Number Variations (CNVs) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in ascites resistant and susceptible birds from the relaxed, REL, line derived from a commercial elite broiler line. DNA samples from resistant and susceptible birds ...


The Feedback-Related Negativity Is A Time-Dependent Brain Mechanism That Facilitates Aversive Learning: Implications For The Reinforcement Learning Frn Hypothesis, Eric Rawls Dec 2019

The Feedback-Related Negativity Is A Time-Dependent Brain Mechanism That Facilitates Aversive Learning: Implications For The Reinforcement Learning Frn Hypothesis, Eric Rawls

Theses and Dissertations

Organisms encode rewarding and aversive experiences through reinforcement learning, capitalizing on prediction errors (PEs), which adapt action strategies over time. Computational theories are explicit that PE signals should update action weights continuously over the course of a behavioral task, an important time-dependent variation that is eschewed in traditional neuroscience studies that average over large numbers of trials. I examined variation in reaction times and feedback-locked cortical activity over time as a function of PE to critically examine theories indicating that PE signals drive time-dependent learning. We recorded EEG while participants completed a novel reinforcement task that varied prediction error on ...


Rotational Tuning Of Transmembrane Helix Properties Based On The Precise Placements Of Aromatic And Charged Residues, Matthew J. Mckay Dec 2019

Rotational Tuning Of Transmembrane Helix Properties Based On The Precise Placements Of Aromatic And Charged Residues, Matthew J. Mckay

Theses and Dissertations

Designed model transmembrane peptides and oriented 2H and 15N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to analyze how simple sequence modifications can influence peptide structure, behavior and dynamics as well as for determining the pKa of glutamic acid at the membrane interface. The GW5,19ALP23 (acetyl-GGALW(LA)6LWLAGA-amide) peptide framework adopts a well-defined tilted orientation in lipid bilayers (DLPC, DMPC and DOPC) and undergoes low amounts of dynamic motion. The sequence was initially modified by moving the Trp residues outwards to positions 4 and 20. This new sequence GW4,20ALP23 (acetyl-GGAW(AL)7AWAGA-amide) displays high amounts of signal ...