Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 38

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Invasive Phragmites Australis Management In Great Salt Lake Wetlands: Context Dependency And Scale Effects On Vegetation And Seed Banks, Christine B. Rohal Aug 2018

Invasive Phragmites Australis Management In Great Salt Lake Wetlands: Context Dependency And Scale Effects On Vegetation And Seed Banks, Christine B. Rohal

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Invasive plants can outcompete native plants, replacing diverse plant communities with monocultures, which can negatively impact the whole ecosystem. One invasive plant, Phragmites australis, has invaded wetlands across North America. In Utah’s Great Salt Lake, it has greatly reduced the area of native plants that are important habitat for migratory birds. Here we describe experiments that assess multiple treatments for Phragmites removal and evaluate the return of native plants after Phragmites management. The treatments were applied to Phragmites patches at two scales (small 1/4-acre plots and large 3-acre plots) and across multiple sites to evaluate how patch size ...


Assessment Of Restoration Seedings On Utah Watershed Restoration Initiative Project Sites, Lacey E. Wilder Dec 2017

Assessment Of Restoration Seedings On Utah Watershed Restoration Initiative Project Sites, Lacey E. Wilder

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Overabundance of shrubs poses a major threat to semiarid ecosystems due to degraded understory vegetation. Previous efforts suggest a need for greater understanding of which management practices work best to improve these ecosystems. I sought to develop a better understanding of how the relative performance of commonly seeded species is influenced by three sagebrush removal techniques.

I calculated effect sizes for cover and frequency to estimate relative changes in abundance of 15 common plant species seeded at 63 restoration sites throughout Utah. Shrubs were reduced by fire or mechanical treatment. Effect sizes were assessed using meta-analysis techniques for two post-treatment ...


The Demography And Determinants Of Population Growth In Utah Moose (Alces Alces Shirasi), Joel S. Ruprecht May 2016

The Demography And Determinants Of Population Growth In Utah Moose (Alces Alces Shirasi), Joel S. Ruprecht

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Moose in Utah represent the southernmost naturally occurring populations of moose in the world. Concerns over possible numeric declines and a paucity of baseline data on moose in the state prompted the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources to initiate a study of moose demography in collaboration with Utah State University. The objectives of this study were to 1) determine reproductive rates of moose in Utah and the factors which influence them, and 2) combine aerial count data from multiple management units within the state to identify factors which influence interannual variation in population growth rates.

We constructed generalized linear models ...


Factors Influencing The Ecology Of Greater Sage-Grouse Inhabiting The Bear Lake Plateau And Valley, Idaho And Utah, Casey J. Cardinal May 2015

Factors Influencing The Ecology Of Greater Sage-Grouse Inhabiting The Bear Lake Plateau And Valley, Idaho And Utah, Casey J. Cardinal

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse) are a sagebrush obligate species and as such an indicator of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitat quality and quantity. Sage-grouse populations have declined across western North America. This decline has been attributed to habitat loss and degradation of the sagebrush ecosystem. To determine factors that may cause localized declines in sage-grouse populations, managers may need site-specific information on the ecology and habitat use patterns of meta-populations. This information is currently lacking for sage-grouse populations that inhabit the Bear Lake Plateau and Valley (BLPV), encompassing parts of Idaho, Utah and Wyoming. I captured, radio-marked and monitored 153 ...


Ringtail Distribution, Dermatoglyphics, And Diet In Zion National Park, Utah, Adrian Argie Roadman May 2014

Ringtail Distribution, Dermatoglyphics, And Diet In Zion National Park, Utah, Adrian Argie Roadman

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Current scientific knowledge of the ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) is limited, thus impeding appropriate management decisions. Ringtails in Zion National Park, Utah, are rarely seen, but are involved in increasing occurrences of negative interactions with park visitors and employees such as food theft and denning in buildings, interactions which are harmful to both parties. To manage this conflict, an update to the general knowledge about the status of the population is required as the only previous study on ringtails in this area was conducted in the 1960s. Using noninvasive techniques provides dependable large-scale population information. I used two noninvasive detection methods ...


Influence Of Stand Composition On Soil Organic Carbon Stabilization And Biochemistry In Aspen And Conifer Forests Of Utah, Mercedes Roman Dobarco May 2014

Influence Of Stand Composition On Soil Organic Carbon Stabilization And Biochemistry In Aspen And Conifer Forests Of Utah, Mercedes Roman Dobarco

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Quacking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is an iconic species in western United States that offers multiple ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration. A shift in forest cover towards coniferous species due to natural succession, land management practices, or climate change may modify soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and CO2 emissions. The objectives of this study were to: (i) assess the effects of overstory composition on SOC storage and stability across the aspen-conifer ecotone, (ii) use Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) to assess whether SOC storage is associated with preferential adsorption of certain organic molecules to the mineral surfaces ...


Modeling Habitat Use Of A Fringe Greater Sage-Grouse Population At Multiple Spatial Scales, Anya Cheyenne Burnett Aug 2013

Modeling Habitat Use Of A Fringe Greater Sage-Grouse Population At Multiple Spatial Scales, Anya Cheyenne Burnett

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

While range-wide population declines have prompted extensive research on greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), basic information about southern periphery populations, such as the Bald Hills population in southern Utah, has not been documented. The objective of this research was to determine habitat preferences and space use patterns of the Bald Hills sage-grouse population which occurs in an area of high potential for renewable energy development. I tracked 66 birds via VHF telemetry in 2011 and 2012 and surveyed vegetation plots throughout the study area. I found that the population was primarily one-stage migratory with seasonal distributions that did not correspond well ...


Ecology And Conservation Of Cougars In The Eastern Great Basin: Effects Of Urbanization, Habitat Fragmentation, And Exploitation, David C. Stoner May 2011

Ecology And Conservation Of Cougars In The Eastern Great Basin: Effects Of Urbanization, Habitat Fragmentation, And Exploitation, David C. Stoner

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research was designed to investigate cougar response to urbanization, habitat fragmentation, and exploitation from behavioral, demographic, and landscape perspectives. The source-sink model has been proposed as an alternative framework for the management of exploited cougar populations. I addressed the basic question of whether cougars conform behaviorally to the predictions of the source-sink model, and consequently, the applied question of whether the model could be used for the conservation of this species. To achieve this I evaluated three scale-specific questions using radio-telemetry and hunter-harvest data collected from 1996-2010. At the subpopulation scale, I tested the hypothesis that cougars are wildland ...


Habitat Characteristics And Occupancy Rates Of Lewis's Woodpecker In Aspen, Amy M. Vande Voort May 2011

Habitat Characteristics And Occupancy Rates Of Lewis's Woodpecker In Aspen, Amy M. Vande Voort

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lewis‘ woodpeckers (Melanerpes lewis) are generally associated with open ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), open riparian, and burned pine habitats in the West; however, this species has recently been found to nest in aspen (Populus tremuloides) stands in Utah. This study describes the habitat characteristics of Lewis‘ woodpecker nest sites in aspen and investigates how well aspen stand characteristics predict Lewis‘ woodpecker occupancy. I surveyed for Lewis‘ woodpeckers at previously occupied nesting locations in aspen and took habitat measurements at nest sites. In addition, nest-centered Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA)-type plots provided stand-level habitat characteristics. I used logistic regression to ...


Riparian Bird-Habitat Association Models: A Framework For Informing Management And Developing Restoration Guidelines In Utah, Hillary M. White May 2011

Riparian Bird-Habitat Association Models: A Framework For Informing Management And Developing Restoration Guidelines In Utah, Hillary M. White

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Approximately 75% of the avian species in Utah use riparian habitats at some time during their life cycles and at least 80% of this habitat in Utah has been lost or altered since settlement; currently 0.6% of land cover in Utah is considered riparian. In 1992, with the support of Utah Partner's in Flight, the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources began a statewide neotropical migratory bird (NTMB) and habitat monitoring program to assess the status of bird populations at 31 sites. Additional sites (up to 52) were added in later years; bird and habitat assessments at 37 riparian ...


A Multi-Scale Evaluation Of Pygmy Rabbit Space Use In A Managed Landscape, Tammy L. Wilson May 2010

A Multi-Scale Evaluation Of Pygmy Rabbit Space Use In A Managed Landscape, Tammy L. Wilson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Habitat selection has long been viewed as a multi-scale process. Observed species responses to resource gradients are influenced by variation at the scale of the individual, population, metapopulation, and geographic range. Understanding how species interact with habitat at multiple levels presents a complete picture of an organism and is necessary for conservation of endangered species. The main goal of this dissertation is to evaluate distribution, relative abundance, and habitat selection of a rare species, the pygmy rabbit Brachylagus idahoensis, at multiple scales in order to improve management and conservation for this species.

At the broadest scale, pygmy rabbit occurrence and ...


Alternative Futures For The Bear River Watershed, Richard E. Toth May 2005

Alternative Futures For The Bear River Watershed, Richard E. Toth

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

The Bear River Watershed (BRW) is located in northeastern Utah, southeastern Idaho, and southwestern Wyoming. Over the three states the watershed encompasses an area of 7,500 square miles (4,800,000 acres). The Bear River 's headwaters begin at close to 13,000 feet in the High Uintas Wilderness Area of northeastern Utah. The course of the river follows a horseshoe pattern flowing north through Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho before bending south at Soda Springs. The river then meanders through the Gem and Cache Valleys before reaching its delta at the Great Salt Lake at an elevation of 4 ...


Alternative Future Growth Scenarios For Conserving Open Space Along Utah's Wasatch Front: A Case Study For The Mountain Land Association Of Governments, Richard E. Toth May 2004

Alternative Future Growth Scenarios For Conserving Open Space Along Utah's Wasatch Front: A Case Study For The Mountain Land Association Of Governments, Richard E. Toth

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Over the past 20 years, rapid suburban and second-home development along Utah's Wasatch Front has threatened to irreversibly alter the region 's character and quality of life. This rapid development has raised concern among federal, state, county and community leaders with respect to the protection of surface and subsurface water; public health, safety and welfare; public services and infrastructure, and open space. The major areas being developed include the valley edges and bottom lands, riparian zones, agricultural lands and bench areas. Since most of these areas are under private ownership, they are highly vulnerable to an array of development ...


Morphometric Evaluation Of The Whitefish Complex In Bear Lake, Utah/Idaho, Alan Ward May 2001

Morphometric Evaluation Of The Whitefish Complex In Bear Lake, Utah/Idaho, Alan Ward

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Whitefish populations around the world have long been difficult to categorize taxonomically. The whitefish of Bear Lake, Utah/Idaho are no exception. There are three recognized species of Prosopium that are endemic to the lake. Two of these species, Prosopium spilonotus and Prosopium abyssicota, have previously been indistinguishable outside of spawning times. Previous studies have proposed additional taxa within P. spi/onotus to further complicate the identification among these taxa.

Morphological characteristics were quantified on wild whitefish from Bear Lake, as well as from progeny reared in the laboratory from the wild adult fish. The purported taxa were separated in ...


Limitations On Canada Goose Production At Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, Utah, Dorie S. Stolley May 1998

Limitations On Canada Goose Production At Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, Utah, Dorie S. Stolley

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Canada geese (Branta canadensis) recently have become management problems in some areas due to overpopulation At Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). managers are concerned with the opposite situation Despite attempts to boost production, only 18 to 34 goslings of the western Canada goose (B. c. moffitti) were produced per year, from 1989 to 1993. I studied the breeding population from March to July in 1996 and 1997. Results suggest that production is limited in 3 ways: low gosling survival. low nesting success for ground nests, and low number of breeding pairs Gosling survival to fledging was 25% in 1996 ...


An Ecological History Of Tintic Valley, Juab County, Utah, Jeffrey A. Creque May 1996

An Ecological History Of Tintic Valley, Juab County, Utah, Jeffrey A. Creque

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This work was a case study of historical ecological change in Tintic Valley, Juab County, Utah, an area historically impacted by mining and ranching activities common to much of the American West. The temporal framework for the study was approximately 120 years, the period of direct Euroamerican influence. In recognition of the ecological implications of cultural change, however, the impacts of prehistoric and protohistoric human activity on study area landscape patterns and processes were also explicitly addressed.

The study included a narrative description of historic land uses and ecological change in Tintic Valley, and examined the changes in landscape patterns ...


Green River Foodweb: Colorado Squawfish Nursery Habitat Near Ouray National Wildlife Refuge, Utah, Linden Hamer Alder May 1995

Green River Foodweb: Colorado Squawfish Nursery Habitat Near Ouray National Wildlife Refuge, Utah, Linden Hamer Alder

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Effects of fish introductions are relatively well studied in lentic habitats, and apparently range from extremely disruptive to notably benign (Kruegger and May 1991). Though researched less completely, fish introductions may also alter native faunas in lotic habitats. Ptychocheilus lucius, commonly known as the Colorado squawfish (C. squawfish), is a fish species endemic to the Colorado river system. The population is currently experiencing dramatically reduced recruitment successes relative to historical rates. Introduced fishes such as channel catfish, smallmouth bass, and green sunfish are prevalent in the Upper Colorado River. The introduced fish presence is increasingly suspected by researchers as a ...


Optimization Of Ranch Management Alternatives In Utah, Scott G. Evans May 1992

Optimization Of Ranch Management Alternatives In Utah, Scott G. Evans

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum combination of various cattle production, range forage, and crop harvesting alternatives available to ranch owners and managers in Utah. While many promising alternatives are available, determining which alternatives to implement is difficult because the total ranch operation must be considered.

Linear programming (LP) is a tool available to ranch managers which allows the profit maximizing combination of improvements to be easily determined. LP allows ranchers to examine the entire ranch operation and to reduce the amount of risk and uncertainty involved in the decision making process.

The typical Utah ranch ...


Fee Hunting Opportunities On Private Land In Utah: An Economic And Policy Analysis, Lucy A. Jordan May 1989

Fee Hunting Opportunities On Private Land In Utah: An Economic And Policy Analysis, Lucy A. Jordan

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Objectives of this research were (1) to describe fee hunting as it is currently practiced in Utah and (2) to assess the adequacy of fee hunting efforts in addressing the problems of wildlife habitat and hunter access on private land. To collect information, Utah landowners who charged for deer (Odocoileus hemionus) or elk (Cervus elaphus) hunting in 1986 were surveyed by telephone and mail.

Compared to the average Utah livestock rancher, those involved in fee hunting have larger livestock operations and have owned their property longer. They are Utah natives. Fee hunting is concentrated in northern Utah where foothill and ...


The Feasibility Of River Otter Reintroduction In Northern Utah, Joel P. Bich May 1988

The Feasibility Of River Otter Reintroduction In Northern Utah, Joel P. Bich

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this thesis is to document river otter (Lutra canadensis) distribution and reintroduction potential in northern Utah. Distribution was studied using data from 3 sources: 1) otter sighting records from Utah Division of Wildlife Resources; 2) surveys of Utah furbearer trappers and natural resources personnel; and 3) searches of streams for otter sign. Potential for river otter habitat/reintroduction was evaluated by assessing food, cover, and reintroduction attributes. Streams were ranked using an evaluation system based on data from the otter literature. Forty-six positive otter sightings were made in Utah by trappers, natural resources personnel, and the public ...


Nesting And Habitat Parameters For Selected Raptors In The Desert Of Northwestern Utah, David L. Peterson May 1988

Nesting And Habitat Parameters For Selected Raptors In The Desert Of Northwestern Utah, David L. Peterson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the effects of habitat parameters, disturbances and predation on the reproductive success of golden eagles (Aguila chrysaetos), ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus) in the desert area southwest of the Great Salt Lake in northwestern Utah. The prairie falcon was the only species examined that had a normal reproductive output during the study years of 1984-1986. The prairie falcon was better able to utilize the avian prey species which were very difficult for the larger and slower raptor species to capture. During the reproductive period prairie falcons used Townsend ground ...


Causes Of Seeding Failure Within The Tooele Fire Rehabilitation Project In Northwestern Utah, Jeffrey S. Murphy May 1987

Causes Of Seeding Failure Within The Tooele Fire Rehabilitation Project In Northwestern Utah, Jeffrey S. Murphy

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The original purpose of this study was to examine the influences of ecological site, seeding method and planting season on rangeland seeding success within the Tooele Fire Rehabilitation Project (TFRP) in northwestern Utah. The major objective of the TFRP, designed by the USDI Bureau of Land Management, was to establish a permanent cover of 'Nordan' crested wheatgrass (Aqropyron desertorum (Fischer ex Link) Schultes), 'Luna' pubescent wheat grass (Thinopyrum intermedium ssp. barbulatum (Schur) Barkw. and D. R. Dewey) and 'Al kar' tall wheatqrass (Thinopyrum ponticum (Podp.) Barkw. and D. R. Dewey) on approximately 20,000 ha of rangeland burned by a ...


Initial Assessment Of The Introduction Of Spottail Shiner (Notropis Hudsonius) And Delta Smelt (Hypomesus Transpacificus) Into Willard Bay Reservoir, Utah., Thomas E. Sommerfeldt May 1984

Initial Assessment Of The Introduction Of Spottail Shiner (Notropis Hudsonius) And Delta Smelt (Hypomesus Transpacificus) Into Willard Bay Reservoir, Utah., Thomas E. Sommerfeldt

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius) and delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) were introduced into Willard Reservoir to improve the forage base for walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus). Spottail shiners were stocked in early spring in 1981, 1982, and 1983. Hauling mortality was generally great and an estimated 34,500 live fish were stocked in the 3-year period. Spottail shiner reproduction occurred each year of stocking. Delta smelt were introduced in 1982 with the stocking of 15,000 adult spawning fish. Stocking survival was estimated at 99%. Freshly spawned eggs were also obtained and placed in a tributary to ...


Mule Deer Reproduction And Survival In The Lasal Mountains, Utah, Randall B. Smith May 1983

Mule Deer Reproduction And Survival In The Lasal Mountains, Utah, Randall B. Smith

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) reproduction and survival on the LaSal Mountains, Utah were studied from 1978-81. Reproductive rates were high, suggesting that summer and fall forage quality was adequate and was not responsible for low recruitment observed in recent years. The combined fetal rate, determined from laparotomies and carcasses, was 1.72 for all females older than 1 year (N = 114). Fetal rates were 1.15 for yearlings (N = 20), 1.80 for prime females (2-7 years, N = 78), and 1.75 for old females (8+ years, N = 16). No evidence of breeding was found among fawns (N = 18). Estimated ...


The Energy Expenditure Of Heifers Grazing Crested Wheatgrass Rangeland In West-Central Utah, Kris M. Havstad May 1981

The Energy Expenditure Of Heifers Grazing Crested Wheatgrass Rangeland In West-Central Utah, Kris M. Havstad

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The free-roaming ruminant requires energy for the demands of vii grazing, traveling and thermoregulation that are not required by its confined counterpart. Literature estimates of these additional costs range from 10 to 170 percent above maintenance. The uncertain magnitude of this increased demand and the factors that contribute to it impede the ability of the rangeland ruminant nutritionist to establish guidelines for the energy requirements of the free-roaming herbivore. This study was designed to estimate the energy expenditure of yearling Angus heifers while grazing a declining supply of available crested wheatgrass forage (Agropyron cristatum) on rangeland in west-central Utah.

Free-ranging ...


Diversity And Production Of Herbaceous Vegetation In A Northern Utah Subalpine Chronosequence, Gary A. Reese May 1981

Diversity And Production Of Herbaceous Vegetation In A Northern Utah Subalpine Chronosequence, Gary A. Reese

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Successional trends in herbaceous plant production and diversity were studied in an age sequence of sites, i.e. chronosequence, inferred to represent a meadow to aspen to fir to spruce-fir sere. Primary production was observed to decrease in a linear fashion with successional development. Three components of diversity; richness, heterogeneity, and equitability or evenness, each had low early successional values, reaching maximum diversity in mid-succession, and declining to intermediate levels with maturity. The magnitude of these trends varied greatly, depending on the methods used to determine plant dominance. Characteristics of various dominance indices and their applicability to this study were ...


Economic Analysis Of Long-Term Management Strategies For Two Sizes Of Utah Cattle Ranches, Roger E. Banner May 1981

Economic Analysis Of Long-Term Management Strategies For Two Sizes Of Utah Cattle Ranches, Roger E. Banner

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Utah cattle ranchers realize relatively little profit from ranch ownership and management. This study represents an attempt to identify ranch management strategies that produce more profit over time than do conventional strategies. To identify optimum management strategies for the long term, analyses of ranches under both normal and adverse ranch operation conditions using the COPLAN linear programming model were made for strategy comparison. To depict these ranch business environmental conditions, production levels were estimated from available biological data and price levels were estimated by indexing 1977 ranch product prices (the most current budget data available for Utah). The variability of ...


An Investigation Of Salinity Fluctuations In Soils Of A Northern Utah Marshland, Gary Roy Newman May 1979

An Investigation Of Salinity Fluctuations In Soils Of A Northern Utah Marshland, Gary Roy Newman

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ogden Bay Waterfowl Management Area is one of many marshlands bordering the Great Salt Lake that are extremely important as breeding habitats for North American waterfowl. Salinity, both of surface and interstitial waters, is an important factor in maintaining a suitable habitat within the marsh. For this reason, a study was undertaken to determine the factors affecting the salinity of surface and interstitial waters. A small (approx. 100 acre) subunit was studied extensively to determine; 1) variations in surface water salinity with flowrate and water level; and 2) variation in interstitial water salinity with depth and location within the subunit ...


Early Life History Of The Mountain Whitefish Prosopium Williamsoni (Girard) In The Logan River, Utah, Lawrence Guy Brown May 1972

Early Life History Of The Mountain Whitefish Prosopium Williamsoni (Girard) In The Logan River, Utah, Lawrence Guy Brown

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Growth and food habits of 399 Age 0 mountain whitefish from the Logan River, Utah, were studied between March, 1970, and April, 1971. At the end of their first six months of life, whitefish were 86-96 mm total length and weighed 6-8 grams (wet). Total temperature experience was 2,950-3,430 degree- days above 32° F. The length-weight relationship for Age 0 mountain whitefish was best described by three stanzas with slopes of 4.3333 for fish 12.5-17.0 mm total length, 3.4437 for fish 17.0-55.0 mm total length, and 2.8043 for fish 50.0-112 ...


Ecology Of Badgers In Curlew Valley, Utah And Idaho With Emphasis On Movement And Activity Patterns, Frederick G. Lindzey May 1971

Ecology Of Badgers In Curlew Valley, Utah And Idaho With Emphasis On Movement And Activity Patterns, Frederick G. Lindzey

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Between March, 1969 and July, 1970, 16 badgers (Taxidea taxus) were caught and fitted with radio transmitters in the southern part of Curlew Valley. The animals were followed telemetrically; seven animals contributed sufficient data from which home-range, movement and activity patterns could be discerned. The aver age annual home-range size of five females was 664 acres (± s.d. 99 .5 acres). Female home-range sizes were approximately the same within crested wheat-grass (Agropyron aristatum) and sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) vegetation types, with greater distances traveled each night by females in the crested wheat-grass. Both home-range size and total movement were less during ...