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A Study Of The American Black Bear (Ursus Americanus) In Utah: An Analysis Of The Post-Denning Activities And Bear-Human Conflict, Julie Ann Miller Dec 2014

A Study Of The American Black Bear (Ursus Americanus) In Utah: An Analysis Of The Post-Denning Activities And Bear-Human Conflict, Julie Ann Miller

Theses and Dissertations

This study examined two different aspects of black bear (Ursus americanus) ecology in Utah. First, we determined the post-denning behaviors of female black bears in order to help management agencies protect bears from human disturbances as well as set spring hunts that minimize the taking of females with dependent young. We looked at the timing of den emergence (X = 25 March), the number of days at the den site post emergence (X = 11 days), and departure (X = 8 April) for female black bears in Utah from 2011—2013. We also analyzed the effects of cohort (lone female, female with cubs ...


Winter Ecology Of Waterfowl On The Great Salt Lake, Utah, Josh L. Vest May 2013

Winter Ecology Of Waterfowl On The Great Salt Lake, Utah, Josh L. Vest

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

I designed a suite of studies in coordination with Utah Division of Wildlife Resources (UDWR) to evaluate waterfowl use of the GSL in winter and ecological aspects associated with GSL use. These studies provided insight into key information gaps previously identified by UDWR regarding management of GSL resources. Population surveys indicated total duck abundance was low when GSL surface elevations were low and wetland resources diminished because of persistent drought in the system. Also, ducks appear to use hypersaline parts of GSL more when freshwater habitats are limited from either drought or ice conditions. Common goldeneye, northern shoveler, and green-winged ...


Assessing Vehicle-Related Mortality Of Mule Deer In Utah, Daniel D. Olson May 2013

Assessing Vehicle-Related Mortality Of Mule Deer In Utah, Daniel D. Olson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Roads are essential in modern societies, but as populations grow and traffic volumes rise, roads will continue to be built and expanded. As a result, the effects that roads have on wildlife will likely intensify, making it imperative that managers understand those effects so mitigation can be directed accordingly. In Utah, considerable areas of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) habitat have been bisected by roads. Mule deer are commonly involved in vehicle collisions and there is concern that roads and vehicle traffic are impacting populations. This project was conducted to determine the number and demographic effects of deer-vehicle collisions, to examine ...


Habitat Characteristics And Occupancy Rates Of Lewis's Woodpecker In Aspen, Amy M. Vande Voort May 2011

Habitat Characteristics And Occupancy Rates Of Lewis's Woodpecker In Aspen, Amy M. Vande Voort

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lewis‘ woodpeckers (Melanerpes lewis) are generally associated with open ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), open riparian, and burned pine habitats in the West; however, this species has recently been found to nest in aspen (Populus tremuloides) stands in Utah. This study describes the habitat characteristics of Lewis‘ woodpecker nest sites in aspen and investigates how well aspen stand characteristics predict Lewis‘ woodpecker occupancy. I surveyed for Lewis‘ woodpeckers at previously occupied nesting locations in aspen and took habitat measurements at nest sites. In addition, nest-centered Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA)-type plots provided stand-level habitat characteristics. I used logistic regression to ...


Application Of Habitat And Occupancy Modeling To A Wood Duck Next Box Program, Jason D. Carlisle May 2011

Application Of Habitat And Occupancy Modeling To A Wood Duck Next Box Program, Jason D. Carlisle

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Programs to augment wood duck (Aix sponsa) nesting habitat by providing artificial nest boxes are commonly implemented. In northern Utah, where such programs are relatively new, I proposed a method to identify sites suitable for deployment of next boxes through a combination of habitat and occupancy modeling using site-specific, biotic, and abiotic, data collected from 105 next boxes over one nesting season in Cache County, Utah. An inductive habitat model was first developed which identified possibly suitable habitat (8.74% of county) based on proximity to hydrologic features. Next, based on comparing competing single-species, single-season, occupancy models using a modified ...


Variable Palatability Of Quaking Aspen For Large Ungulate Herbivores, Patrice Alexa Nielson Aug 2010

Variable Palatability Of Quaking Aspen For Large Ungulate Herbivores, Patrice Alexa Nielson

Theses and Dissertations

Aspen is a key resource in the Rocky Mountain Region for wildlife forage and habitat, lumber products, scenery, and plays important roles in fire ecology and hydrological processes. There is evidence of aspen decline over much of the Intermountain West for approximately 100 years. In Dixie and Fishlake National Forests, UT, aspen distribution has decreased by nearly half. Causes of this decline are not well understood, although wildlife browsing by ungulates has been implicated as playing a major role. The objective of this research was to examine what soil or plant factors might be involved in wildlife browse choice in ...


Greater Sage-Grouse Response To Sagebrush Reduction Treatments In Rich County, Utah, Roger Blair Stringham May 2010

Greater Sage-Grouse Response To Sagebrush Reduction Treatments In Rich County, Utah, Roger Blair Stringham

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Management of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the west has changed over the last several decades in response to environmental and anthropogenic causes. Many land and wildlife management agencies have begun manipulating sagebrush with herbicides, machinery, and fire. The intent of these manipulations (treatments) is to reduce sagebrush canopy cover and increase the density of grass and forb species, thus providing higher quality sage-grouse brood-rearing habitat. However, monitoring of sage-grouse response to such manipulations has often been lacking or non-existent. The objective of our study was to determine the response of sage-grouse to sagebrush reduction treatments that have occurred recently ...


The Influence Of Landscape And Weather On Foraging By Olfactory Meso-Predators In Utah, Rebekah E. Dritz May 2010

The Influence Of Landscape And Weather On Foraging By Olfactory Meso-Predators In Utah, Rebekah E. Dritz

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Predation by olfactory meso-predators has a large impact on avian nest success, particularly for ground-nesting waterfowl. Olfactory predators rely on odors to locate their prey. Weather conditions (e.g. wind speed, humidity, and temperature), vegetation, and landscape features affect the dissipation rate of odors and could affect the foraging efficiency of olfactory predators. I conducted 2 studies to determine if weather and landscape impact predator foraging ability and behavior: a predator survey study and an artificial nest study. The objective of the predator survey was to investigate how landscape and weather conditions interact to influence the distribution of olfactory meso-predators ...


Diet Reconstruction Of Wild Rio-Grande Turkey Of Central Utah Using Stable Isotope Analysis, Benjamin D. Stearns Mar 2010

Diet Reconstruction Of Wild Rio-Grande Turkey Of Central Utah Using Stable Isotope Analysis, Benjamin D. Stearns

Theses and Dissertations

The wild turkey is endemic to North America and has played a role in human cultures past and present. However, with the turkey's elusive behavior some aspects of its ecology are challenging to understand. Diet is one of these difficult aspects to study. The purpose of this study was to determine the diet selection of wild turkeys in central Utah using non invasive stable isotope technology. We hypothesize that turkey diet is highly specific, that consumption of specific plant species correlates with the needs of the individual turkey, and that stable isotope analysis will reveal patterns in annual dietary ...


Factors Influencing Epiphytic Lichen Communities In Aspen-Associated Forests Of The Bear River Range, Idaho And Utah, Paul C. Rogers May 2007

Factors Influencing Epiphytic Lichen Communities In Aspen-Associated Forests Of The Bear River Range, Idaho And Utah, Paul C. Rogers

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In western North America, quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is the most common hardwood in montane landscapes. Fire suppression, grazing, wildlife management practices, and climate patterns of the past century are some of the threats to aspen coverage in this region. Researchers are concerned that aspen-dependent species may be losing habitat, thereby threatening their long-term local and regional viability. Though lichens have a rich history as air pollution indicators, I believe that they may also be useful as a metric of community diversity associated with habitat change. To date, few studies have specifically examined the status of aspen's epiphytic ...


Forage Adaptability Trials For Forage And Seed Production In Bolivia; Effect Of 5 Herbicides On 7 Native Utah Forbs, Joshua C. Voss Dec 2006

Forage Adaptability Trials For Forage And Seed Production In Bolivia; Effect Of 5 Herbicides On 7 Native Utah Forbs, Joshua C. Voss

Theses and Dissertations

The harsh environmental and poor economic conditions of the Bolivian Altiplano require intervention to assist many of those that live there to become economically self-sufficient. We attempted to find introduced dry season reserve forage grasses that could produce enough biomass to be useful as feed for livestock, and that could also produce enough seed to distribute to farmers. While some of the grasses produced reasonable amounts of biomass, none produced seed in quantities that would be even close to being economically viable. The most likely cause of this is that the timing of resources that the grasses need to flower ...


Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions In Utah: An Analysis Of Wildlife Road Mortality Hotspots, Economic Impacts And Implications For Mitigation And Management, Christine A. Kassar May 2005

Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions In Utah: An Analysis Of Wildlife Road Mortality Hotspots, Economic Impacts And Implications For Mitigation And Management, Christine A. Kassar

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In the US, the roaded landscape has had serious ecological effects. We studied wildlife-vehicle collisions occurring on the 248 state routes in Utah from 1992 to 2002. We tracked trends and patterns in deer-vehicle collisions, evaluated all routes for frequency of deer kills, and identified "hotspots" ( segments of road with high concentrations of collisions per mile). We found pronounced patterns: e.g., 61.15% of all collisions occurred on only 10 routes. We studied the effects of posted speed limit and annual average daily traffic flow and found that no relationship existed between traffic volume and/or posted speed limit ...


Physical Factors Influencing Survival To Emergence And Time Of Emergence Of Shoreslope-Spawned Kokanee Salmon In Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Utah-Wyoming, Randall J. Jeric May 1996

Physical Factors Influencing Survival To Emergence And Time Of Emergence Of Shoreslope-Spawned Kokanee Salmon In Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Utah-Wyoming, Randall J. Jeric

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

I used incubation baskets containing viable eggs and spawning substrate to estimate the survival to emergence and time of emergence of kokanee salmon Oncorhynchus nerka at depths to 20 m in Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Utah-Wyoming. Traps on the incubation baskets captured fry emerging from a known quantity of eggs. Water drawn into a syringe from an intragravel pipe buried near each incubation basket was used to determine intragravel dissolved oxygen concentrations throughout the intragravel period. Water from control baskets without eggs did not have significantly greater dissolved oxygen concentrations than adjacent water. A jar associated with each incubation basket collected ...


Investigations Of Forage Fish And Lake Trout Salvelinus Namaycush Interactions In Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming-Utah, Daniel L. Yule Jan 1992

Investigations Of Forage Fish And Lake Trout Salvelinus Namaycush Interactions In Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming-Utah, Daniel L. Yule

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

I investigated the interaction of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and their dominant forage fish populations, Utah chub (Gila atraria) and kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), in Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming-Utah. Through bioenergetics modeling, I quantified the consumption dynamics of the lake trout population. From hydroacoustics analyses, I quantified the density and biomass of the two dominant forage fish populations.

In Chapter II, I report the results of the energetics analysis. The objective of this chapter was to understand the role of lake trout predation in recent changes in fish assemblage structure of the reservoir. Through lake trout diet analysis and exploration ...


Nitrogen And Energy Budgets Of Production Ewes On Summer Range In Southwestern Utah, John W. Halpop May 1988

Nitrogen And Energy Budgets Of Production Ewes On Summer Range In Southwestern Utah, John W. Halpop

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nitrogen (N) and energy budgets for free-roaming ewes were quantified on mountain summer range in southwestern Utah in 1986 and 1987. Diet quality (%N), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), and energy were estimated with the use of five esophageally fistulated ewes. Excretion rates of N and energy to feces and urine were measured by total collection from five nonfistualted ewes.

Total intake N(gN/(MBW*d-1) tracked intraseasonal changes of dietary N percent but was apparently buffered by fluctuations in dry matter intake. In each year, total urine N was closely related to dietary N concentration, r2 ...


Investigation Of Selected Aspects Of Kokanee (Onchorhynchus Nerka) Ecology In Porcupine Reservoir, Utah, With Management Implications, Paul Joel Janssen May 1983

Investigation Of Selected Aspects Of Kokanee (Onchorhynchus Nerka) Ecology In Porcupine Reservoir, Utah, With Management Implications, Paul Joel Janssen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Several aspects of kokanee (Onchorhynchus nerka) ecology were studied in the fluctuating, 80ha Porcupine Reservoir, Utah in order to determine optimum management strategies. In 1981, escapement was enumerated and estimates of egg deposition were made . An estimate of the resulting fry recruitment was also attempted and was successful up to the arrival of spring runoff. In 1982, escapement was enumerated and estimates of egg deposition were made, with subsequent estimates of egg deposition and percent survival to the advanced eyed stage. Age and growth rates were determined and survival rates estimated.

Escapement for 1981 and 1982 was 5,463 and ...


Evaluation Of Six Strains Of Rainbow Trout (Salmo Gairdneri) Stocked As Fingerlings In Porcupine Reservoir, Utah, Mark Hudy May 1980

Evaluation Of Six Strains Of Rainbow Trout (Salmo Gairdneri) Stocked As Fingerlings In Porcupine Reservoir, Utah, Mark Hudy

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Different strains of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), Ten Sleep, Sand Creek, Beitey, Shepherd-of-the-Hills, New Zealand, Fish Lake- Desmet, Desmet, were compared for survival to the creel, growth and catchability after being stocked in a fluctuating 80 ha Utah reservoir . Fish were stocked in the spring and fall as fingerlings and monitored by creel censusing, gill netting and electrofishing. Fish were tagged with coded wire snout tags prior to stocking . An angler opinion survey was conducted to determine angler satisfaction with numbers and size of fish caught.

Regardless of strain, spring stocking was superior to fall stocking in survival to the ...


The Horse Population Of Utah And Its Impact, Scott Stewart Mckendrick May 1976

The Horse Population Of Utah And Its Impact, Scott Stewart Mckendrick

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

PART I

The horse numbers of Utah had not been accurately counted since the early 1960's. It was estimated that horse and pony numbers were reaching heights as recorded before the age of tractors and automobiles. Horsemen in Utah were asking for financial assistance for public horse facilities from the Utah legislature. The first part of this study was to survey the horse population to determine an accurate count of Utah horses.

PART II

In order to be satisfied that the horse industry deserved the spending of public funds, it was necessary to know the economic contribution of the ...


Impact Of The Black-Tailed Jackrabbits (Lepus Californicus) On Vegetation In Curlew Valley, Northern Utah, Mark Westoby May 1973

Impact Of The Black-Tailed Jackrabbits (Lepus Californicus) On Vegetation In Curlew Valley, Northern Utah, Mark Westoby

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The interrelations of black- tailed jackrabbits and the desertshrub vegetation on which they were feeding were studied in Curlew Valley, Northern Utah. The vegetation was described as a threecornered continuum, the corners being types dominated respectively by Artemisia tridentata, Atriplex ~ onfertifolia, and Sarcobatus vermiculatus. Jackrabbit diet was studied by microscopic analysis of plant fragments in stomachs from shot animals. The method was inaccurate, apparently because the ratio of identifiable tissues to all ingested tissues was very low, and varied between plant taxa, and seasonally. This problem seems intractable for desert shrub vegetation. The diet was similar to that reported by ...


Ecology Of Aroga Websteri Clarke In Curlew Valley, Utah-Idaho, Reed L. Kirkland May 1972

Ecology Of Aroga Websteri Clarke In Curlew Valley, Utah-Idaho, Reed L. Kirkland

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The ecology, life history, and population dynamics of the sagebrush defoliator, Aroga websteri Clarke, were studied in the field and laboratory. The defoliator has one generation a year at the Curlew Valley site. It overwintered in the egg stage and passed through five larval instars. Ten parasite species attacked the defoliator at the study site . Four species, Orgilus ferus, Phaeogenes sp., Spilochalcis leptis, and Apanteles cacoeciae, contributed over 75 percent of the total incidence of parasitism. Parasitism ranged from 20 to 76 percent in 1971, but only ranged from 6 to 29 percent in 1972. This decrease in total parasitism ...


Carrying Capacity Of The Key Browse Species For Moose On The North Slopes Of The Uinta Mountains, Utah, David E. Wilson May 1971

Carrying Capacity Of The Key Browse Species For Moose On The North Slopes Of The Uinta Mountains, Utah, David E. Wilson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Shiras moose, Alces alces shirasi, and its winter habitat on the north slopes of the Uinta Mountains in Utah were studied from August, 1969, to July, 1971 to determine the food requirement for moose, the key browse species during the winter months, the acreage, density and utilization of the key browse species, and their carrying capacity for moose.

It was determined that an average adult moose had a daily food requirement of 19,133 kilocalories. The key browse species for moose were Salix drummondiana and S. geyeriana. These two species accounted for 92.0 and 4.7 percent respectively ...


An Economic Analysis Of Contour Furrows And Gully Checks On The Frail Lands Of Southeastern Utah, Karl A. Simonson May 1970

An Economic Analysis Of Contour Furrows And Gully Checks On The Frail Lands Of Southeastern Utah, Karl A. Simonson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The upper Colorado River drainage system yields approximately 104,000 acre-feet of silt annually to the Colorado River. In an attempt to reduce the silt load, federal land management agencies have installed numerous land surface treatments. A study was conducted to measure the economic benefits of the land treatments near Cisco, Utah, and to compare them to the treatment costs and to develop predictive criteria for estimating the optimum intensity of treatment.

The economic evaluation was done in a benefit-cost framework and the criteria for estimating optimum intensity of treatment was done in a production-function framework.

The land treatments were ...


Comparisons Of Phytoseiid Predator Population In Sprayed And Unsprayed Apple Orchards In Cache Valley, Utah, Yeboa A. Dodoo May 1968

Comparisons Of Phytoseiid Predator Population In Sprayed And Unsprayed Apple Orchards In Cache Valley, Utah, Yeboa A. Dodoo

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A comparative study of phytoseiid populations was made of two well- cultivated and regularly sprayed apple orchards with two unsprayed orchards in Cache Valley, northern Utah.

Two phytoseiid species, Typhlodromus mcgregori Chant and T. occidentalis Nesbitt were observed on the apple leaves, under the bark, and occasionally in the litter and soil. Amblyseius cucumeris (Oudemans) occurred in the soil and litter and occasionally under bark. T. mcgregori was dominant in the unsprayed orchards, and T. occidentalis in the sprayed.

Of the phytophagous mites, which served as food for the phytoseiids, the two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch was dominant. Other phytophagous ...


Relationship Of Certain Environmental Factors To Benthic Fish Densities In Bear Lake, Idaho-Utah, Thomas J. Hassler May 1960

Relationship Of Certain Environmental Factors To Benthic Fish Densities In Bear Lake, Idaho-Utah, Thomas J. Hassler

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The project was initiated in June of 1958 and financed by the National Science Foundation and the Wildlife Management Department of Utah State University.

The broad aspects of the study were to determine if a relationship exists between certain physical and biological factors and benthic fish densities. The project vas divided into two parts: (l) to determine the time and extent of thermal stratification, zooplankton densities, conductivity changes within the lake and conductivity differences between the lake and its tributaries; (2) to determine it a relationship exist between benthic fish densities, temperatures, depths, conductivities and benthic zooplankton densities. The data ...


Limnological Studies On Hyrum Reservoir, In Northern Utah, Royal A. Rich May 1960

Limnological Studies On Hyrum Reservoir, In Northern Utah, Royal A. Rich

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With an ever increasing fishing pressure on our natural and artificial lakes every measure possible must be taken to preserve the sport for its many thousands of participants.

Hyrum Reservoir is easily accessible to the fishermen of northern Utah. In recent years the lake has offered little in the way of fishing. It is hoped that the information accumulated in this study will help pave the way to a successful stocking program and that Hyrum Reservoir will be one of the productive fishing areas available to Utah anglers.

The objectives of this investigation were:

1. To determine the extent of ...


The Natural Reproduction Of The Cutthroat Trout, Salmo Clarki Richardson, In Strawberry Reservoir, Utah, William S. Platts May 1958

The Natural Reproduction Of The Cutthroat Trout, Salmo Clarki Richardson, In Strawberry Reservoir, Utah, William S. Platts

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Strawberry Reservoir, Utah is an 8.000 acre lake at the elevation of 7,550 feet; it has a maximum depth of 52 feet and an average depth of 18 feet. The supply of cutthroat trout eggs used to replenish and distribute this trout throughout the state are taken from two spawning traps located on reservoir tributaries. Because it has not proven economical to raise cutthroat to a larger size than newly hatched fry, it is at this site they are planted. Because of competition, predation, and lack of space the planting back of fry to maintain the fishery and ...


The Cattle Industry Of San Juan County, Utah, 1875-1900, Franklin D. Day Jan 1958

The Cattle Industry Of San Juan County, Utah, 1875-1900, Franklin D. Day

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to learn the reasons for the movement of cattle Into San Juan County, Utah, the development of the Industry, and its contribution to the growth of the county.

The few written accounts in existence of the cattle industry in San Juan are brief and found in widely separate areas. The whole and complete account will likely never be written, but there is need for gathering as much of the scattered information as possible.

A study of the early history of the inhabitants of San Juan was made, along with an examination of the geography ...


An Evaluation Of Methods Of Concentrating And Counting The Phytoplankton Of Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho, William J. Clark May 1956

An Evaluation Of Methods Of Concentrating And Counting The Phytoplankton Of Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho, William J. Clark

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The phytoplankton, or plant plankton, live in the open water throughout their life cycle and obtain the necessary nutrients from the water. They are important contributors to the total plant production of lakes and ponds.


A Management Study Of The Cache Elk Herd, Norman V. Hancock May 1955

A Management Study Of The Cache Elk Herd, Norman V. Hancock

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

American elk, by virtue of their distributio.n, were the most cosmopolitan members of the cervid family at the time of white settlement of North America. At this early date elk were present in every major region of what is now continental United States, as well as in northern Mexico. They likewise were abundant in upper and lower Canada, though records do not corroborate their presence too far north on the Atlantic coast. Although generally existent throughout the western states, elk were sparsely distributed in Nevada, southern Utah, and most of Arizona and New Mexico. Paucity of elk was also ...


Age And Growth Of The Utah Chub, Gila Atraria (Girard), In Panguitch Lake And Navajo Lake, Utah, From Scales And Opercular Bones, John M. Neuhold May 1954

Age And Growth Of The Utah Chub, Gila Atraria (Girard), In Panguitch Lake And Navajo Lake, Utah, From Scales And Opercular Bones, John M. Neuhold

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Previous literature indicates the opercular bone as a useful tool for the determination of age and growth of fish. The reliability and validity of this method is tested for two populations of Utah chub. Age and growth are calculated for 222 Utah chub collected from Panguitch Lake and 212 Utah chub collected from Navajo Lake, southern Utah, in 1952-1953 from both scales and opercular bones. Scales are measured with the aid of a projector. Opercular bones are measured directly. The center of growth of the opercular bone is posterior to the posterior lip of the fulcrum. Correction for curvature is ...