Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

PDF

Theses/Dissertations

Performance

Discipline
Institution
Publication Year
Publication

Articles 1 - 30 of 79

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Impact Of Extrinsic Motivation On Athletic Performance, Timothy Petranchuk Jr. Oct 2019

The Impact Of Extrinsic Motivation On Athletic Performance, Timothy Petranchuk Jr.

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Youth participation in sports include recreational, organized, informal programs as well as Olympic hopefuls. These young athletes can have positive or negative experiences from their participation in sports. Perhaps an important aspect of what makes those experiences either positive or negative is how they are motivated to participate in these activities. Motivation in these young athletes can come in various ways. One main theme found in the literature that has a direct influence on their experiences is extrinsic motivation. It is important to understand how these athletes' performances are affected by outside influences, such as parents, coaches and peers. This ...


Effects Of High-Carbohydrate Versus Mixed-Macronutrient Meals On Soccer Physiology And Performance, Jaison Lee Wynne Jul 2019

Effects Of High-Carbohydrate Versus Mixed-Macronutrient Meals On Soccer Physiology And Performance, Jaison Lee Wynne

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to measure the effects of an acute pre-competition high-carbohydrate (HCHO) meal versus a mixed-macronutrient (MM) meal on physiology, perceptual responses, and performance in 15 division I female collegiate soccer players. Being there are conjectural advantages to pre-exercise meals higher in fiber, fat, and protein, this study was conducted to evaluate the physiological and perceptual effects of pre-competition MM meals. This study used a randomized, investigator-blinded, crossover design involving two dietary interventions – HCHO and MM meals – that were consumed four hours prior to two separate intra-squad soccer scrimmages. Assessments included running metrics via global positioning ...


Effects Of Life-Long Wheel Running Behavior On Plantar Flexor Contractile Properties, Alexander Nicholas Beechko Jun 2019

Effects Of Life-Long Wheel Running Behavior On Plantar Flexor Contractile Properties, Alexander Nicholas Beechko

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Aging in skeletal muscle is characterized by a loss in muscular performance. This is in part related to the direct loss of muscle mass due to senescence, known as sarcopenia. With age, skeletal muscles lose force production, contractile speed, and power production. The force velocity relationship of muscle is a product of force production and contraction speed, both of which decline with age; however, the mechanisms and trajectory of this decline are not well understood. Exercise has positive effects on muscle, and thus may assist in maintaining performance in old age. However, few long-term studies have been performed to examine ...


Orthorexia Nervosa Among Collegiate Female Student-Athletes, Maryse Bard-Martel May 2019

Orthorexia Nervosa Among Collegiate Female Student-Athletes, Maryse Bard-Martel

MSU Graduate Theses

Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is a specific style of disordered eating defined as an unhealthy obsession with eating healthy food, or going to extremes in the pursuit of a diet that is supposed to be good for you. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of orthorexia nervosa tendencies in college female soccer players in the NCAA Division 1. Purposive sampling was used, and participants were current student-athletes from the Missouri State women’s soccer team (n=18). Survey research was utilized to assess athletes’ attitudes and behaviors related to various aspects of diet and training, and the ...


A Novel Environmental Enrichment Laser Device Stimulated Broiler Chicken Active Behavior And Improved Performance Without Sacrificing Welfare Outcomes, Meaghan Meyer Jan 2019

A Novel Environmental Enrichment Laser Device Stimulated Broiler Chicken Active Behavior And Improved Performance Without Sacrificing Welfare Outcomes, Meaghan Meyer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The modern commercial broiler chicken is a genetic hybrid selected for fast growth, feed efficiency, and a large proportion of breast muscle tissue. As birds reach market weight within a typical 6- week commercial cycle, they are increasingly inactive and prone to leg disorders and contact dermatitis of the feet and breasts. Environmental enrichment can be used to increase activity and natural behavior in captive animals. The goal of this thesis was to incorporate environmental enrichment to stimulate broilers to voluntarily move and feed, whilst maintaining leg health and performance. The environmental enrichment was a novel device that projected red ...


Effects Of Curcumin And Fenugreek Soluble Fiber Supplements On Submaximal And Maximal Aerobic Performance Indices In Untrained College-Aged Subjects, Jensen Goh Zhong Sheng Jan 2019

Effects Of Curcumin And Fenugreek Soluble Fiber Supplements On Submaximal And Maximal Aerobic Performance Indices In Untrained College-Aged Subjects, Jensen Goh Zhong Sheng

Theses and Dissertations--Kinesiology and Health Promotion

Submaximal exercise performance is, in part, limited by the accumulation of metabolic byproducts and energy system capacities. Curcumin and the combination of curcumin and fenugreek soluble fiber (CurQfen®) have been shown to increase endogenous antioxidants and metabolic byproduct clearance as well as reduce inflammation and lipid peroxidation, and therefore, may enhance submaximal aerobic thresholds. In addition, there is evidence that the galactomannan component of fenugreek, used to enhance bioavailability of curcumin, may also have potential physiological effects related to the up regulation of free fatty acid oxidation Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of curcumin ...


Performance Differences Between Two Groups Of Commercial Pigs Following Experimental Infection With Prrs Virus 1-7-4, Erin Little Jan 2019

Performance Differences Between Two Groups Of Commercial Pigs Following Experimental Infection With Prrs Virus 1-7-4, Erin Little

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the costliest swine disease in North America. Vaccines and management alone have not been effective in controlling this disease. Genetic selection for resilience may be a complimentary approach for controlling PRRSV. The objective of this study was to estimate performance differences between two groups of pigs from the same commercial line following infection with PRRSV 1-7-4: 1) pigs sired by boars selected based on a standard index (TN-S), which emphasized feed efficiency and carcass quality; and 2) pigs sired by boars selected based on an experimental index (TN-E), which emphasized feed intake ...


Microalgae And Zinc Source Supplementation Of Broiler Breeder Diets Affects Broiler Breeder Skeletal Development And Reproduction With Transgenerational Impacts On Offspring Performance And Skeletal Characteristics, Marquisha A. Paul Jan 2019

Microalgae And Zinc Source Supplementation Of Broiler Breeder Diets Affects Broiler Breeder Skeletal Development And Reproduction With Transgenerational Impacts On Offspring Performance And Skeletal Characteristics, Marquisha A. Paul

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Leg problems and disorders are of major concern for the poultry industry and animal welfare. Previous studies suggest that it may be possible to improve skeletal characteristics through nutrition. Omega-3 fatty acids, including Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are essential nutrients and are known to play an important role in bone tissue development. FORPLUS™ (Alltech, Inc.) is an unextracted, whole-cell microalgae (Aurantiochytrium limacinum CCAP 4087/2) that contains 64% fat and 16% DHA. Zinc (Zn) is a trace element and essential nutrient for growth and skeletal development. Bioplex® Zn (Alltech, Inc.) is a Zn proteinate that has been shown to be more ...


A Singer’S Stress: Yoga And Meditation Techniques In The Collegiate Voice Studio, Zackery David Morris Jan 2019

A Singer’S Stress: Yoga And Meditation Techniques In The Collegiate Voice Studio, Zackery David Morris

Theses and Dissertations--Music

Often neglected in voice study is the understanding that a singer’s instrument lives in his/her body and therefore cannot be packed away like other musical objects. Yoga and mindfulness compliment the belief of a whole body instrument. Data gathered on college campuses report that stress and anxiety are on the rise, thus reinforcing the need for MBSR and yoga as beneficial and proven tools for stress relief. The current state of research in the realm of mental health in colleges merits the study of a cohesive layout of these exercises and their expected outcomes in singing as well ...


Biomechanical Analysis Of Jumping: The Influence Of External Load And Countermovement Depth On Deceleration Strategies And Performance, Leland Adam Barker May 2018

Biomechanical Analysis Of Jumping: The Influence Of External Load And Countermovement Depth On Deceleration Strategies And Performance, Leland Adam Barker

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Jumping performance has traditionally been measured by jump height alone. In recent years, the reactive strength index (RSI = Jump height / jump time)) has been used as another measure of jump performance. According to RSI, which was developed to assess eccentric force production, jump performance can improve by increasing jump height, decreasing jump time, or both simultaneously. However, it is not clear how force production correlates to RSI variables. If RSI is meant to be a practical measure of eccentric force production, it should correlate strongly to eccentric and amortization force production during jumping. Thus, the purpose of the first study ...


Sports Nutrition Newsletters, Michelle Dilling Jan 2018

Sports Nutrition Newsletters, Michelle Dilling

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of my project is to teach athletes that nutrition is important to their performance, to introduce them to new topics, and to separate fact from fiction by citing evidence-based research. Additionally, the purpose of my project is to design a template for this newsletter that can be used to continue publications.


Lactational Performance And Energy Partitioning Of Dairy Cows Supplemented With N-Acetyl-L-Methionine During Mid To Late Lactation, Tyson George Grisenti Dec 2017

Lactational Performance And Energy Partitioning Of Dairy Cows Supplemented With N-Acetyl-L-Methionine During Mid To Late Lactation, Tyson George Grisenti

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The N-acetyl-L-methionine (NALM) molecule is a methionine (Met) derivative produced via acetylation of the L-Met α-amino group with an N-acetyl group. This molecule has been shown to be bioavailable and capable of fulfilling the dietary requirement for Met in animals and humans. The current experiment was conducted to test a hypothesis that lactating dairy cows fed with NALM would increase milk production by increasing N and energy utilization efficiencies in a dose dependent manner. Eight multiparous Holstein cows that were mid lactation (124 ± 13 days-in-milk) with similar milk production were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design for ...


Burrowing And Walking Mechanisms Of North American Moles, Yi-Fen Lin Jul 2017

Burrowing And Walking Mechanisms Of North American Moles, Yi-Fen Lin

Doctoral Dissertations

Moles (Family Talpidae) are a classic example of extreme specialization, in their case highly derived forelimb morphologies associated with burrowing. Despite many observations of mole burrows and behaviors gathered in the field, we know very little about how and how well moles use their forelimbs to dig tunnels and to walk within the built tunnels to collect and transport food. The first chapter investigates the effect of soil compactness on two sympatric mole species under controlled laboratory conditions. My results demonstrate that increasing soil compactness impedes tunneling performance as evidenced by reduced burrowing speed, increased soil transport, shorter tunnels, shorter ...


Neuropsychological Test Performance In Pediatric Tbi, Learning Disability, And Adhd: Difference In Reliable Digit Span, Emily West Jun 2017

Neuropsychological Test Performance In Pediatric Tbi, Learning Disability, And Adhd: Difference In Reliable Digit Span, Emily West

Honors Theses

Children have been found to give non-credible performances on neuropsychological evaluations and using Performance Validity Tests (PVT) can help identify such cases, but maximum effort is necessary for tests to be reliable for determining next steps. This study assessed the differences in rates of non-credible performance on the Reliable Digit Span (RDS) between traumatic brain injury (TBI), learning disability (LD) and ADHD diagnoses in a pediatric clinical sample. It was hypothesized that those with ADHD would have a higher failure rate than those with either TBI or LD. RDS data from 200 clients referred to neuropsychological testing agencies were collected ...


The Impact Of Coaching Styles On The Motivation And Performance Of Athletes, Mike Marcone May 2017

The Impact Of Coaching Styles On The Motivation And Performance Of Athletes, Mike Marcone

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Abstract

Previous research has been conducted on the concept of coaching styles and their impact on the motivation and performance of athletes, with results suggesting that the impact can be extremely significant. Through the different styles of coaching, coaches impact the athletes with whom they associate in different ways, while also fulfilling or neglecting the athletes’ psychological needs. Through recent research, it has been suggested that coaches who exhibit the most autonomy supportive behaviors tend to fulfill the psychological needs of athletes, resulting in the development of self-determined forms of motivation. When autonomy is supported and athletes become self-determined in ...


Mouth Exposure To Carbohydrate Prior To Exercise Possibly Impairs The Efficacy Of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing During Exercise, Kevin Decker May 2017

Mouth Exposure To Carbohydrate Prior To Exercise Possibly Impairs The Efficacy Of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing During Exercise, Kevin Decker

Masters Theses

Decker K. P., M. J. Saunders, N. D. Luden, C. J. Womack, and N. J. Hladick. Mouth Exposure to Carbohydrate Prior to Exercise Possibly Impairs the Efficacy of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing during Exercise. Purpose: Carbohydrate mouth-rinsing (CHO-MR) during intense endurance exercise has been associated with improved cycling performance, due to neurological influences. However, prior studies have reported the efficacy of CHO-MR is attenuated following a pre-exercise meal. To determine if this outcome is related to desensitization of CHO receptors (rather than metabolic effects following digestion), this study will investigate whether CHO-MR prior to exercise influences cycling performance when CHO-MR is ...


Does A Higher Motivation Score Predict A Bigger Increase In 2km Ergometer Times In Female Collegiate Rowers?, Kaitlyn Mchugh Apr 2017

Does A Higher Motivation Score Predict A Bigger Increase In 2km Ergometer Times In Female Collegiate Rowers?, Kaitlyn Mchugh

Health Sciences Student Work

Introduction. A collegiate athlete’s schedule is typically busier than a college student, requiring time for practice, competition, training, as well as normal college student responsibilities. Because their schedules are so busy, athlete motivation is a key determinant for sustained and improved performance. Methods. This study was a pre and post correlation study. In fall 2016, participants completed a pre and post SMS-28 questionnaire and a 2km ergometer aerobic capacity test. Collegiate Female Rowing team was recruited with 13 participants (ages 18-22). 4 weeks later, 7 participants filled out the SMS-28 questionnaire, based on a Likert Scale, and performed the ...


Nutritional Impact On Performance In Student-Athletes: Reality And Perception, Sarah Sceery Apr 2017

Nutritional Impact On Performance In Student-Athletes: Reality And Perception, Sarah Sceery

Health Sciences Student Work

Context: The sports nutrition field is experiencing incredible growth and development. Athletes are often epitomized for optimal health yet are susceptible to many nutrition related risks that can have a profound impact on both positive and negative performance gains. The student-athlete population is of particular interest based on their nutrition knowledge and where information is obtained. Little is known about their perception on nutrition overall. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine student-athlete perceptions of nutrition and their attitudes about how nutrition impacts performance. Design: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were facilitated with the study population. Participants: A total of ...


The Effect Of Myosync™ Supplementation On Physical Performance In Division Ii College Football Players, Matthew Gage Jan 2017

The Effect Of Myosync™ Supplementation On Physical Performance In Division Ii College Football Players, Matthew Gage

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of Myosync™ on physical performance in Division II football players. Methods: Fourteen male Division II football players (20.4 ± 1.0 years) participated in a randomized double blind crossover experiment. Subjects were either given Myosync™ or a placebo control 60 minutes prior to any physical testing measures. Testing consisted of, maximum vertical jumps, maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC), maximal voluntary concentric contractions (MVCC), and fatiguing contractions for the knee extensor muscles. Recovery measures consisted of one MVIC and MVCCs 10 minutes after fatiguing task. Results: There was no ...


Effects Of A Post-Activation Potentiation Warm-Up On Submaximal Parallel Back Squat Volume, Rating Of Perceived Exertion, Peak Velocity, And Peak Power, Carlton Wei Jan 2017

Effects Of A Post-Activation Potentiation Warm-Up On Submaximal Parallel Back Squat Volume, Rating Of Perceived Exertion, Peak Velocity, And Peak Power, Carlton Wei

Theses and projects

Resistance training (RT) is effective for improving athletic performance, with specific training loads and volumes dictating the adaptations. A warm-up is necessary to safely and effectively engage in RT: typically with a low intensity aerobic activity, stretching, and movement specific potentiating exercises. Post-activation potentiation (PAP) acutely increases muscular power following a conditioning contraction, though limited research has assessed its use for RT. The purpose of this study was to assess how a PAP warm-up protocol affects volume, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and peak velocity and power with 75%1RM in the barbell parallel back squat (PBS) exercise across 4 ...


Effect Of Grazing Pressure On Cattle Grazing Cool Season Annual Forages, Brooke Brunsvig Jan 2017

Effect Of Grazing Pressure On Cattle Grazing Cool Season Annual Forages, Brooke Brunsvig

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ruminants can use plant fiber to produce food products that provide nourishment to humans. However, a precise understanding of specific plants selected by grazing ruminants remains elusive. Many long- and short-term factors impact cattle grazing behavior. Ultimately, grazing behavior can affect forage available for grazing, nutrient density of forage, dry matter intake, and animal performance. A myriad of grazing management strategies have been developed utilizing animal behavior to allow more efficient use of forage resources. Many management strategies based on manipulation of grazing behavior are simple and cost effective. Optimal performance of individual animals and amount of animal products produced ...


The Effect Of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness On Jumping Mechanics And Performance, Ryan J. Engels Jan 2017

The Effect Of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness On Jumping Mechanics And Performance, Ryan J. Engels

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is an exercise-induced muscle soreness resulting from high-intensity eccentric muscular contractions. DOMS appears to be more prevalent in athletes at the beginning of an athletic season or when new movements or exercise are first introduced. The acute effect of DOMS on jumping mechanics is currently unknown. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of delayed onset muscle soreness on vertical jump performance and jumping mechanics. METHODS: Twenty college aged, recreationally active males participated in this study (age: 21.54 ± 2.61; height: 1.82 ± 0.067; mass: 81.36 ± 9 ...


The Effects Of Beetroot Juice On Vo2max And Blood Pressure During Submaximal Exercise, Jose M. Perez Jan 2017

The Effects Of Beetroot Juice On Vo2max And Blood Pressure During Submaximal Exercise, Jose M. Perez

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Supplementation with beetroot juice (BR) has been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP) at rest and improve several performance parameters during submaximal and maximal exercise. BR effects on BP during submaximal exercise have not been investigated. Furthermore, the effects of BR on VO2max are inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of BR on VO2max and BP during submaximal exercise. 20 healthy, recreationally trained volunteers (age 21.8±2.35 years, weight 75.10±10.62 kg, height 177.4±6.39 cm) participated in this study, which had a double-blind placebo ...


Patterns Of Participation And Performance In Youth Baseball Players, Amanda Arnold Jan 2017

Patterns Of Participation And Performance In Youth Baseball Players, Amanda Arnold

Theses and Dissertations

Baseball is a popular sport to play in the United States, with approximately 13-17 million athletes participating across all levels of competition. Youth (9-12 years) and adolescent (13-18 years) players comprise the majority of this population playing at the club and high school levels, yet less than 10% of research studies include athletes <18 years old. Despite increased awareness of the risks surrounding sports participation, youth and adolescent baseball players continue to report overuse injuries at alarming rates.

The lack of high-quality research describing athletic performance and injury risk factors, such as sport specialization, in young athlete populations poses a significant knowledge gap in the literature. The current investigation sought to establish the incidence of upper extremity (UE) injuries while examining population-specific risk factors in ...


Phylogenetic Relationships And Evolution Of Snakes, Alex Figueroa Aug 2016

Phylogenetic Relationships And Evolution Of Snakes, Alex Figueroa

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Snakes represent an impressive evolutionary radiation of over 3,500 widely-distributed species, categorized into 515 genera, encompassing a diverse range of morphologies and ecologies. This diversity is likely attributable to their distinctive morphology, which has allowed them to populate a wide range of habitat types within most major ecosystems. In my first chapter, I provide the largest-yet estimate of the snake tree of life using maximum likelihood on a supermatrix of 1745 taxa (1652 snake species + 7 outgroup taxa) and 9,523 base pairs from 10 loci (5 nuclear, 5 mitochondrial), including previously unsequenced genera (2) and species (61). I ...


Evaluation Of Long-Acting Eprinomectin Compared To Conventional Anthelmintics In Cow/Calf Production, Elizabeth Ann Backes Aug 2016

Evaluation Of Long-Acting Eprinomectin Compared To Conventional Anthelmintics In Cow/Calf Production, Elizabeth Ann Backes

Theses and Dissertations

Experiment 1, 83, newly weaned, fall-born crossbred heifer calves were allocated randomly to 1 of 3 anthelmintic treatments: 1) control (CON); 2) combination pour-on moxidectin and oxfendazole (MO); and 3) long-acting eprinomectin (LAE). Two preplanned orthogonal contrast statements were used: 1) to compare CON to treated cattle; and 2) to compare OXF to LAE. Heifer BW and BCS were greater (P≤0.02) from MO and LAE on d 112, 140, 154, 168, 182 compared to CON. Heifer cyclicity, estrous detection, natural service and overall pregnancy rates were greater (P≤0.02) for MO and LAE compared to CON. Cattle ...


Age End-Point Effects On Performance, Carcass Measurements, And Tenderness In Goats, Kelsey Lynn Basinger Aug 2016

Age End-Point Effects On Performance, Carcass Measurements, And Tenderness In Goats, Kelsey Lynn Basinger

Theses and Dissertations

Goat meat is consumed all across the world, especially in developing countries. Moreover, the meat goat industry is growing in popularity in the United States due to ethnic demand of an increasing immigrant population. The objective of this study was to measure age end-point effects on performance, carcass measurements, and tenderness in goats. Intact Kiko × Boer F1 male (n = 46) kids were born on pasture in the spring of 2014 and 2015, weaned at approximately 100 d of age, and weighed monthly. Creep feed was offered to kids from birth to weaning and a high concentrate diet was offered after ...


Macronutrient Supplementation For Endurance Athletes, Jonathan B. Hurst May 2016

Macronutrient Supplementation For Endurance Athletes, Jonathan B. Hurst

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Purpose: The present study addressed two questions related to macronutrient supplementation during endurance exercise. Firstly, the effects of carbohydrate and protein co-ingestion on time trial (TT) performance were compared to carbohydrate alone. Secondly, the effects of isolated protein ingestion on TT performance were compared to a placebo.

Methods: Six trained cyclists (Age: 22 ± 1 years; Height: 167 ± 12 cm; Weight: 60 ± 10 kg; VO2max: 62 ± 7 ml/kg/min) completed four experimental trials, consisting of constant-load cycling for two hours (55% Wmax) immediately followed by a 30-km simulated time trial. During the trials, subjects consumed one of four ...


A Single Night Of Sleep Restriction Impairs Recovery From Heavy Exercise, John D. Chase May 2016

A Single Night Of Sleep Restriction Impairs Recovery From Heavy Exercise, John D. Chase

Masters Theses

We examined the effects of one night of sleep restriction (Sleep-; 2.5 hrs) on subsequent 3-km cycling performance and skeletal muscle recovery from heavy exercise compared to a full night of rest (Sleep+; 7 hrs). Seven recreational cyclists (n=6 male, n=1 female; age = 24.4 ± 7 yrs; height = 170 ± 10 cm; weight = 68 ± 13 kg VO2max = 61.5 ± 4.4 ml/kg/min) completed four simulated 3-km time trials (TT) and six peak isokinetic torque trials at different speeds (30 and 120°/sec) under both conditions. The first exercise trial (EX1) consisted of baseline testing followed ...


Investigation Of Sequential Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Effect On Run Performance, Max Evan Jones May 2016

Investigation Of Sequential Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Effect On Run Performance, Max Evan Jones

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The main aim of this study was to determine if IPC after a 5000 m run influences maximal effort 1600 m run performance. A secondary purpose was to determine if the level of IPC pressure used influences run performance. Nine subjects (6 male and 3 female were included in the study; 30 years±5.19 years; Height 173.72cm±8.25; Weight; 72.54±9.97 kg). These subjects were recruited to be in this study via word of mouth or social media advertisement in the Las Vegas area. Participant inclusion criteria was 18- 50 year old apparently healthy, had ...