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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Monocyte Mri Relaxation Rates Are Regulated By Extracellular Iron And Hepcidin, Praveen S.B Dassanayake Aug 2019

Monocyte Mri Relaxation Rates Are Regulated By Extracellular Iron And Hepcidin, Praveen S.B Dassanayake

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Monocytes are an important immune cell type in chronic inflammatory conditions like atherosclerosis and heart failure. The increase in number of monocytes released to the peripheral blood circulation, the differentiation of monocytes to macrophages, and the presence of different macrophage subpopulations during pro- and anti-inflammatory stages of tissue injury may provide markers for monitoring inflammation. In particular, changes in monocyte iron metabolism during an inflammatory response may increase the possibility of tracking these immune cells non-invasively using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). When secretion of the polypeptide hormone hepcidin is stimulated during inflammation, it binds the iron export protein ferroportin (FPN ...


White Matter Inflammation And Executive Dysfunction: Implications For Alzheimer Disease And Vascular Cognitive Impairment, Alexander Levit Nov 2018

White Matter Inflammation And Executive Dysfunction: Implications For Alzheimer Disease And Vascular Cognitive Impairment, Alexander Levit

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

White matter integrity is crucial to healthy executive function, the cognitive domain that enables functional independence. However, in the ageing brain, white matter is highly vulnerable. White matter inflammation increases with age and Alzheimer disease (AD), which disrupts the normal function of white matter. This may contribute to executive dysfunction, but the relationship between white matter inflammation and executive function has not been directly evaluated in ageing nor AD. White matter is also particularly vulnerable to cerebrovascular disease, corresponding with the common presentation of executive dysfunction in vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Thus, white matter may be an important substrate by ...


Role Of High Molecular Weight Hyaluronan In Ultraviolet B Light-Induced Transformation, Katelyn Cousteils Oct 2017

Role Of High Molecular Weight Hyaluronan In Ultraviolet B Light-Induced Transformation, Katelyn Cousteils

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Keratinocyte carcinomas (KCs) are the most common cancers globally. Ultraviolet light is the key risk factor for these cancers but sunscreen has proven ineffective in their prevention, indicating a need for new prophylactic agents. Chronic elevation of high molecular weight (HMW) tissue hyaluronan (HA) in skin is linked to tumor resistance in the naked mole rat. To directly assess the role of this polysaccharide in resistance to keratinocyte tumors, a HMW HA phosphatidylethanolamine (HA-PE) formulation that penetrates skin and accumulates as coats around keratinocytes was prepared. The tumor resistance properties of the HA-PE formulation were tested in a mouse model ...


Evaluating Evolving Leukocyte Populations In Peripheral Blood Circulation Post-Concussion In A Human Longitudinal Analysis Of Female Athletes, Kevin A. Blackney Apr 2017

Evaluating Evolving Leukocyte Populations In Peripheral Blood Circulation Post-Concussion In A Human Longitudinal Analysis Of Female Athletes, Kevin A. Blackney

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Concussions are generating increasing concern due to potential long-term neurological consequences. Currently there is no universally recognized diagnostic approach for concussion. I hypothesize that a signature temporal response of biomarkers of inflammation in systemic circulation will provide an objective diagnosis of concussion and could also be used to track patient recovery. The Western University women’s rugby team underwent blood draws at pre-season and post-season as a baseline evaluation, and players determined to have sustained a concussion underwent repeat blood analysis post-concussion. Blood samples were analyzed by flow cytometry to profile immune cell populations alongside accepted concussion assessments, and complete ...


The Role Of Sirtuin 6 In Maintaining Vascular Integrity, Sharon Z. Leung Apr 2016

The Role Of Sirtuin 6 In Maintaining Vascular Integrity, Sharon Z. Leung

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Oxidative stress is an underlying cause for vascular pathologies including inflammation, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Sirtuins (SIRTs) are a family of NAD+ dependent deacetylases with pronounced roles in cellular metabolism and aging. SIRT6 is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and may offer protection from oxidative stress-induced damage. To study the role of SIRT6 in SMCs, we created a novel strain of SMC-specific SIRT6-deficient (SIRT6KO) mice with Cre-lox technology. Because no defects were observed in the aortas of SIRT6KO mice, they were then infused with angiotensin II (Ang II) to induce oxidative stress. Compared with vehicle controls, SIRT6KO mice developed ...


The Role Of Streptococcus Salivarius As A Modulator Of Homeostasis In The Oral Cavity, Kyle W. Macdonald Mar 2015

The Role Of Streptococcus Salivarius As A Modulator Of Homeostasis In The Oral Cavity, Kyle W. Macdonald

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The oral cavity contains many different surfaces all colonized by prokaryotes, of which over 700 have been identified. While almost all people have some degree of plaque formation, the more concerning diseases of caries, candidiasis and periodontal disease afflict many patients and represent a major public health concern. As these are all diseases which have a component attributable to parts of the microbiota, efforts to manipulate the microbes has until recently involved use of antimicrobial agents. However, due to side effects, resistance and failure to restore homeostasis, this approach is limited. As an alternative, the administration of beneficial microbes (probiotics ...


Regulation Of Lipid Homeostasis, Inflammatory Signalling And Atherosclerosis By The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta, Lazar A. Bojic Jun 2013

Regulation Of Lipid Homeostasis, Inflammatory Signalling And Atherosclerosis By The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta, Lazar A. Bojic

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that has been implicated in metabolic and inflammatory regulation. The molecular and physiological mechanisms by which PPARδ activation regulates lipid metabolism, inflammatory signaling and protection from atherosclerosis in states of metabolic disturbance such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, were investigated in a series of in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro experiments demonstrated that PPARδ activation inhibits atherogenic lipoprotein-induced lipid accumulation and the associated proinflammatory responses. The primary mechanisms for these effects were increased fatty acid β-oxidation, decreased lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, reduced MAPK signaling and improved insulin ...


Cerebellar Degeneration In Harlequin Mice Is Associated With Inflammation Unaltered By Low-Dose Phenobarbital Treatment, Anita Prtenjaca Dec 2012

Cerebellar Degeneration In Harlequin Mice Is Associated With Inflammation Unaltered By Low-Dose Phenobarbital Treatment, Anita Prtenjaca

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Canadian population demographics are shifting to an increase in aged individuals and an increase in the prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases. The post-mitotic nature of most neurons highlights the need to understand the etiology and early mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases and design targeted therapies. Currently, the etiologies of neurodegeneration are poorly understood but oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are early mechanisms in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. An anti-aging strategy that can be adapted for use in neurodegeneration is hormesis, where repeated low-level exposures to stressors are beneficial to the cell. Hormesis has demonstrated efficacy ...