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Inflammation

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Nanomedicine-Driven Neuropathic Pain Relief In Rat Model Is Associated With Macrophage Polarity And Mast Cell Activation, Muzamil Saleem Dec 2019

Nanomedicine-Driven Neuropathic Pain Relief In Rat Model Is Associated With Macrophage Polarity And Mast Cell Activation, Muzamil Saleem

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

We explored the immune neuropathology underlying multi-day relief from neuropathic pain in a rat model initiated at the sciatic nerve by using a nanoemulsion-based nanomedicine as a biological probe. The nanomedicine is theranostic: both therapeutic (containing celecoxib drug) and diagnostic (containing near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye) and is small enough to be phagocytosed by circulating monocytes. A model of neuropathic pain is initiated by tying four 1mm spaced knots around the sciatic nerve with chromic gut suture, which results in neuroinflammation, and a resultant pain-like behavior manifests. We show that pain-like behavior reaches a plateau of maximum hypersensitivity 8 days post-surgery ...


Effects Of Dietary Copper, Zinc And Manganese Source And Level On The Acute Inflammatory Response Of Broilers, Chelsea Ellington Dec 2019

Effects Of Dietary Copper, Zinc And Manganese Source And Level On The Acute Inflammatory Response Of Broilers, Chelsea Ellington

Theses and Dissertations

Trace minerals, particularly copper, zinc and manganese, play a role in ensuring optimal immune function. To examine the effects of diets containing different levels and sources of trace minerals on the inflammatory response, Cobb 500 broilers were fed four experimental diets containing 5 mg/kg Cu and 45 mg/kg of Zn and Mn or 10 mg/kg Cu and 90 mg/kg Zn and Mn in either the sulfate or hydroxychloride form. When the broilers were 5 weeks of age, 16 μg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected into the pulp of growing feathers (GF; 16 GF per chicken; 1 ...


Does Acute Preprandial Exercise Modify Postprandial Inflammation After A High Fat Meal In Young And Older Adults?, William Wisseman Aug 2019

Does Acute Preprandial Exercise Modify Postprandial Inflammation After A High Fat Meal In Young And Older Adults?, William Wisseman

Masters Theses

A single high-fat meal (HFM) can increase systemic inflammation (postprandial inflammation; PPI) and may be attenuated by recent exercise. However, the effect of preprandial exercise on PPI in older adults (OA) is not clear. Purpose: To determine if preprandial exercise attenuates PPI in YA and OA. Methods: 12 YA (23.3±3.9 years n= 5 M/7 F) and 12 OA (67.7±6 years, n= 8 M/4 F) completed two HFM challenges in a randomized order. During HFM alone, participants abstained from exercise 48 hours prior to the HFM session (except for the exercise session) and adhered ...


Monocyte Mri Relaxation Rates Are Regulated By Extracellular Iron And Hepcidin, Praveen S.B Dassanayake Aug 2019

Monocyte Mri Relaxation Rates Are Regulated By Extracellular Iron And Hepcidin, Praveen S.B Dassanayake

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Monocytes are an important immune cell type in chronic inflammatory conditions like atherosclerosis and heart failure. The increase in number of monocytes released to the peripheral blood circulation, the differentiation of monocytes to macrophages, and the presence of different macrophage subpopulations during pro- and anti-inflammatory stages of tissue injury may provide markers for monitoring inflammation. In particular, changes in monocyte iron metabolism during an inflammatory response may increase the possibility of tracking these immune cells non-invasively using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). When secretion of the polypeptide hormone hepcidin is stimulated during inflammation, it binds the iron export protein ferroportin (FPN ...


White-Nose Syndrome And Immune Responses In A Resistant Bat Species (Eptesicus Fuscus), Keslie Skye Naffa Aug 2019

White-Nose Syndrome And Immune Responses In A Resistant Bat Species (Eptesicus Fuscus), Keslie Skye Naffa

MSU Graduate Theses

White-nose syndrome (WNS) has had a large negative impact on bat populations across eastern North America since its arrival in 2006. Bats affected by WNS appear to die of starvation, possibly due to the increased arousals during hibernation when there is no food present to replace the energy used to arouse. During hibernation, the bat’s immune system should be suppressed. However, once a bat of a susceptible species is exposed to the fungus that causes WNS, Psuedogymnoascus destructans (Pd), the immune system seems to respond, potentially causing an elevation in metabolic rate, which may cause the bat to arouse ...


Volumetric Muscle Loss: The Role Of Physical Activity And Autologous Repair On Force Recovery And Signaling Pathways, Richard Perry May 2019

Volumetric Muscle Loss: The Role Of Physical Activity And Autologous Repair On Force Recovery And Signaling Pathways, Richard Perry

Theses and Dissertations

Volumetric muscle loss affects both military and civilian persons. The hallmark of this injury is incomplete muscle regeneration, excessive fibrosis, and chronic inflammatory signaling resulting in permanent functional loss. Since permanent functional loss drastically reduces quality of life, many studies have been conducted to improve force recovery. Current scientific literature considers a repair strategy of either devitalized scaffolds infused with growth factors or viable tissue plus activating factors to be the more promising interventions for optimal force recovery. PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to incorporate autologous repair and physical activity and observe the effects of muscle force recovery ...


Norepinephrine Induces Macrophage Polarization Critical To Eliciting Renal Fibrogenesis, Hannah Manoj Jan 2019

Norepinephrine Induces Macrophage Polarization Critical To Eliciting Renal Fibrogenesis, Hannah Manoj

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Renal denervation before ischemic injury has been shown to protect against fibrogenesis and the inflammatory response, which are two causes for the progression of chronic kidney disease. However, the administration of norepinephrine (NE) to denervated renal systems induced fibrogenesis and inflammation after ischemic injury. Our previous data indicates that NE-mediated stimulation of the α2-AR receptors is responsible for regulating several of the processes implicated in fibrogenesis and inflammation, including the accumulation, migration, and infiltration of macrophages to the site of injury; this is especially relevant as macrophages have been implicated as one potential cause for the inflammatory response.

Recent studies ...


Apple Pomace As A Novel Aid For Western Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease In Young Female Sprague Dawley Rats, R. Chris Skinner Jan 2019

Apple Pomace As A Novel Aid For Western Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease In Young Female Sprague Dawley Rats, R. Chris Skinner

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Apple pomace is a “waste” byproduct of apple processing that causes environmental pollution and is costly to dispose of. Yet, apple pomace is rich in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Analysis of apple pomace’s nutritional profile indicates suitability as a potential dietary treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the more severe non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFLD is the most prevalent liver disease in the world with prevalence and severity expected to increase in both adults and children. Currently, there is no approved drug treatment for NAFLD and therefore, dietary intervention is the primary treatment. The study objectives were to ...


Determination Of Optimal Parameter Estimates For Medical Interventions In Human Metabolism And Inflammation, Marcella Torres Jan 2019

Determination Of Optimal Parameter Estimates For Medical Interventions In Human Metabolism And Inflammation, Marcella Torres

Theses and Dissertations

In this work we have developed three ordinary differential equation models of biological systems: body mass change in response to exercise, immune system response to a general inflammatory stimulus, and the immune system response in atherosclerosis. The purpose of developing such computational tools is to test hypotheses about the underlying biological processes that drive system outcomes as well as possible real medical interventions. Therefore, we focus our analysis on understanding key interactions between model parameters and outcomes to deepen our understanding of these complex processes as a means to developing effective treatments in obesity, sarcopenia, and inflammatory diseases.

We develop ...


The Role Of Sphingosine Kinase 2 In Alcoholic Liver Disease, Eric K. Kwong Jan 2019

The Role Of Sphingosine Kinase 2 In Alcoholic Liver Disease, Eric K. Kwong

Theses and Dissertations

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is one of the most common liver diseases worldwide characterized by the accumulation of lipids within the liver, inflammation and the possibility of progressing to cirrhosis and liver failure. More importantly, there are currently no effective treatments for ALD and liver transplantation remains the only therapeutic option for end-stage liver disease. Previous studies have shown that ALD is a result of a combination of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, lipid metabolism dysregulation and inflammation. It has been previously reported that alcohol disrupts gut microbiota homeostasis and causes increased endotoxins that contribute to the pathology of ALD. However ...


Effect Of Osteoactivin And Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 On Soft Tissue In Rat Spinal Fusion Model, Andrew Ohliger Jan 2019

Effect Of Osteoactivin And Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 On Soft Tissue In Rat Spinal Fusion Model, Andrew Ohliger

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Osteoinductive therapeutic strategies are essential for the bone healing process and are applicable in multiple orthopaedic procedures. The novel protein Osteoactivin (OA) has proven to stimulate osteoblast differentiation and function in vitro and bone regeneration in vivo in the rat model. More recently, OA has shown significant bone regeneration ability in sheep. The goal of this study is the comparison of osteoactivin with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in the rat spinal fusion model.


Critical Physicochemical Properties For Nanoparticle Toxicity: Impact Of Surface Coating And Size On Particle-Induced Cell Transformation And Inflammatory Response, Tiffany Kornberg Jan 2019

Critical Physicochemical Properties For Nanoparticle Toxicity: Impact Of Surface Coating And Size On Particle-Induced Cell Transformation And Inflammatory Response, Tiffany Kornberg

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Nanoparticles, which measure 100 nm in at least one dimension, have surged in development, production, and use for a wide range of applications. However, the rapid pace of development for these emerging materials with unclear/unknown toxicity profiles makes it difficult to adequately assess health risk associated with exposure. One critical obstacle which limits scientific research to fill these critical knowledge gaps is the lack of accurate and predictive models for nanotoxicology studies, particularly those which involve occupationally relevant exposure scenarios (pulmonary exposure to low dose of particles in the circulating air). Typically, animal models are used to assess potential ...


Behavioral Insights Into Nociceptor Function: A Systematic Approach To Understanding Postsurgical And Neuropathic Pain Mechanisms In Rats, Max Odem Dec 2018

Behavioral Insights Into Nociceptor Function: A Systematic Approach To Understanding Postsurgical And Neuropathic Pain Mechanisms In Rats, Max Odem

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Postsurgical and neuropathic pain are each clinically common, and often associated with ongoing pain. Ongoing pain has been linked to ongoing activity (OA) in human C-fiber nociceptors. Preclinical studies using rodent neuropathic models have concentrated on allodynia driven by OA generated in non-nociceptive Aβ fibers, but little attention has been paid to postsurgical pain in sham controls or to C-fiber nociceptor OA promoting ongoing pain.

Operant assays that reveal negative motivational and cognitive aspects of voluntary pain-related behavior may be particularly sensitive to pain-related alterations. In the mechanical conflict (MC) test, rodents can freely choose to escape from a brightly ...


The Role Of Non-Neuronal Acetylcholine In Urogenital Chlamydial Infection, Jessica R. Lockhart Dec 2018

The Role Of Non-Neuronal Acetylcholine In Urogenital Chlamydial Infection, Jessica R. Lockhart

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chlamydia trachomatiscauses a bacterial sexually transmitted infection, Chlamydia, that is often chronic and casues reproductive complications in women. We hypothesized that Chlamydia infection increases local acetylcholine (ACh) production, which regulates the host’s inflammatory response to the infection. Female mice infected with C. muridarumwere sacrificed at days 3, 9, 15, and 21 post-infection, genital tract tissues harvested, and immunohistochemistry performed to enumerate ACh-producing cells. Infection increased the number of ACh-producing cells in cervical tissue at days 3,15, and 21 post-infection (pi), uterine tissue at day 3 and 9 pi, and ovarian tissue day 3, 15, and 21 ...


White Matter Inflammation And Executive Dysfunction: Implications For Alzheimer Disease And Vascular Cognitive Impairment, Alexander Levit Nov 2018

White Matter Inflammation And Executive Dysfunction: Implications For Alzheimer Disease And Vascular Cognitive Impairment, Alexander Levit

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

White matter integrity is crucial to healthy executive function, the cognitive domain that enables functional independence. However, in the ageing brain, white matter is highly vulnerable. White matter inflammation increases with age and Alzheimer disease (AD), which disrupts the normal function of white matter. This may contribute to executive dysfunction, but the relationship between white matter inflammation and executive function has not been directly evaluated in ageing nor AD. White matter is also particularly vulnerable to cerebrovascular disease, corresponding with the common presentation of executive dysfunction in vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Thus, white matter may be an important substrate by ...


Curcumin Inhibits The Ikk:Nf-Kappa B Pathway In Neural Fear Circuits, Miguel A. Briones Sep 2018

Curcumin Inhibits The Ikk:Nf-Kappa B Pathway In Neural Fear Circuits, Miguel A. Briones

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The study of how the brain acquires fearful memories has attracted considerable experimental attention, due in part to the promise of discovering novel therapeutic approaches for psychiatric disorders that are characterized by unusually strong and persistent traumatic memories. In recent years, extensive research has focused on studying the neural and molecular mechanisms by which fear memories are acquired, stored, and retrieved in the brain. Once acquired, fear memories may be attenuated using one of 2 procedures: 1) fear extinction, which involves repeated presentation of the fear-arousing stimulus in the absence of an aversive consequence, or 2) interference with the reconsolidation ...


An Investigation Into Fatigue Management: Effects Of Two Different Loading Protocols On Markers Of Inflammation And The Endocrine Response, Jake Bernards Aug 2018

An Investigation Into Fatigue Management: Effects Of Two Different Loading Protocols On Markers Of Inflammation And The Endocrine Response, Jake Bernards

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this dissertation were to 1) determine the effectiveness of the neutrophillymphocyte ratio (NLR) as an athlete monitoring tool in resistance training and 2) determine if repetition maximum or relative intensity loading scheme is superior in managing fatigue through the hormonal, inflammatory, and performances response throughout a 10-week periodized resistance training program. Results from the dissertation give merit to continued research regarding the use of NLR as a monitoring tool to help determine the degree of recovery. Furthermore, results from this dissertation lead to questioning the effectiveness of using a repetition maximum (RM) loading scheme within a periodized ...


The Effect Of Mechanical Load On Biomarkers Of Knee Joint Inflammation For Individuals Who Are Predisposed To Knee Cartilage Degeneration: An Exploratory Study, Alyssa Evans Aug 2018

The Effect Of Mechanical Load On Biomarkers Of Knee Joint Inflammation For Individuals Who Are Predisposed To Knee Cartilage Degeneration: An Exploratory Study, Alyssa Evans

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: Physical exercise decreases disability and pain associated with chronic articular cartilage degradation. However, understanding of the pathology is lacking. In this study, the levels of 17 biomarkers of inflammation and cartilage degradation were measured in synovial fluid (SF) before and after a 30-minute run in able-bodied and previously-injured individuals. Materials & Methods: Four able-bodied recreational runners (3 men and 1 woman: 24 ± 2 years, 68 ± 7 kg, and 173 ± 9 cm) and 4 recreational runners who had undergone a unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLr) (2 men and 2 women: 23 ± 1 years, 71 ± 6 kg, and 175 ± 4 cm ...


An Evaluation Of Alzheimer's Disease-Related Pathology In Two Different Models Of Diabetes In Immune-Challenged Mice, Andrew Scott Murtishaw Aug 2018

An Evaluation Of Alzheimer's Disease-Related Pathology In Two Different Models Of Diabetes In Immune-Challenged Mice, Andrew Scott Murtishaw

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and metabolic syndrome are related disorders with wide-ranging and devastating effects that can be observed throughout the body. One important and understudied organ of damage is the brain. Clinical and epidemiological studies have found that T2DM, and more specifically hyperinsulinemia, significantly increases the risk of cognitive decline and increases the likelihood of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other forms of dementia in the elderly. Insulin has slightly different functions in the peripheral body than in the central nervous system and the dysregulation of these functions may contribute to the onset and progression of late-life ...


Biological Clocks, Inflammation, And Multiorgan Damage In Sickle Cell Disease, Morayo Adebiyi May 2018

Biological Clocks, Inflammation, And Multiorgan Damage In Sickle Cell Disease, Morayo Adebiyi

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a dangerous condition caused by a genetic mutation on the human beta-globin gene that contributes to erythrocyte sickling, the hallmark of the disease. Previous metabolomics studies have confirmed that elevated sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) mediates sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) production to promote erythrocyte sickling. S1P signals via five S1P receptors (S1PR) regulates several pathophysiological functions.

In the first chapter of this dissertation, I explored the role of S1PRs in SCD by utilizing pharmacologic and genetic tools. To determine the role of S1P-S1PRs signaling in SCD, I treated humanized Berkeley sickle mice (Berkeley HBS mice), with FTY720, a ...


5-Lipoxygenase (5-Lox)-5-Lipoxygenase Activating Protein (Flap)-Nanodisc Complex: A Model For The 5-Lox-Flap Interaction, Erin Elizabeth Schexnaydre Mar 2018

5-Lipoxygenase (5-Lox)-5-Lipoxygenase Activating Protein (Flap)-Nanodisc Complex: A Model For The 5-Lox-Flap Interaction, Erin Elizabeth Schexnaydre

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Leukotrienes (LT) are lipid mediators of the inflammatory response that play important roles in diseases such as asthma and atherosclerosis. Leukotriene A4 (LTA4) is synthesized from arachidonic acid (AA) by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) with the help of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), a trimeric nuclear transmembrane protein. Exactly how 5-LOX and FLAP interact is not well understood, however FLAP is essential for the production of leukotrienes in vivo. I used nanodiscs (NDs), engineered membrane systems, as a tool to study the 5-LOX-FLAP interaction. FLAP was incorporated into NDs with a phospholipid composition to mimic of the nuclear membrane. Structural features were ...


The Role Of Ripk1 Kinase Activity In Regulating Inflammation And Necroptotic Death, Matija Zelic Jan 2018

The Role Of Ripk1 Kinase Activity In Regulating Inflammation And Necroptotic Death, Matija Zelic

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Necroptosis, a type of regulated necrotic cell death, involves cell membrane permeabilization and has been implicated in various acute and chronic pro-inflammatory diseases, including ischemia-reperfusion injury and neurodegenerative diseases. By using in vitro reconstitution studies and a chemical inhibitor, the kinase activity of the serine/threonine kinase RIPK1 had been shown to regulate necroptotic signaling downstream of TNF and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). To investigate the contribution of RIPK1 kinase activity to inflammation and necroptosis in vivo, we generated kinase inactive RIPK1 knock-in mice. Utilizing fibroblasts and macrophages from these mice, we demonstrate that RIPK1 kinase activity is required for necroptotic ...


Complexities Of Chronic Opioid Exposure, Maciej Gonek Jan 2018

Complexities Of Chronic Opioid Exposure, Maciej Gonek

Theses and Dissertations

Studies on repeated exposure to opioids have been carried out for decades yet the mechanisms for certain phenomena such as tolerance are still not fully understood. Furthermore, different medications, such as frequently prescribed benzodiazepines, or different disease states, such as HIV, have their own effects and interactions with chronic opioid exposure that are not fully understood. The overall objective of this dissertation was to investigate the complexities of chronic opioid exposure and how different disease states and medications may modulate the effects of chronic opioids. Our findings demonstrate that the administration of diazepam, at doses that are not antinociceptive or ...


Lps-Induced Inos Mrna And The Pro-Apoptotic Signaling Pathway In Leukocytes Of Fit And Unfit Males, Tiffany M. Zuniga Jan 2018

Lps-Induced Inos Mrna And The Pro-Apoptotic Signaling Pathway In Leukocytes Of Fit And Unfit Males, Tiffany M. Zuniga

Theses and Dissertations

Overexpression of the enzyme iNOS induces apoptotic cellular death by increasing indices of pro-inflammation and oxidative stress. Aerobic physical activity has been known to have anti- inflammatory benefits and reduce oxidative stress. Purpose: Therefore, this study aimed to examine the impact of aerobic fitness on LPS-induced iNOS mRNA expression and the relationship of this expression with indices of oxidative stress, pro-inflammation and apoptosis in isolated leukocytes. Methods: Whole blood samples from aerobically fit and unfit males were stimulated with and without LPS. Thereafter, iNOS mRNA expression and MDA, TNF-α and p53 concentrations were analyzed. Results: iNOS mRNA expression levels following ...


Hypoxic Influences On Myeloid Cells During Inflammation And Inflammation-Associated Cancer, Nan Lin Jan 2018

Hypoxic Influences On Myeloid Cells During Inflammation And Inflammation-Associated Cancer, Nan Lin

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Hypoxia is a prominent characteristic of many acute or chronic inflammatory diseases, and exerts significant influence on their progression. Macrophages and neutrophils are major cellular components of innate immunity and contribute not only to O2 deprivation at the site of inflammation, but also alter many of their functions in response to hypoxia to either facilitate or suppress inflammation. Hypoxia stabilizes HIF-αs in macrophages and neutrophils, and these O2-sensitive transcription factors are key regulators of inflammatory responses in myeloid cells. This body of work investigates the role of myeloid HIF-αs in the settings of several acute and chronic inflammatory diseases.

First ...


Inflammation In The Pathogenesis Of Diabetic Retinopathy, Haoshen Shi Jan 2018

Inflammation In The Pathogenesis Of Diabetic Retinopathy, Haoshen Shi

Wayne State University Dissertations

The general purpose of these studies is to investigate inflammation in diabetic retinopathy in an effort to identify key intervention points to develop as treatments. Firstly, we showed that the neuropeptide VIP displayed protective immunoregulatory effects on retinal endothelial cells cultured under high glucose conditions. This effect was carried out, in part through the VPAC2 receptor.

Next, we studied the β-adrenergic receptor agonist, Compound 49b, and its effect on the pro-resolving RvD1 pathway. Compound 49b was previously shown to suppress both inflammatory and apoptotic responses in DR. We demonstrated that Compound 49b rescued the high glucose-induced decrese in RvD1 and ...


Il-17 Drives Copper Uptake And Activation Of Growth Pathways In Colorectal Cancer Cells In A Steap4-Dependent Manner, Evan Martin Jan 2018

Il-17 Drives Copper Uptake And Activation Of Growth Pathways In Colorectal Cancer Cells In A Steap4-Dependent Manner, Evan Martin

ETD Archive

Colorectal cancer is a disease characterized by abnormal, invasive cell growth beginning in the colon or rectum. The third most common type of cancer worldwide, approximately one million new cases of the disease are diagnosed across the globe annually, resulting in an estimated 700,000+ deaths. One major risk factor associated with development of colorectal cancer is the presence of chronic inflammation in the large intestine, also known as colitis. Inflammation is a complex immune response against harmful stimuli, characterized by symptoms including heat, redness, swelling and pain. One important molecular mediator of this process is interleukin 17 (IL-17), a ...


Il-17 Drives Copper Uptake And Activation Of Growth Pathways In Colorectal Cancer Cells In A Steap4-Dependent Manner, Evan Martin Jan 2018

Il-17 Drives Copper Uptake And Activation Of Growth Pathways In Colorectal Cancer Cells In A Steap4-Dependent Manner, Evan Martin

ETD Archive

Colorectal cancer is a disease characterized by abnormal, invasive cell growth beginning in the colon or rectum. The third most common type of cancer worldwide, approximately one million new cases of the disease are diagnosed across the globe annually, resulting in an estimated 700,000+ deaths. One major risk factor associated with development of colorectal cancer is the presence of chronic inflammation in the large intestine, also known as colitis. Inflammation is a complex immune response against harmful stimuli, characterized by symptoms including heat, redness, swelling and pain. One important molecular mediator of this process is interleukin 17 (IL-17), a ...


Effects Of Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Seed And Bromocriptine On Endocrine And Immune Function In Horses, Jessica Marie Hanneman Jan 2018

Effects Of Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Seed And Bromocriptine On Endocrine And Immune Function In Horses, Jessica Marie Hanneman

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Consumption of endophyte-infected (E+) grasses has long been associated with health problems in animals. In cattle E+ tall fescue consumption leads to fescue toxicosis, and in horses it leads reproductive problems. The health-related issues associated with endophyte consumption have been attributed to the effects caused by the ergot alkaloids produced by the fungus. These ergot alkaloids are considered D2-like receptor agonists, and 5-HT2 serotonin and α-adrenergic receptor partial agonists. Many studies in humans, swine, cattle, and horses have identified that ergopeptines cause a decrease in prolactin production due to their dopaminergic activities. Additionally, these molecules have been found to cause ...


The Microvascular And Systemic Effects Of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Exposure: A Physiological Perspective, Alaeddin Bashir Abukabda Jan 2018

The Microvascular And Systemic Effects Of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Exposure: A Physiological Perspective, Alaeddin Bashir Abukabda

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) are one of the most widely used engineered nanomaterials (ENM). Their ubiquitous inclusion warrants a more thorough understanding of their toxicity, particularly in sensitive populations such as pregnant women and the developing fetus.

The aim of the first study was to determine the most sensitive segments of the vasculature to pulmonary ENM exposure. Macrovascular function was investigated in the thoracic aorta, common femoral artery and 3rd order mesenteric arterioles using wire myography. Microvascular function was assessed in 4th and 5th order mesenteric arterioles via pressure myography. Nano-TiO2 exposure induced impairments in ...