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Behavioral Responses And Policy Evaluation: Revisiting Water And Fuel Policies, Shanxia Sun Apr 2016

Behavioral Responses And Policy Evaluation: Revisiting Water And Fuel Policies, Shanxia Sun

Open Access Dissertations

In my dissertation, I examine how policies regulating agricultural production and clean technology impact the environment. I focus on policies affecting water depletion, water pollution, and fuel consumption. I assess their cost-effectiveness by modeling and quantifying the behavioral responses of farmers and households.

My first essay focuses on decreasing groundwater depletion through increasing irrigation efficiency in Mexico. I quantify the impacts of different sources of inefficiency on groundwater extraction, and I evaluate the effectiveness of alternative policies that aim to reduce the over-extraction of groundwater. I find that mechanisms of electricity cost-sharing implemented in many wells have a sizable impact ...


Alternative Regulation Of Myc In Lung Cancer, Patrick N. Backman Mar 2016

Alternative Regulation Of Myc In Lung Cancer, Patrick N. Backman

Open Access Theses

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States, accounting for 27% of all cancer induced deaths1. In an attempt to create a effective targeted therapy for the treatment of lung cancer, a strategy used to treat an activated KrasG12D/+;p53 R172H/+ transgenic lung cancer mouse model was to deliver a known tumor suppressive microRNA (miRNA) to stop tumor growth. The tumor suppressive miRNA let-7 was lentivirally delivered in the form of its primary transcript, pri-let-7a-1, and resulted in increased lung size and inflammation compared to lungs exposed to a control lentivirus. It was ...


Autophagy Regulation After Diet And Exercise In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Megan Elizabeth Rosa Jan 2016

Autophagy Regulation After Diet And Exercise In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Megan Elizabeth Rosa

Theses and Dissertations

Along with the rise in obesity, rates of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have also increased. NAFLD may begin with fat accumulation in the liver, but can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, and eventual cirrhosis. With no pharmacological treatment for NASH, lifestyle interventions appear vital to maintaining liver health. Previous work has shown aberrant mitochondrial content/quality and autophagy in models of NAFLD. Exercise is known to improve mitochondrial health and possibly autophagy, thus autophagy may be a key regulatory factor for treatment of obesity induced-NAFLD. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine how weight loss from ...


In Vivo Periodical Monitoring Of Immune Cell Infiltration In Response To Feathers And Intramuscular Injection Of Ionps Using The Pulp (Dermis) Of Growing Feathers As Test Site Tissue In Chickens, Olfat Taleb Alaamri Dec 2015

In Vivo Periodical Monitoring Of Immune Cell Infiltration In Response To Feathers And Intramuscular Injection Of Ionps Using The Pulp (Dermis) Of Growing Feathers As Test Site Tissue In Chickens, Olfat Taleb Alaamri

Theses and Dissertations

The applications of nanoparticles are growing, but little is known about their interactions with the immune system as most studies did not use suitable in vivo test systems. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the utility of chicken growing feathers as an in vivo test site for iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP) interactions with the immune system. The first objective of this study was to monitor leukocyte infiltration into the growing feather pulp upon the administration of IONP and IO-mIgG preparations. The second objective was to test the utility of IONPs as vaccine adjuvants by monitoring primary and memory ...


Eicosapentaenoic Acid (Epa) From Porphyridium Cruentum: Increasing Growth And Productivity Of The Microalgae For Pharmaceutical Products, Maryam Asgharpour Dec 2015

Eicosapentaenoic Acid (Epa) From Porphyridium Cruentum: Increasing Growth And Productivity Of The Microalgae For Pharmaceutical Products, Maryam Asgharpour

Theses and Dissertations

One of the major nutritional requirements in our diet is an adequate intake of omega-3 specially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). In the present study, the effects of two temperatures (16°C & 20˚C) and light intensities (140 & 180µE/M2.S) and four nitrate levels (0.075, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7g/L) on the cell growth and lipid productivity of Porphyridium cruentum, one of the most promising oil-rich species of microalgae, were investigated. A growth comparison was carried out using pure CO2 and 5% CO2/air. Additionally, the ratio of the fatty acids with omega-3 and omega-6 groups at ...


Portion Size Communication By Means Of Package Design, Tami J. Strickland Dec 2015

Portion Size Communication By Means Of Package Design, Tami J. Strickland

Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative study assessed consumers’ current methods of determining portion sizing of chicken products and examined their perceptions of how effectively three package designs communicate portion size. Everett M. Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations (DI) Theory analyzes the characteristics of the consumer of the innovation (adopter) and the impact these characteristics have on adopting new innovations. The innovation in this study will be the prototype packaging. Focusing on Rogers’ adopter characteristics and defined proprietary consumer segmentation characteristics, this study will be pivotal for future package design projects targeting nutrition education.

Focus group questions were scrutinized through a pilot study and revised ...


Responses Of Two Strains Of Broilers To Diets Varying In Essential Amino Acid Density And Energy Levels, Tyler James Clark Dec 2015

Responses Of Two Strains Of Broilers To Diets Varying In Essential Amino Acid Density And Energy Levels, Tyler James Clark

Theses and Dissertations

The responses of two different commercial strains of broilers to diets varying in overall amino acid levels and metabolizable energy levels were observed. Amino acid levels used were 80%, 90%, 100%, 110%, 120%, and 130% of Ross recommended minimum digestable levels of essential amino acids. Energy levels used were either below or above Ross recommended metabolizable energy levels. Diets were fed for 56 days. The two strains were a fast growing broiler strain and a slower growing broiler strain. A selection of birds from each pen was processed at 35, 43, and 56 days of age. Average body weights, cumulative ...


The Validity Of Urine Color Self-Assessment As An Index Of Hydration In Males, Daniel Layne Nixon Dec 2015

The Validity Of Urine Color Self-Assessment As An Index Of Hydration In Males, Daniel Layne Nixon

Theses and Dissertations

While water intake is so important, there are few practical hydration assessment techniques for the general population to use on a daily basis. The present study examined the accuracy of self-assessed urine color (Ucol) as a potential hydration assessment tool. Male college aged subjects provided a urine sample into a custom built urinal (n=76; 1.79±0.76 m, 83.9±16.0 kg). The urinal contained a picture of the 1-8 color scale and a light and dark urine color scale. Subjects were asked to give their urine color estimation as a whole number integer and to estimate ...


Evaluation Of The Impact Of Meat And Bone Meal Nutritional Variability On Broiler Performance, Christopher Caleb Eagleson Dec 2015

Evaluation Of The Impact Of Meat And Bone Meal Nutritional Variability On Broiler Performance, Christopher Caleb Eagleson

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this trial was to determine if varying the nutritional composition of meat and bone meal (MBM) would impact broiler performance and yield compared to diets which provide a consistent quality of MBM. Twelve hundred day-old male broilers from the Cobb 500 female line were randomly allocated to 48 pens (25 chicks/pen; 22 square feet) and grown to 49 days of age. Starter, grower, and withdrawal diets were formulated to contain MBM at 10, 7.5 and 5% respectively using the Cobb nutritional standards. Four treatments provided were: 1) H.J. Baker proprietary blend, ProPlus 57 fed ...


The Effect Of Alternative Fertilization And Application Time On Voluntary Intake Of Forages, Jessica Clark Dec 2015

The Effect Of Alternative Fertilization And Application Time On Voluntary Intake Of Forages, Jessica Clark

Theses and Dissertations

Dairy slurry and poultry litter have increased in popularity as fertilizers in the agriculture industry. However, residual effects of these manures on voluntary intake of forages from subsequent harvests are not well known. The objectives of this two part study were to determine if moisture level of alfalfa silage and the use of dairy slurry as a fertilizer have an effect on intake and digestibility by sheep, and if forage species and the use of poultry litter as a fertilizer have an effect on intake by horses. Eighteen ewes (47.6 ± 5.34 kg) were used in experiment 1 and ...


Comparison Of Different Modulators That Affect Macrophage Activation In Vitro, Alda Alexa Díaz Pérez Jul 2015

Comparison Of Different Modulators That Affect Macrophage Activation In Vitro, Alda Alexa Díaz Pérez

Theses and Dissertations

Inflammation is known as a mechanism to regulate and control infections as well as promote tissue repair. Macrophages (Mф) are known to be a major cell type in the initiation, sustainability and resolution of inflammation. Moreover, Mф are essential for the remodeling process that is also known as the wound healing response. The objective of this research was to compare five modulators (acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), dexamethasone (DEX), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), iloprost, and resolvin D1 (RvD1) for their anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages in vitro. Then, Mф phenotype in terms of gene expression and secreted cytokine response was determined. Our study compared ...


Effects Of Soybean Pectin On Blood Glucose And Insulin Responses In Healthy Men, Melissa Ann Jones Jul 2015

Effects Of Soybean Pectin On Blood Glucose And Insulin Responses In Healthy Men, Melissa Ann Jones

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study was to examine the effects of soy pectin on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin responses in healthy adult males␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣ intestinal microbiota to determine if differences in weight or body mass index would be linked to differences in microbiota populations. Pectin is a soluble fiber with demonstrated health benefits such as the ability to lower blood glucose and cholesterol, increase satiety leading to lower caloric intake, improve insulin resistance and lower inflammation. These benefits suggest that pectin may help in prevention and treatment of type II diabetes. Soy pectin is extracted from hulls, a waste product ...


Novel Biomarkers For Calcium And Phosphorus Metabolism In Breeder Hens And Broilers, Andrew Dick Magnuson Jul 2015

Novel Biomarkers For Calcium And Phosphorus Metabolism In Breeder Hens And Broilers, Andrew Dick Magnuson

Theses and Dissertations

Broiler breeder hens are subject to the dual expectation to not only maintain a high production of eggs for an extended time period, but to produce eggs which can support the life of chicks which will be used for either meat production or as parent stock. Egg fertility and hatchability are heavily influenced by the thickness of the egg shell, the mineral calcium carbonate shell of the egg necessary for protecting the embryo growing inside. Many factors affect egg shell quality including age of the hen, diet, environmental conditions, genetic strain, stress, disease, and nutrition. Laying hens will mobilize calcium ...


Temperature In The Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) Canopy And Effects On Cotton Leaf And Boll Growth, Maria Soledad Berlangieri Costa Jul 2015

Temperature In The Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) Canopy And Effects On Cotton Leaf And Boll Growth, Maria Soledad Berlangieri Costa

Theses and Dissertations

Cotton development and yield are negatively influenced by extremes temperatures, mainly during reproductive stage. Ambient air temperature is used to evaluate temperature stress effect on yield under field conditions; however, there is evidence that actual temperatures in the canopy where bolls develop are different. In terms of cotton responses, there is limited research about the effects of elevated day and night temperatures upon boll carbohydrate content, size, and boll respiration. Field and growth chamber experiments were performed during 2014-2015 using the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar DP0912B2RF. Field studies for determining temperature gradients through the canopy consisted of two planting ...


The Comparative Effects Of Hot Yoga And Thermoneutral Yoga On Flexibility, Heart Rate, Sweat Rate, And Mood, Hannah Kirkland Campbell Jul 2015

The Comparative Effects Of Hot Yoga And Thermoneutral Yoga On Flexibility, Heart Rate, Sweat Rate, And Mood, Hannah Kirkland Campbell

Theses and Dissertations

Yoga is an ancient Indian philosophy, described as a therapeutic intervention and health maintenance practice that unites the mind and body to aid healing through the combination of physical postures, breathing techniques, and meditation. There is ample research regarding yoga practiced in an environment that is thermoneutral, or in an environment that does not alter the metabolic heat production or evaporative heat loss of people. However, minimal research exists on the increasingly popular form of yoga known as hot yoga, or yoga practiced in an environment that is often humidified and 95° F or warmer. This exploratory study compared the ...


Water Consumption Behavior In Broilers, David Harold Mccreery Jul 2015

Water Consumption Behavior In Broilers, David Harold Mccreery

Theses and Dissertations

A series of trials were conducted to analyze broiler water consumption behaviors under commercial conditions. The first trial was to quantify the number of broilers drinking at times of peak water demand. Birds were evaluated at time intervals of 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes from the start of the light period to establish the percentage birds having consumed water by that point in time. Significant differences were found by bird age in the 5, 10, and 15 minute intervals, however there were no significant differences in the percentage of birds having consumed water in the 30, 45 ...


The Longitudinal Effects Of Beta-Alanine Supplementation On Isometric Strength, Time To Exhaustion, And Lower-Body Isometric Torque In Female Masters Athlete Cyclists, Jordan Mckenzie Glenn Jul 2015

The Longitudinal Effects Of Beta-Alanine Supplementation On Isometric Strength, Time To Exhaustion, And Lower-Body Isometric Torque In Female Masters Athlete Cyclists, Jordan Mckenzie Glenn

Theses and Dissertations

Within the population of aging individuals exists a subset of competitive seniors or masters athletes (MA). As masters-level competition increases in popularity, MA must find methods to enhance individual athletic performance. Beta-alanine (BA) is an amino acid used to enhance physical capability based on ability increase intramuscular carnosine concentrations. Older adults and females have naturally lower carnosine levels compared to age- and gender-matched counterparts and may experience enhanced benefits from BA supplementation. Purpose: Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the longitudinal effects of BA supplementation on isometric handgrip strength (HG), time to exhaustion (TTE), total work completed ...


Preferences And Nutrient Composition: The Impact Of Flour Types On Battered Fried Food, Lobat Siahmakoun Jul 2015

Preferences And Nutrient Composition: The Impact Of Flour Types On Battered Fried Food, Lobat Siahmakoun

Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the impact of different flour-batter types on protein rich food in regard to people’s overall liking and sensory preferences (saltiness, flavor, texture, moisture, and color). In addition, all battered fried chicken, fish, shrimp, pork, and beef were analyzed for fat, calories, and protein content in the Central Analytical Laboratory at the University of Arkansas. Two hundred thirty-five participants completed the questionnaire containing five major sections. Respondents evaluated samples of battered fried chicken, fish, shrimp, pork, and beef using all-purpose flour (APF), rice-flour (RF), and potato flour (PF). Data was analyzed using binomial analysis and paired sample ...


Local Modulation And Measurement Of Macrophage-Derived Bioactive Proteins From Implanted Biomaterials In Rat, Geetika Bajpai May 2015

Local Modulation And Measurement Of Macrophage-Derived Bioactive Proteins From Implanted Biomaterials In Rat, Geetika Bajpai

Theses and Dissertations

Fibrosis around the implanted medical devices is a severe problem that can plague long-term device reliability. Activation of macrophage phenotype (macrophage polarization) has emerged as a new and possible means for reducing fibrosis in the fields of biomaterials and regenerative medicine. Macrophages are phagocytic cells that respond to microenvironmental cues that direct their phenotype. Macrophage activation has been widely studied in mouse and human in the context of tumor biology, yet little information is available regarding how macrophage activation could be used in a biomaterials context. Further, rats rather than mice are the common subjects in biomaterials experiments. A significant ...


Inducing And Characterizing M2c Macrophages At A Non-Degradable Implant In Vivo, Geoffrey David Keeler May 2015

Inducing And Characterizing M2c Macrophages At A Non-Degradable Implant In Vivo, Geoffrey David Keeler

Theses and Dissertations

The implantation of biomaterials in the body leads to a reaction known as the foreign body response (FBR) which leads to the eventual encapsulation of the biomaterial. This encapsulation proves to be detrimental to certain biomaterials, such as implanted glucose sensors, which rely on interacting with the extracellular space for proper function. Altering the FBR has become of interest in an effort to increase the longevity and integration of biomaterials. One strategy for altering the FBR is by targeting the macrophage, shown to play an important role in the FBR. In this work, the microdialysis sampling technique was used to ...


Perceptual Differences In Children Learning To Play Golf With Traditional Or Modified (Scaled) Equipment, Lindsey Dawn Sams May 2015

Perceptual Differences In Children Learning To Play Golf With Traditional Or Modified (Scaled) Equipment, Lindsey Dawn Sams

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to examine perception differences of competence and enjoyment between learners using modified and traditional equipment, and the potential effects these factors could have on intent for future participation. The participants in this study were 123 children (65 girls, 58 boys) aged 7 to 17 years. Through a convenience sampling method, data was obtained through surveys measuring golf participation and self-perceptions concerning perceived competence, enjoyment and intention to continue participation. To avoid an age confound, the dataset was limited to 2nd through 5th grade children (24 traditional/ 75 modified) for secondary analyses (MANOVA and ...


The Effect Of Balance-Based Torso-Weighting On Mobility, Gait, Balance, Postural Control, And Falls Efficacy In Mobility Limited Older Adults, Jennifer L. Vincenzo May 2015

The Effect Of Balance-Based Torso-Weighting On Mobility, Gait, Balance, Postural Control, And Falls Efficacy In Mobility Limited Older Adults, Jennifer L. Vincenzo

Theses and Dissertations

Exercise is a known intervention to prevent fall risk among older adults; however, adherence is poor. Therefore, it is of interest to determine if other interventions improve function and decrease fall risk among older adults. Balance-Based Torso-Weighting (BBTW) is a non-exercise intervention that improves functional measures among adults with multiple sclerosis, yet the effectiveness of BBTW has not been assessed among older adults without progressive neurological disorders. We conducted a double-blind, randomized study to analyze the effect of BBTW on functional measures and falls efficacy among community-dwelling, mobility limited older adults after 5 days of wearing BalanceWear® for 4 hours ...


The Status Of Small Group Training As Perceived By Program Administrators, Jade Alexis Dworkin May 2015

The Status Of Small Group Training As Perceived By Program Administrators, Jade Alexis Dworkin

Theses and Dissertations

This descriptive study was obtain program components and administrative perceptions of collegiate recreation small group training programs. Through an extensive review of literature and valued input from key campus recreation professionals, a preliminary survey with 30 items was created. The preliminary survey, Administrative Effectiveness of Small Group Training Programs Survey (AESGTPS), was administered electronically to collegiate recreation small group training program directors. Research questions investigated were identifying ways in which various program components may vary from institution to institution, identifying program components that were perceived to be contributing to perceived program effectiveness, and defining ways in which program administrators perceived ...


The Effect Of Physical Activity Levels On Hydration Markers In Non-Athletic Free-Living Individuals, Mikell Lucas Hammer May 2015

The Effect Of Physical Activity Levels On Hydration Markers In Non-Athletic Free-Living Individuals, Mikell Lucas Hammer

Theses and Dissertations

Higher levels of physical activity requires increased fluid intake due to increased water losses via sweating. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of physical activity on hydration status and water intake. METHODS: This study involved 8 visits to the Human Performance Laboratory over 22 days. Body weight and urine measurements were taken every visit. Physical activity was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), water intake by the Water Frequency Questionnaire (WFQ), and hydration status by urine osmolality (UOsm), urine specific gravity (USG), and urine color (UC). From the IPAQ subjects were classified as low, moderate and high physical activity ...


Hypohydration And Mood State In Free-Living Males And Females, Thomas Edward Vidal May 2015

Hypohydration And Mood State In Free-Living Males And Females, Thomas Edward Vidal

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has shown that acute dehydration can result in changes in mood. These changes have been reported in less than a 1% loss in total body water. However, the effect of hypohydration (i.e., reflected through high urine concentration) on mood in free-living conditions has not been studied. PURPOSE: The present study was designed to determine if hydration status is associated with mood within the general population under free-living conditions. METHODS: A group of 103 apparently healthy subjects (49 male, 54 female, 41±14 y, 1.7±0.1 m, 76.1±16.9 kg) completed three visits separated ...


Impacts Of Micrornas On Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis And Mitochondrial Quality, David Lee May 2015

Impacts Of Micrornas On Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis And Mitochondrial Quality, David Lee

Theses and Dissertations

microRNA (miRNA) post-transcriptional modification is becoming a well-established mechanism for controlling mRNA translation. microRNAs -1, -133, and -206 are under the control of skeletal muscle promoters and affect muscle plasticity and metabolic health. A detailed review on the generation and processing of miRNAs with a view to skeletal muscle brings up intriguing connections in the transcriptional connections between multiple miRNAs. Additionally, exciting new research has defined a role of miRNAs in skeletal muscle mitochondria showing an additional, direct link to metabolic function. Multiple investigations in models of exercise, aging, hypertrophy, and injury have shown how these interventions can affect miRNA ...


Effects Of Mild Hypohydration And Hyperthermia On Cognition And Mood In Obese And Non-Obese Females, Jenna Marie Burchfield May 2015

Effects Of Mild Hypohydration And Hyperthermia On Cognition And Mood In Obese And Non-Obese Females, Jenna Marie Burchfield

Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: Information regarding effects of hypohydration (HY) and hyperthermia (HT) on cognition, mood and development of symptoms is conflicting since the two conditions often confound each other. Further, although obese individuals may have physiological impairments during heat stress, whether psychological impairments occur with HY and HT is unknown. PURPOSE: To assess the independent and combined effects of mild HY and HT on cognition, mood, and the development of symptoms in obese and non-obese females. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy females (11 non-obese, 22±2y, 61±6kg, 25±4% body fat; 11 obese, 22±2y, 80±18kg, 44±5% body fat) volunteered in ...


Control Of Agrilus Ruficollis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) With Insecticides And Identifying Visual Attractants For Use In A Monitoring Trap, Soo-Hoon Kim Dec 2014

Control Of Agrilus Ruficollis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) With Insecticides And Identifying Visual Attractants For Use In A Monitoring Trap, Soo-Hoon Kim

Theses and Dissertations

The rednecked cane borer, Agrilus ruficollis (F.), is a pest of cultivated and wild blackberries in the Midwestern and Eastern parts of the United States. Feeding, mating, egg laying and development of A. ruficollis from larvae to adult only occurs on primocane, the first year vegetative growth stage of blackberries, and not on the second year fruiting stage called floricanes that die after fruiting. Damage from this pest is caused by the larva girdling the primocane and tunneling in the pith, causing the formation of a gall. Gall formation on the primocane increases the chance of winter injury and can ...


Analysis Of Vitamin E Metabolites By Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Tianlin Xu Oct 2014

Analysis Of Vitamin E Metabolites By Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Tianlin Xu

Open Access Theses

Naturally occurring forms of Vitamin E are metabolized to various carboxychromanols and conjugated carboxychromanols. Recent studies showed that vitamin E metabolites, especially the long-chain carboxychromanols are more bioactive than unmetabolized vitamin E forms. It is necessary to quantify vitamin E metabolites in biological environment. Here a simple and effective extraction method was developed to achieve extraction efficacy of more than 90% of various forms of vitamin E and metabolites with less than 10% inter- or intra-day variation. An LC-MS/MS assay was developed and optimized to acquire best sensitivity for the detection of vitamin E and metabolites. This method allows ...


Postural Sway In Infants At Low And High Risk For Autism Spectrum Disorder, Rachel C. Harris Oct 2014

Postural Sway In Infants At Low And High Risk For Autism Spectrum Disorder, Rachel C. Harris

Open Access Theses

ABSTRACT Harris, Rachel C. M. S., Purdue University, December 2014. Postural Control in Infants at Low and High Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder. Major Professor: Laura J. Claxton. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder more commonly known for deficits in social and communication skills. More recently, aspects of motor development have been shown to be delayed in children with ASD, including deficits in their postural control abilities. Children with ASD have difficulty integrating information from their sensory systems to help control their balance. Infants at risk for ASD and infants who are later diagnosed with ASD have delays ...