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Effect Of Functional Starch In Brown Rice And Grain Sorghum On Plasma Glucose And Insulin Responses In Humans, Nicole Marie Poquette Dec 2013

Effect Of Functional Starch In Brown Rice And Grain Sorghum On Plasma Glucose And Insulin Responses In Humans, Nicole Marie Poquette

Theses and Dissertations

Diabetes and obesity are chronic illnesses increasing at dramatic rates in the U.S. and around the world. Research has looked to prevent or control diabetes and obesity through functional ingredients such as healthy-dietary carbohydrates to control blood glucose levels. Starch is a principle carbohydrate, which influences blood glucose levels, and measuring starch digestibility fractions can help predict the glucose response in the body. The objectives of this study were to investigate the functional starch content of parboiled brown rice flour and grain sorghum flour, and measure the effects on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels of 14 and 10 ...


In Vitro Analysis Of Short Chain Fatty Acids And Human Fecal Microbiota Stimulated By Pectin Sources, Byungjick Min Dec 2013

In Vitro Analysis Of Short Chain Fatty Acids And Human Fecal Microbiota Stimulated By Pectin Sources, Byungjick Min

Theses and Dissertations

As interest increases for colonic health, various studies have been conducted to investigate functional ingredients for host health and prevention of chronic disease in humans such as colon cancer and Type 2 diabetes. In particular dietary fiber has been reported to have beneficial effects on colonic health. More recently, dietary fiber has been categorized based on its characteristics and numerous studies have been conducted to determine correlations with chronic diseases. Pectin is a naturally occurring biopolymer that has been used in various applications for purposes of pharmaceutical and biotechnology. Pectin is a soluble dietary fiber and can be entirely fermented ...


Development Of Novel Antifungal Peptides Based On A Natural Model Of Histatin-5 Peptide, Duy Tu Nguyen Dec 2013

Development Of Novel Antifungal Peptides Based On A Natural Model Of Histatin-5 Peptide, Duy Tu Nguyen

Theses and Dissertations

Our research group is working toward the development of novel antifungal peptides based on a natural model of peptide histatin-5. Histatin-5 is found in human saliva and known to protect our body against oral infections by Candida species. Candidiasis, or an infection caused by Candida species, is considered one of the most medically important fungal infections worldwide. Blood stream infections caused by Candida species are the fourth leading cause of hospital-acquired fungal infections that is associated with high mortality rates and high costs of treatment. This study investigated the modes of action of histatin-5 with the use of one 16-mer ...


Post-Exercise And Post-Recovery Blood Lactate In Peripheral Arterial Disease, Rebecca Kate Roderick Dec 2013

Post-Exercise And Post-Recovery Blood Lactate In Peripheral Arterial Disease, Rebecca Kate Roderick

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to observe how the presence of peripheral arterial disease affects the level of post-exercise blood lactate and post-recovery blood lactate during and following the six-minute walk test (6MWT). The 6MWT was administered to 49 participants (33 classified as Non-PAD and 16 classified as PAD) over the age of 50 with no uncontrolled cardiovascular or metabolic diseases or a cardiovascular event in the previous 6 months. Results demonstrated that no significant statistical difference exists between the presence of PAD and resting blood lactate (F = 0.86, p = .36), post-exercise blood lactate (F= 0.48, p ...


Evaluation Of Shake Weight Protocol In Senior Populations, Isaac F. Cook Dec 2013

Evaluation Of Shake Weight Protocol In Senior Populations, Isaac F. Cook

Theses and Dissertations

The Shake Weight® (SW®) is designed to improve muscular fitness in a quick and inexpensive way. This study aimed to determine if the SW® was an effective tool at improving muscular fitness, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in post-menopausal women. Participants were 17 healthy, post-menopausal women from aMidwestern University and divided into two training (SW® and HIT) interventions that lasted 10 weeks. HIT participants performed three sets of 8 repetitions at 80% of their estimated 1RM for the chest press, leg press, lat pulldown, and seated row. SW® participants performed the exercises prescribed by the SW® manufacturer. Changes ...


Effect Of Prescribed Burning In The Forests Of Buffalo National River, Arkansas, Francis Ndar Onduso Dec 2013

Effect Of Prescribed Burning In The Forests Of Buffalo National River, Arkansas, Francis Ndar Onduso

Theses and Dissertations

Prescribed burning (also referred to as controlled or hazard reduction burning) refers to the use of fire under controlled conditions to achieve a desired end product or goal. However, the nature and magnitude of the changes that result from prescribed burning are still incompletely known, and this is especially true for the forests of the Ozarks of northern Arkansas. The overall objective of the research project described herein was to obtain the data necessary to develop a better understanding of these changes, particularly as they relate to the use of prescribed burning as a management technique in the Buffalo National ...


Effects Of Hearing Aid Amplification On Robust Neural Coding Of Speech, Jonathan Daniel Boley Oct 2013

Effects Of Hearing Aid Amplification On Robust Neural Coding Of Speech, Jonathan Daniel Boley

Open Access Dissertations

Hearing aids are able to restore some hearing abilities for people with auditory impairments, but background noise remains a significant problem. Unfortunately, we know very little about how speech is encoded in the auditory system, particularly in impaired systems with prosthetic amplifiers. There is growing evidence that relative timing in the neural signals (known as spatiotemporal coding) is important for speech perception, but there is little research that relates spatiotemporal coding and hearing aid amplification.

This research uses a combination of computational modeling and physiological experiments to characterize how hearing aids affect vowel coding in noise at the level of ...


Brain Bioavailability Of Polyphenols: Implications For Delivery Of Brain Health Benefits, Tzu-Ying Chen Oct 2013

Brain Bioavailability Of Polyphenols: Implications For Delivery Of Brain Health Benefits, Tzu-Ying Chen

Open Access Dissertations

Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with neuroprotection and cognitive benefits throughout the life span. These associations have sparked interest in plant-derived polyphenols as biologically active agents with potential for targeting brain benefits. However, little is known regarding the ability of the polyphenols or their metabolites from polyphenol-rich products to cross the blood-brain-barrier, and be available for biological action. Furthermore, additional insight is needed on factors affecting the absorption and brain distribution of polyphenol metabolites in vivo. To fill gap in current knowledge, this thesis will focus on the effects of diabetogenic diet and diabetic state which have ...


Abiotic And Biotic Factors Affecting The Japanese Beetle In Arkansas, Bryan Mathew Petty Aug 2013

Abiotic And Biotic Factors Affecting The Japanese Beetle In Arkansas, Bryan Mathew Petty

Theses and Dissertations

Japanese beetles are a relatively new pest to Arkansas. During my Ph.D. research I investigated the pathogens and environmental factors influencing Japanese beetle populations in the state. The prevalence of various pathogens and parasitoids attacking Popillia japonica were recorded annually from wild populations. Of specific interest was the microsporidian pathogen Ovavesicula popilliae, which I introduced as a biological control agent in the state. Details of the relationship between this pathogen and the Japanese beetle were investigated, including dose response, host range, and spore production. Additionally, annual abundance of the beetle in the region was recorded and tracked over the ...


The Interactive Effects Of Multiple Stressors On Lithobates Catesbeianus And Anaxyrus Americanus, Matthew Kyle Holden Aug 2013

The Interactive Effects Of Multiple Stressors On Lithobates Catesbeianus And Anaxyrus Americanus, Matthew Kyle Holden

Theses and Dissertations

Amphibian populations worldwide have experienced dramatic declines, and many species have already become locally, regionally, or globally extirpated with thousands more being threatened with extinction. These declines have occurred more rapidly in amphibians than any other group of vertebrates, which is especially concerning to scientists because amphibians serve as indicator species of overall environmental health. Major causes for amphibian declines are discussed in Chapter 1 and include: habitat modification and destruction, commercial over-exploitation, introduced species, environmental contaminants, global climate change, and infectious diseases.

Chapter 2 discusses the major research aspects of the thesis by examining the interactive effects of multiple ...


Design, Development, And Characterization Of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides For Pharmaceutical Applications, Yazan H. Akkam Aug 2013

Design, Development, And Characterization Of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides For Pharmaceutical Applications, Yazan H. Akkam

Theses and Dissertations

Candida species are the fourth leading cause of nosocomial infection. The increased incidence of drug-resistant Candida species has emphasized the need for new antifungal drugs. Histatin 5 is a naturally occurring human salivary antifungal peptide and the first line of defense against infections of the oral cavity. This research has focused on understanding the activity of histatin 5, and subsequently designing novel peptides that may serve as models for the further development of therapeutics to treat fungal infection.

This objective has been achieved in three steps: studying the structural requirement of histatin 5 involved in antifungal activity, the identification of ...


Evaluating Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Changing Herd Sire Genetics On Arkansas Cow-Calf Operations, Daniel Keeton Aug 2013

Evaluating Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Changing Herd Sire Genetics On Arkansas Cow-Calf Operations, Daniel Keeton

Theses and Dissertations

This research looks at impacts of changing sires, and thus bull genetics, on cow-calf operations of varying land and herd sizes in the state of Arkansas. A 2012 Across-Breed EPD table, adjusted to the Angus breed, was used to estimate breed sire effects on birth weight and weaning weight of the herd's offspring (Kuehn and Thallman 2012a). Together with modified animal performance, the use of 2012 and most recent five- and ten- year Arkansas state average prices, allowed the evaluation of changing herd sires by accounting for breed type and hide color differences in prices. Using a spreadsheet tool ...


The Impact Of Parent Education On Parental Feeding Practices, Larra Kolby Brawley Aug 2013

The Impact Of Parent Education On Parental Feeding Practices, Larra Kolby Brawley

Theses and Dissertations

This research looked at the potential impact that parent education may have on the feeding practices of parents of young children. Since eating behaviors are a national concern for both children and adults, it's important to examine how we can create not just healthier children but, as a result, healthier adults. This study utilized an intervention that was an adapted version of a healthy eating curriculum created by Sesame Workshop and the California WIC association with the intention of improving parental feeding practices through a behavior-based approach. Previous research with this curriculum has addressed only low-income populations, with a ...


Effects Of High-Velocity Versus Low-Velocity Resistance Training On Resting Metabolic Rate And Functional Performance In Older Adults, Laura Ashleigh Morgan Aug 2013

Effects Of High-Velocity Versus Low-Velocity Resistance Training On Resting Metabolic Rate And Functional Performance In Older Adults, Laura Ashleigh Morgan

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 12-week high-velocity resistance training (HVRT) protocol to a traditional low-velocity resistance training (LVRT) protocol on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and other selected measures of muscular and functional fitness in older adults. Nineteen adults between the ages of 65 and 82 participated: 8 HVRT, 7 LVRT, and 4 controls (CTRL). Initially, no differences existed between groups except for age (p = .016). HVRT (75.6 years) was older than LVRT (69.6 years) and CTRL (69.3 years). The exercise intervention consisted of 2 days/week sessions for 12 weeks ...


Characterization Of Host Immune Responses To Eimeria Adenoeides Infection In Turkey Poults, Ujvala Deepthi Gadde Aug 2013

Characterization Of Host Immune Responses To Eimeria Adenoeides Infection In Turkey Poults, Ujvala Deepthi Gadde

Theses and Dissertations

Coccidiosis is a common enteric disease of turkeys that is caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Eimeria. There are about seven species of Eimeria that affect turkeys and of these E. adenoeides is the most pathogenic and commonly recognized. Infection with Eimeria is known to induce a long lasting protective immunity in chickens, but nothing is known regarding the acquisition of immunity to Eimeria in turkeys. The experiments reported here were aimed at investigating the biological and cellular immune response to E. adenoeides in turkey poults under different conditions of exposure. In experiment 1 (Chapter II), 20 day ...


The Relationship Among Ankle Function, Functional Capacity, And Body Composition To Balance In Geriatric Populations, Joseph Robert Chaney Aug 2013

The Relationship Among Ankle Function, Functional Capacity, And Body Composition To Balance In Geriatric Populations, Joseph Robert Chaney

Theses and Dissertations

The primary purpose of this research study was to identify significant relationships among measures of ankle strength, ankle range of motion, body composition, and functional capacity to balance ability in geriatric populations which may potentially assist in identifying older individuals with increased risk of falling. A battery of five test (ankle strength assessments, ankle range of motion , DXA, functional fitness, and balance) were administered to 20 participants (6 males, 14 females, mean age 69.78 ± 3.98) that had indicated to be at least 65 years of age or older and no history of falls within the previous 12 months ...


Proteomic Studies Of The Influenza Virus-Human Cell Interactions: The Responses Of Host Cell Protein Expression To Viral Infection And The Novel Host Proteins That Interact With Virus Protein Ns1, Yimeng Wang May 2013

Proteomic Studies Of The Influenza Virus-Human Cell Interactions: The Responses Of Host Cell Protein Expression To Viral Infection And The Novel Host Proteins That Interact With Virus Protein Ns1, Yimeng Wang

Theses and Dissertations

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) continue to be a threat to human health. Despite extensive studies, the mechanisms underlying the IAVs-host interactions during IAV infection remain elusive. We employed quantitative proteomic methods to systematically explore the host cell protein expression responses to IAV infection and examine the function of a critical IAV protein called NS1 by identifying its host binding partners. Specifically, we used a 2-dimentional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) based proteomic method to screen host proteins whose expression was substantially altered by IAV. One critical protein named IκB kinase-gamma (IKKγ) was found to be significantly down-regulated during IAV infection. Functional studies ...


Modeling Greenhouse Gas Emissions And Net Return Implications For Cow-Calf Producers In The Ozark Highlands, Stephen Aaron Smith May 2013

Modeling Greenhouse Gas Emissions And Net Return Implications For Cow-Calf Producers In The Ozark Highlands, Stephen Aaron Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Cow-calf producers in the Ozark Highlands region are under continuous pressure to improve economic efficiency. Additionally, estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cow-calf and forage production processes may become increasingly important as policy makers seek to mitigate or reduce agriculture's role in climate change. As such, this analysis had three objectives. Objective 1: Provide a model that could be used by cow-calf producers, extension agents, and researchers to evaluate GHG and net return (NR) repercussions when modifying site characteristics, production methods, and inputs. Objective 2: Develop a user guide such that the methodology for estimating cow-calf GHG emissions and ...


Litter Conditioning Is Differentially Affected By Leaf Species, Phosphorus Enrichment, And Light Availability, Erin E. Scott May 2013

Litter Conditioning Is Differentially Affected By Leaf Species, Phosphorus Enrichment, And Light Availability, Erin E. Scott

Theses and Dissertations

Anthropogenic enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorus is one of the most pervasive and detrimental threats to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. In streams that rely on allochthonous basal food resources, such as leaves, nutrient pollution can result in altered food quality and decreased carbon (C) standing stocks. However, the magnitude and mechanisms of this change in quality are poorly understood. Laboratory microcosm studies were conducted to 1) quantify the response of litter C:P to a gradient of phosphorus (P) enrichment (0, 0.05, and 0.5 mg SRP/L) across leaf species with variable levels of degradability (sugar maple and oak ...


An Analysis Of Firearms Training Performance Among Active Law Enforcement Officers, John Thomasson May 2013

An Analysis Of Firearms Training Performance Among Active Law Enforcement Officers, John Thomasson

Theses and Dissertations

Firearms proficiency is an implicit expectation, held by the public of police officers, due to presumption that the required firearm training is an adequate preparation for a deadly force encounter. However, anecdotal evidence and available data on police shootings suggest that conventional, unrealistic training methods are wholly inadequate. To present stress into firearms training, some departments have opted for exercises such as physical exertion and shoot-house training as a substitute for realistic simulation of force-on-force confrontations.

To determine whether such exercises are comparable, an observation of performance and heart rate levels was conducted on a group of eight police officers ...


Effects Of Using Canola Meal As A Protein Source In Broiler Diets, Charles Danny Bradley Jr May 2013

Effects Of Using Canola Meal As A Protein Source In Broiler Diets, Charles Danny Bradley Jr

Theses and Dissertations

Six experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of broilers fed canola meal. Experiment 1 assessed performance and carcass yields when broilers were fed various combinations of canola and soybean meal in nutritionally balanced diets based on digestible amino acid values. The results suggested that canola meal can be used in isocaloric diets as a partial replacement for Soybean meal.

Experiment 2 assessed broiler performance and carcass yields when using various levels of canola meal in broiler diets with a constant level of supplemental poultry oil. The resulting data suggested when diets are formulated with a constant level of supplemental ...


Fate Of 17Α-Estradiol, 17Β-Estradiol, And Estrone In Agricultural Soils And Sediments, Michael L. Mashtare Jr Jan 2013

Fate Of 17Α-Estradiol, 17Β-Estradiol, And Estrone In Agricultural Soils And Sediments, Michael L. Mashtare Jr

Open Access Dissertations

The shift to concentrated animal production facilities and increasing rural-urban migration has increased the localized land application of nearly 1 billion tons of manure and biosolids annually. Although these applications provide nutrients and contribute to soil tilth, they also serve as a source for an estimated 49 tons of the natural manure-borne estrogens, 17α-estradiol (17α-E2), 17β-estradiol (17β-E2), and estrone (E1). While these estrogens are critical to endocrine systems, the low concentrations observed in the environment can disrupt endocrine function in non-target organisms, e.g., altering secondary sex characteristics which can lead to changes in wildlife communities.

Research presented here focuses ...


Habitat Restoration Of A Constructed Ohio River Embayment, Caleb Michael Rennaker Jan 2013

Habitat Restoration Of A Constructed Ohio River Embayment, Caleb Michael Rennaker

Open Access Theses

Backwater habitats of large rivers provide habitat for aquatic biota and influence important predator-prey interactions in fishes and other aquatic organisms. However, these areas often exhibit turbid conditions and lack habitat complexity. Restoration of lentic habitats through direct habitat manipulations has shown success in prior efforts, but these methods have not been tested in backwater habitats of large rivers. I attempted to create habitat in an Ohio River embayment by establishing founder colonies of aquatic macrophytes coupled with the placement of underwater gravel beds. I also evaluated the effects of total suspended solids (TSS) on overwintering structures of American Pondweed ...


Developing White Ash With Resistance To The Emerald Ash Borer, Kaitlin Joy Palla Jan 2013

Developing White Ash With Resistance To The Emerald Ash Borer, Kaitlin Joy Palla

Open Access Theses

Hypocotyls isolated from mature embryos germinated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 22.2 µM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 0.5 µM thidiazuron (TDZ) were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the pBI121-8D2 vector containing the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene and a full length, codon-optimized Bacillus thuringiensis Cry8Da protoxin gene (cry8D2). Explants were transformed in a bacterial suspension with 100 µM acetosyringone using 90 s sonication and 10 min vacuum-infiltration. Four independent lines of transformed shoots were selectively regenerated on MS medium with 22.2 µM BA, 0.5 µM TDZ, 50 mg L-1 adenine sulfate, 10 ...


Modeling Tools For Conformal Orthotic Devices, Steven David Riddle Jan 2013

Modeling Tools For Conformal Orthotic Devices, Steven David Riddle

Open Access Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to advance the design of conformal orthotic devices through the development of two modeling tools to address knowledge gaps in the field.

The field of human orthotics has been continually troubled by identifying successful methods of harnessing devices to the body. Past orthotics have utilized a rigid framework with minimal degrees of freedom (DOFs) driven by hard actuators attached to the body at select anchor points. Many devices design the structure and anchor points such that they reduce the degrees of freedom of a targeted joint, limiting the user's mobility and often causing ...