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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Immunotherapeutic Strategies To Reverse Tumor Associated Immunosuppression In Breast Cancer, Sruthi Ravindranathan Dec 2016

Immunotherapeutic Strategies To Reverse Tumor Associated Immunosuppression In Breast Cancer, Sruthi Ravindranathan

Theses and Dissertations

Heterogenous cancers such as breast carcinoma, would highly benefit from personalized vaccine approaches such as autologous tumor cell vaccines (ATCVs). By using cancer cells that are isolated from self, this approach has the potential to generate a polyclonal immune response against tumor antigens, that are specific to the individual. However, so far, ATCVs against breast cancers have not had any clinical success due to the poor immunogenicity of the malignant cells.

In this study, for the first time, we determined tumor derived G-CSF to play a major role in affecting immune response against breast cancer ATCVs. By using CRISPR/Cas9 ...


Willingness To Pay For Irrigation Water Under Scarcity Conditions, Tyler Robert Knapp Dec 2016

Willingness To Pay For Irrigation Water Under Scarcity Conditions, Tyler Robert Knapp

Theses and Dissertations

Reliance of Arkansas agricultural producers on groundwater for irrigation has led to depletion of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer. Without intervention, consequences include insufficient groundwater to meet irrigation demand as well as drawdown of the deeper Sparta Aquifer, upon which communities in eastern Arkansas rely for non-agricultural use. Among proposed solutions to combat groundwater decline is the construction of off-farm surface water infrastructure to meet the irrigation needs of producers. Despite the importance of irrigated agriculture to Arkansas, there is little know about the economic value of irrigation water to producers. Thus, we implement a double-bounded dichotomous choice contingent ...


Effect Of Delayed Wrapping And Wrapping Source On Intake And Digestibility Of Alfalfa Silage In Gestating Sheep, Valens Niyigena Dec 2016

Effect Of Delayed Wrapping And Wrapping Source On Intake And Digestibility Of Alfalfa Silage In Gestating Sheep, Valens Niyigena

Theses and Dissertations

Baling silage with oxygen can result in dry matter deterioration and reduce silage intake by animals. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of two different wrapping sources and time intervals between baling and wrapping on intake and digestibility of alfalfa silage. The second objective was to assess the correlation of alfalfa silage fermentation parameters with intake and digestibility parameters in gestating sheep. Alfalfa silage was baled in large round bales then wrapped with plastic either with (KURA) or without (SUN) an oxygen-limiting barrier either the day of baling or 1, 2 or 3 d after baling. Beginning in ...


Phenotypic Analysis And Localization Of Leukocytes At The Site Of Intradermal Injection Of Phytohemagglutinin In Chickens, Kallie Alyce Sullivan Dec 2016

Phenotypic Analysis And Localization Of Leukocytes At The Site Of Intradermal Injection Of Phytohemagglutinin In Chickens, Kallie Alyce Sullivan

Theses and Dissertations

Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) is commonly used to gain insight into an individual’s cellular immuno-competence. PHA is typically injected intradermally (i.d.) into the skin (e.g. wing web) and the tissue swelling response is then monitored, whereby the extent of the swelling positively relates to the individual’s cellular immune system capabilities. Although i.d. injected PHA was shown to stimulate mononuclear cell- and basophil-infiltration to the site of injection, reports on temporal, qualitative and quantitative aspects of the local PHA response are limited. The objective of this study was to use the growing feather (GF) as a cutaneous test-site ...


Extracellular Matrix Remodeling And The Inflammatory Response During Skeletal Muscle Regeneration In Sarcopenic Obese Mice, Lemuel Arthur Brown Dec 2016

Extracellular Matrix Remodeling And The Inflammatory Response During Skeletal Muscle Regeneration In Sarcopenic Obese Mice, Lemuel Arthur Brown

Theses and Dissertations

AIM: Sarocpenic obesity is a national concern within the United States because this metabolic syndrome is tied with reduced mobility and quality of life. Both obesity and aging are associated with insulin-resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and muscle weakness. Skeletal muscle regeneration is a process that involves the coordinated effort of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), inflammatory signaling, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling for optimal regeneration. It has been demonstrated that obesity and aging have a reduction in muscle regeneration. It has not been examined if sarcopenic obesity will further reduce muscle mass and the regenerative process. The purpose of this study ...


Liming Characteristics Of A High-Calcium, Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Product And Its Effects On Runoff Water Quality, Jason Richard Burgess-Conforti Dec 2016

Liming Characteristics Of A High-Calcium, Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Product And Its Effects On Runoff Water Quality, Jason Richard Burgess-Conforti

Theses and Dissertations

In 2013, only 37% of the 32 million Mg of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products generated in the United States were reused beneficially. If FGD by-products could be used as a beneficial soil amendment, millions of megagrams may be diverted away from surface impoundments and landfills. The purpose of this research was to identify the liming characteristics of a high-Ca dry FGD (DFGD) by-product in comparison to a Class-C fly ash (FA) and reagent-grade CaCO3, and to evaluate the effects of land application to a managed grassland on runoff, plant, and soil quality. Liming characteristics were determined by measuring the ...


Daily Variability Of Body Weight And Hydration Markers In Free Living Men And Women, Lynndee Grace Summers Dec 2016

Daily Variability Of Body Weight And Hydration Markers In Free Living Men And Women, Lynndee Grace Summers

Theses and Dissertations

Body weight and hydration markers change greatly during strenuous exercise, especially in the heat. However, in a non-athletic population, changes in body weight and hydration markers may not be so obvious. It is important to classify the normal fluctuation of these measurements for future studies in order to delineate when an intervention results in a change outside of what can be expected during normal daily living. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the normal fluctuations in body weight and urine hydration markers over the course of 29 days. METHODS: One-hundred two male and female participants, ranging from ...


In Vitro Fermentation Patterns Of Rice Bran Components By Human Gut Microbiota, Tung Minh Pham Aug 2016

In Vitro Fermentation Patterns Of Rice Bran Components By Human Gut Microbiota, Tung Minh Pham

Theses and Dissertations

The prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been increasing in recent years worldwide. In the United States, it is ranked the second leading cause of cancer death. Risks of CRC increase with age and are associated with several lifestyle factors such as diet, drinking and smoking habits, and levels of physical activity. There is an abundance of scientific literature demonstrating the protective roles of several dietary components including fibers and polyphenolic compounds. These compounds have been shown to be able to positively modulate gastrointestinal ecology by increasing the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and promoting the population of beneficial ...


Long-Term Supplementation With Leucine Does Not Prevent Development Of Obesity In Rats Fed A High-Fat Diet, Dameon Smith Aug 2016

Long-Term Supplementation With Leucine Does Not Prevent Development Of Obesity In Rats Fed A High-Fat Diet, Dameon Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Excess dietary fat consumption has been implicated in the development of obesity and diabetes. Obesity can be characterized by a disproportionate increase in fat mass compared to lean body mass. However, if muscle mass can be increased or maintained in obesity, this may facilitate weight loss by increasing the body’s overall metabolic capacity. Historically, supplementation with the branched-chain amino acid leucine has been shown to increase muscle protein synthesis via the protein kinase mTORC1. Recent studies suggest that supplementation with leucine also has the potential to reduce weight gain and fat deposition in high-fat fed, obese mice. The objective ...


The Influence Of Strength-Training Exercises On The Functional Fitness In Older Adults, Susie Engle Aug 2016

The Influence Of Strength-Training Exercises On The Functional Fitness In Older Adults, Susie Engle

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of strength-training exercises on the functional fitness in older adults. The original convenience sample consisted of 658 participants who attended group strength-training classes offered through the Cooperative Extension Service. The Senior Fitness Test was used to assess baseline fitness levels at the beginning and end of the 12-week strength-training program. Data was collected from 2008 to 2015. Of the 658 participants, 110 were aged 60 to 94 and presented posttest scores occurring approximately 12 weeks after pretest dates. Of the 110 subjects, 99 were female and 11 were male. The ...


Rice Consumption And Effects Of Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, On Human Health, Ellen Joy Pottgen Aug 2016

Rice Consumption And Effects Of Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, On Human Health, Ellen Joy Pottgen

Theses and Dissertations

Within the United States type 2 diabetes is an ever growing health epidemic. The prevalence in the adult population has quadrupled over the past 30 years and is expected to continue on a similar path in the coming decades. While the cause of type 2 diabetes is multifactorial, it is considered to be an acquired condition related to environmental contributors including poor diet, obesity, and physical inactivity, which may be managed to alter the course or progression of the disease. Preventative or maintenance measures emphasize nutritional intervention strategies, including encouraging individuals to follow a nutrient-dense, high-fiber diet with ample whole-grains ...


Observing Renal Responses To Endurance Cycling In The Heat, Cody Smith Aug 2016

Observing Renal Responses To Endurance Cycling In The Heat, Cody Smith

Theses and Dissertations

AIM: To observe the effects of endurance cycling in the heat on renal function, and determine if the extent of impairment is related to hydration. METHODS: 40 cyclists (34 male, 6 female, 52 ± 9 y, 21.7 ± 6.5 % body fat) completed an endurance cycling event (5.7 ± 1.2 hours) in the heat (33.2 ± 5.0ºC, 38.4 ± 10.7% RH). Body mass was assessed to determine net fluid loss, muscle damage in the legs was assessed with a pain scale, a urine sample was collected to analyze hydration status, and a blood sample was drawn. All measurements ...


Innate Immunity In Chickens: In Vivo Responses To Different Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns, Kristen Alicia Byrne Aug 2016

Innate Immunity In Chickens: In Vivo Responses To Different Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns, Kristen Alicia Byrne

Theses and Dissertations

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on host cells recognize motifs known as pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are common to groups of microbes. Examples include LPS on Gram-negative bacteria, the structural motif PGN common to all bacteria, MDP the smallest immunostimulatory unit of PGN, and poly I:C the dsRNA analog. PAMP recognition by and stimulation of the innate immune system is crucial to an individual’s ability to quickly limit microbial growth and stimulate the adaptive immune system. Characterization of the in vivo immune responses initiated by PAMPs has not been directly addressed. Using growing feathers (GF) as a ...


Agro-Climatic Change, Crop Production And Mitigation Strategies-Case Studies In Arkansas, Usa And Kenya, John Westley Magugu Aug 2016

Agro-Climatic Change, Crop Production And Mitigation Strategies-Case Studies In Arkansas, Usa And Kenya, John Westley Magugu

Theses and Dissertations

Although climate change impacts vary geographically and temporally, studies at local levels are not readily available for stakeholders to better understand how their local communities would be affected and what remedial measures could be more effective in their local contexts. This dissertation has examined climate change and its impacts in two different local contexts: eastern Arkansas in the USA and Nyando in Kenya. The first part of this dissertation develops agro-meteorological indicators and examines the relationship between agro-meteorological indicators and crop yields in eastern Arkansas between 1960 and 2014. Results reveal that temperature based indicators were more strongly correlated to ...


Effect Of Hydration Status On Thermoregulatory Responses In Non-Obese And Obese Males, Matthew Tucker Aug 2016

Effect Of Hydration Status On Thermoregulatory Responses In Non-Obese And Obese Males, Matthew Tucker

Theses and Dissertations

During heat stress the human body thermoregulates via cutaneous vasodilation and sweating. Hypohydration can impair thermoregulatory responses that stem from the central nervous system (CNS), but it is unknown if impairments also occur post-synaptically in the microcirculation. Moreover, obese individuals may have impaired thermoregulation, possibly due to microvascular dysfunction. Purpose: The purpose of these studies was two-fold: 1) to determine if obese (OB) individuals exhibit impairments in thermoregulatory responses during exercise heat-stress (centrally-mediated) and intradermal infusion of vasoactive substances (peripherally-mediated) versus non-obese (N-OB), and 2) to determine if hypohydration subsequently affects these thermoregulatory responses differently between groups. Methods: Twenty-one healthy ...


Eucalyptus In Kenya; Impacts On Environment And Society, Brandy M. Garrett Kluthe Aug 2016

Eucalyptus In Kenya; Impacts On Environment And Society, Brandy M. Garrett Kluthe

Theses and Dissertations

Eucalyptus trees were introduced to Kenya a little over a century ago. European colonization along with the development of a railway system increased the demand for a fast growing wood source. The expansion of the tree across the fertile lands in Kenya raises concerns about the environmental impact on ecosystems where it has been introduced. These concerns include degraded soils, loss of water resources, co-introduction of ectomycorrhizal species, and allelopathy. Economic benefits to local landowners were also explored as well as the potential for large Eucalyptus woodlots to maximize the sequestration of CO₂ from the atmosphere. This was examined through ...


Identification Of Biomarkers Associated With Rous Sarcoma Virus-Induced Tumors In Two Divergently Selected Chicken Lines, Ashley Hayden Aug 2016

Identification Of Biomarkers Associated With Rous Sarcoma Virus-Induced Tumors In Two Divergently Selected Chicken Lines, Ashley Hayden

Theses and Dissertations

Poultry has become especially important to genetic research due to breeding feasibility, short generation turnover, and ease of maintaining large populations. The discovery of virus induced cancer has paved the way for further genetic studies. Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV) is a tumor-causing virus that infects poultry. While not prevalent today, it can serve as a model for virus-induced cancer in humans and create additional insight to marker assisted selection in poultry. Genetically selected Arkansas Progressor (AP) and Arkansas Regressor (AR) chicken lines have been established and maintained at the Arkansas Experimental Station (AES) in Fayetteville, AR. Previous research has investigated ...


Mental Toughness, Grit, And Motivational Differences In Single-Sport And Multi-Sport Athletes, Cole Justin Shewmake Aug 2016

Mental Toughness, Grit, And Motivational Differences In Single-Sport And Multi-Sport Athletes, Cole Justin Shewmake

Theses and Dissertations

Whether it is at work, school or sports, mental toughness (MT), grit and motivation are essential to accomplishing goals. Sports can be an integral platform for developing MT, grit, and factors that increase motivation levels, and it is during childhood and adolescence that these characteristics may develop. All of this could prove beneficial into adulthood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine MT, grit and motivational orientations of single-sport and multi-sport athletes at different levels of competition. Considering MT, a 2 x 2 ANOVA indicated no significant interaction effect between athlete type and competition level, F(1, 387 ...


Culinary Competence: Skills And Knowledge Assessment For Dietetic Students, Nancy Harris Buckley Aug 2016

Culinary Competence: Skills And Knowledge Assessment For Dietetic Students, Nancy Harris Buckley

Theses and Dissertations

Graduates of didactic programs in dietetics are entering internships with little cooking experience. The Food and Culinary Professionals’ Dietetic Practice Group (FCP DPG) has identified 11 core competencies that were developed as a recommendation to dietetic educators to include more culinary knowledge into existing programs. The purpose of this study was to determine if developing and incorporating experiential learning targeted to the competencies would increase dietetic students’ culinary skills and knowledge at a southern land-grant university. Food and Culinary Professionals’ DGP core competencies were used to guide the development of curriculum, experiential learning, and assessment in the Principles of Foods ...


The Impact Of Fast Food Marketing On Millennials, Kabo Tuelo Segokgo Aug 2016

The Impact Of Fast Food Marketing On Millennials, Kabo Tuelo Segokgo

Theses and Dissertations

Fast food marketing is an effective tool used by businesses to build food brand recognition among their consumers. Increased fast food consumption has been linked to the increase in high calorie consumption. This study sought among Millennials to assess the association between fast food marketing and consumption of fast food. It further dealt with perceptions on the relationship between fast food consumption and weight gain. A convenience sample of 507 participants was used to collect data from University of Arkansas’ students through an online survey and an in person survey. An independent sample t test and multivariate analysis of variance ...


The Effect Of Protein Quantity And Quality At Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Appetite And Metabolic Health, Brianna Lynne Neumann May 2016

The Effect Of Protein Quantity And Quality At Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Appetite And Metabolic Health, Brianna Lynne Neumann

Theses and Dissertations

Obesity is a global health concern and, within the United States, the current obesity rate is 36% and projected to double within the next two decades. Obesity is linked to many chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease and type 2 diabetes. In young females, weight gain (5-11 kg) between the ages of 20-30 years increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders later in life. The cause of obesity is multifactorial in nature, however fundamentally weight gain occurs when energy intake is greater than energy expended (i.e. calories in > calories out). Therefore, identifying and validating ...


Comparative Efficacy Of Foaming And Non-Foaming Handsoap In Reduction Of Microorganisms In Handwashing, Danielle Marie Conover May 2016

Comparative Efficacy Of Foaming And Non-Foaming Handsoap In Reduction Of Microorganisms In Handwashing, Danielle Marie Conover

Theses and Dissertations

Handwashing (HW) is a long established method to prevent disease transmission. Ensuring effectiveness of current HW methods is essential for optimal HW and enhanced disease prevention. The objectives of this research were to 1) conduct a survey of soap type and volume in food service establishments in Washington County, Arkansas; 2) investigate how soap type impacts HW behavior; and 3) determine the difference in microbial reduction between foaming (F) and liquid (L) handsoap. For Objective 1, food service establishments in Washington County, AR were selected based on exclusion criteria and random number generations, and handsoap samples were collected to determine ...


Dissemination And Persistence Of Plasmid Located, Integron Associated Antibiotic Resistant Genes In Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent And Stream Water Bacteria, _ Suhartono May 2016

Dissemination And Persistence Of Plasmid Located, Integron Associated Antibiotic Resistant Genes In Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent And Stream Water Bacteria, _ Suhartono

Theses and Dissertations

Transmissible plasmid-mediated integrons play important role in the persistence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance throughout the environment. Plasmids from 139 multi-antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli recovered from wastewater treatment plant effluent and upstream and downstream receiving stream water in Northwest Arkansas were extracted and profiled. Genes of class 1 and class 2 integrase (intI), mobilization (mob), sulfamethoxazole resistance (sul), and trimethoprim resistance (dfr) were detected using PCR and confirmed through DNA sequencing. Plasmids from almost half of the isolates (47%) were transmissible with mobF12 gene as the most frequently detected mobilization gene. Plasmid-borne class 1 with and without class 2 integrons ...


Proteomic Characterization Of Eggshell Membranes And Their Effect On Poultry Physiology And Immunity, Sarbjeet Kaur Makkar May 2016

Proteomic Characterization Of Eggshell Membranes And Their Effect On Poultry Physiology And Immunity, Sarbjeet Kaur Makkar

Theses and Dissertations

The use of antibiotics in poultry growth and disease control has led to antibiotics resistant problem in human beings, which is a big concern among consumers. With the necessity for judicious use of antibiotics in poultry production, alternative strategies to improve disease resistance in poultry production are necessary. The research is more inclined towards using the natural products available to grow healthier and antibiotic free meat animals. In the context of exploring natural and sustainable resource of alternative to antibiotics, the biochemical milieu of eggshell membranes (ESM) were analyzed by using mass spectrometry techniques including matrix assisted laser desorption ionization ...


Nutritional Deficiencies During The Harvest Season According To Household Consumption And Level Of Nutritional Knowledge: A Case Study Of Northern Mozambique, Maggie Jo Hansen May 2016

Nutritional Deficiencies During The Harvest Season According To Household Consumption And Level Of Nutritional Knowledge: A Case Study Of Northern Mozambique, Maggie Jo Hansen

Theses and Dissertations

Mozambique is classified as a low income country, the lowest development classification defined by the World Bank. It is underdeveloped in food security, agricultural production, and nutritional status, and research shows its residents are not foreign to poverty and malnutrition. Low protein, starchy foods (maize, rice, wheat, cassava) comprise the majority of the Mozambican diet; these starchy foods are the most available for consumption. Although availability impacts diet, educational barriers may also threaten the knowledge of nutrition and perceptions of healthy foods. Illiteracy and lack of education are extreme challenges to disseminating nutritional education efforts in the rural Nampula region ...


The Effects Of Hypohydration On Neurocognitive, Balance, Vestibular Ocular Motor Functions And Mood State, Satoshi Iida May 2016

The Effects Of Hypohydration On Neurocognitive, Balance, Vestibular Ocular Motor Functions And Mood State, Satoshi Iida

Theses and Dissertations

Inconsistent findings have been observed on the impact of hydration state on cognitive functions. The isolated effect of hypohydration on neurocognitive performance, balance, vestibular ocular motor function and mood outcomes in widely used concussion assessment tools has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate how hypohydration affected the results in concussion testing batteries. A single-blind randomized crossover design was used. Thirteen healthy males (22 ± 4y, 180.9 ± 5.7cm) without history of concussion within the past six months or any condition or disease that could influence outcome measurements participated in this study. Each subject completed concussion ...


Effect Of Passive Heating On Males And Females With Elevated Arterial Stiffness, Forrest Blake Robinson May 2016

Effect Of Passive Heating On Males And Females With Elevated Arterial Stiffness, Forrest Blake Robinson

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality in the United States, accounting for about 1 in every 4 deaths annually. Studies have shown that passive heating does have some degree of effect on arterial stiffness, but not much is known about populations with higher stiffness. Objective: To examine the independent effect of core temperature increase during passive heating on arterial stiffness. Methods: Participants visited the lab three times; one familiarization and two experimental trials. The experimental trials consisted of subjects being passively heated in an environment of 40°C / 40% relative humidity (HEAT) or normal ...


Evaluation Of Rusle 2 To Estimate Soil Loss From Pastures, Stasha Katrina Balkissoon May 2016

Evaluation Of Rusle 2 To Estimate Soil Loss From Pastures, Stasha Katrina Balkissoon

Theses and Dissertations

The accurate estimation of soil erosion by the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation version 2 (RUSLE2) is critical for several conservation assessments, least of which is its use in the Phosphorus Index (PI) to identify and rank the vulnerability of agricultural fields to phosphorus (P) runoff. Earlier versions of RUSLE reported a soil loss overestimation, which were revised to give RUSLE2, where biomass production in different climatic regions was more accurately represented. RUSLE version 2.0, which contains the new vegetative biomass production routine, was evaluated using two performance indices, the Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency Index (NSE) and Index of Agreement ...


A Prediction Model For Acute Core And Lower Extremity Injuries In Division 1 Collegiate Football Players, Alexandra Aline Mcdonald May 2016

A Prediction Model For Acute Core And Lower Extremity Injuries In Division 1 Collegiate Football Players, Alexandra Aline Mcdonald

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Various intrinsic factors such as high exposure, poor endurance of core muscles, previous injury, strength deficits, suboptimal neurocognitive function, and orthopedic abnormalities have been found as predictors for sprains and strains among collegiate football players. Objective: Assess the applicability of pre-participation assessments as predictors of core or lower extremity injury. Design: Cohort Study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football program. Patients or Other Participants: Athletes who underwent mandatory pre-participation examinations before preseason football training over two consecutive seasons (n=225). Main Outcome Measure(s): Associations between preseason protocols and injury incidence for core and lower extremity injuries ...


The Effect Of Fluid Balance On Exercise Performance In The Heat, Yasuki Sekiguchi May 2016

The Effect Of Fluid Balance On Exercise Performance In The Heat, Yasuki Sekiguchi

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: In dehydrated individuals thirst seems to disappear after ingestion of small amount of water before full rehydration. This phenomenon has been linked to oropharyngeal receptors. However, some researchers suggest that drinking to satisfy thirst is enough for optimal performance. It is well established that water deficit greater than 2% of body weight decreases exercise performance in the heat. No study has ever examined the effect hydration on exercise performance in the absence of thirst via oropharyngeal stimulation. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of dehydration on exercise performance and thermoregulation during exercise in the ...