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False Smut Of Rice: Histological Analysis Of Infection, Liem Thi Thanh Nguyen Dec 2012

False Smut Of Rice: Histological Analysis Of Infection, Liem Thi Thanh Nguyen

Theses and Dissertations

False smut of rice, caused by Ustilaginoidea virens (Cooke) Takahashi (Teleomorph: Villosiclava virens), has become a common disease in most major rice growing regions throughout the world. Considerable confusion exists regarding the infection process and the disease cycle. Therefore, a clearer understanding of pathogenesis caused by Ustilaginoidea virens is critical for future efforts to develop genetic and chemical tools to manage false smut in Arkansas and other regions of the world. The overall goal of this research was to clarify the infection process underlying false smut, with emphasis on comparing and contrasting the histological basis of root and foliar infections ...


Characterization And Epidemiology Of Soybean Vein Necrosis Associated Virus, Jing Zhou Dec 2012

Characterization And Epidemiology Of Soybean Vein Necrosis Associated Virus, Jing Zhou

Theses and Dissertations

Soybean vein necrosis disease (SVND) is widespread in major soybean-producing areas in the U.S. The typical disease symptoms exhibit as vein clearing along the main vein, which turn into chlorosis or necrosis as season progresses. Double-stranded RNA isolation and shot gun cloning of symptomatic tissues revealed the presence of a new tospovirus, provisionally named as Soybean vein necrosis associated virus (SVNaV). The presence of the virus has been confirmed in 12 states: Arkansas, Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia and New York. Symptomatic samples collected from eight states (AR, IL, MO, MS, KS, TN, MD and ...


Response Of Broiler Chickens To Variation In Dietary Nutrient Content, Sarah Diane Goodgame Dec 2012

Response Of Broiler Chickens To Variation In Dietary Nutrient Content, Sarah Diane Goodgame

Theses and Dissertations

Rising feed costs, environmental pollution concerns targeted at animal agriculture, a worldwide focus on sustainability and the never ending battle to improve production and efficiency within the poultry industry challenges nutritionists to focus on products to improve nutrient digestibility and decrease feed costs while at the same time maximizing performance. The research presented in this dissertation focuses on improving nutrient utilization of protein sources with protein liberating enzymes currently available commercially. The research also conducted addresses the addition of crystalline amino acids valine and isoleucine and their effect on improving efficiency of broilers.

The first research project compared the efficacy ...


Effect Of Body Size And Exercise On Mood State, Alexandra Lachance Dec 2012

Effect Of Body Size And Exercise On Mood State, Alexandra Lachance

Theses and Dissertations

Exercising in the presence of nature (i.e., "green exercise"), has been shown to heighten the physiological and mental benefits of traditional exercise on non-obese individuals. The effects of green exercise on obese individuals are unknown. It is hypothesized that green exercise is more beneficial for obese (greater positive improvements in mental health scores), compared to non-obese individuals. For example, the benefits of green exercise could help lower feelings of depression, improve mood and self-esteem to increase the propensity of obese individuals to meet exercise recommendations. Accordingly, this study investigated the physiological and psychological effects of green exercise on 12 ...


Superfund Evaluation: The Families Of Tar Creek, Gary D. Wilson Aug 2012

Superfund Evaluation: The Families Of Tar Creek, Gary D. Wilson

Theses and Dissertations

The Tar Creek Superfund Site is located in far northeastern Oklahoma near the Oklahoma/Kansas border in Ottawa County. The Site generally consists of a forty-square-mile area which is also part of the larger Tri-State Mining District that includes areas of Kansas and Missouri. The Site includes parts of five communities: Picher, Cardin, Quapaw, North Miami, and Commerce in Oklahoma. It also includes Treece, Kansas, and affects a total population of roughly 30,000 residents. Following Superfund designation, families in the Tar Creek area had to decide whether to accept or reject buy-out offers. This project explored the decision-making processes ...


The Role Of Antioxidant Rich Berries In The Prevention Of Postmenopausal Bone Loss, Lydia Karimi Kaume Aug 2012

The Role Of Antioxidant Rich Berries In The Prevention Of Postmenopausal Bone Loss, Lydia Karimi Kaume

Theses and Dissertations

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most prevalent form of osteoporosis and results in fragility fractures. Smoking is one of the major risk factors for osteoporosis and is known to aggravate bone loss in postmenopausal women due to increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Diet-based interventions using berries have shown bone protective affects in animal studies partially due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of their phenolic compounds. The goal of this research was to determine the effects of antioxidant-rich fruits in the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss. Our first study examined the dose dependent effects of blackberries in preventing bone loss in an ...


Interactions Between The Thermic Effect Of Food And Exercise On Total Energy Expenditure In Moderately Active Females, Ashley Binns Aug 2012

Interactions Between The Thermic Effect Of Food And Exercise On Total Energy Expenditure In Moderately Active Females, Ashley Binns

Theses and Dissertations

Diet and exercise are key components to overall health maintenance. Aspects contributing to weight maintenance include the thermic effect of food (TEF) and total energy expenditure (TEE), with TEF contributing to upwards of 10% TEE. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the interaction between TEF and exercise on TEE in moderately active females. METHODS: A sample population was established with the use of a health history questionnaire (HHQ). Ten active females of normal body composition, determined by body mass index (BMI) and a dual energy absorptiometry x-ray (DEXA) scan, participated in the study. Maximal aerobic capacity was ...


Effects Of Head Position And Head-Supported Mass On Nerve Function Of The Flexor Carpi Radialis Muscle In Healthy Individuals, Bethany Lauren Shivers Aug 2012

Effects Of Head Position And Head-Supported Mass On Nerve Function Of The Flexor Carpi Radialis Muscle In Healthy Individuals, Bethany Lauren Shivers

Theses and Dissertations

Long-term exposure to head-supported mass (HSM) has been linked with spinal degeneration including foraminal stenosis and disc deterioration. Anecdotally, HSM has also been linked to neck and arm pain and muscle atrophy, but nerve function has not been tested specifically. The combined effect of various head positions and HSM may be sufficient to compress the nerve root in aviators and Soldiers during job performance, potentially leading to short- and long-term neuromuscular effects. The Hoffmann (H) reflex, a well-established measure of nerve function, has shown to be sensitive to changes in nerve root space which occurs with different head positions. This ...


Food Environment And Childhood Obesity, Yucong Jiao Aug 2012

Food Environment And Childhood Obesity, Yucong Jiao

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines whether children's food environment, especially food stores that have fresh produce, affects obesity prevalence among elementary school children in the state of Arkansas. Misclassified food outlet types in the Dun and Bradstreet commercial data set were first corrected and then food environment measures were computed and aggregated to geographic regions corresponding to school attendance areas. After applying classical panel estimation, it was found that the fixed effects model fit the data best. Results indicate that an additional supermarket within a one-mile radial of the census neighborhood block center will bring down childhood obesity prevalence by 0 ...


The Use Of Cortisol And Hba1c As Biomarkers Of Stress In University Administrators, Jacilyn Marie Olson Aug 2012

The Use Of Cortisol And Hba1c As Biomarkers Of Stress In University Administrators, Jacilyn Marie Olson

Theses and Dissertations

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of perceived stress and cardiorespiratory fitness on cortisol and HbA1c, biomarkers of stress, in a group of select university administrators. The impact of gender on these relationships was of special concern. METHODS: University administrators with job titles of Chancellor, Provost, Vice Chancellors and Vice Provosts of the university, and Deans and Associate Deans at the college level were recruited. Twenty-five administrators (15 males and 10 females) agreed to participate and completed a battery of assessments that included completion of the University Administrative Concerns Questionnaire, a finger-stick blood test for ...


A Role Of Environmental Components In Autoimmune Vitiligo Of Smyth Line Chickens, Lei Dong May 2012

A Role Of Environmental Components In Autoimmune Vitiligo Of Smyth Line Chickens, Lei Dong

Theses and Dissertations

The Smyth line (SL) of chickens is a well-established animal model for the study of spontaneous autoimmune vitiligo, displaying all the characteristics of human vitiligo. In humans, phenolic derivative 4-tertiary butyl phenol (4-TBP) has been shown to trigger vitiligo in susceptible individuals. In vitiligo-prone SL-chickens, live turkey herpesvirus (HVT) infection at hatch was identified as the most effective trigger of SL-vitiligo expression. This dissertation examined the role of the environmental factors 4-TBP and HVT in the etiology of SL-vitiligo. Specifically, the generation of reactive-oxygen-species by melanocyte-containing feather tissue (MC-FT) and cultured melanocytes in response to 4-TBP exposure in vitro (Study ...


Investigation Of A Locus On Chromosome 9 For Contributions To Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Broilers, Sriram Krishnamoorthy May 2012

Investigation Of A Locus On Chromosome 9 For Contributions To Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Broilers, Sriram Krishnamoorthy

Theses and Dissertations

Although the ascites syndrome in chickens has been investigated for years, it continues to inflict financial losses to the world poultry industry. It is estimated that 8% of the 361 million broiler deaths are due to ascites leading to losses of millions of dollars annually. Efforts to curb the incidence of ascites are typically designed to slow early growth. This limits the birds' ability to show its true genetic potential and impacts later yields. In 1994 lines divergent for susceptibility to ascites were established from a commercial sire line through sibling selection of birds reared at local altitude after testing ...


Interactions Of Nitric Oxide And Superoxide Pathways In Hyperglycemic Endothelial Cells, Steven Clay Rogers May 2012

Interactions Of Nitric Oxide And Superoxide Pathways In Hyperglycemic Endothelial Cells, Steven Clay Rogers

Theses and Dissertations

Cardiovascular complications arising from diabetic hyperglycemia represents one of the leading causes of death and greatest public health challenges of modern societies. Despite state-of-the-art glucose control, diabetic patients remain at a markedly increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The loss of endothelial function (the development of diabetic endothelial dysfunction) has been implicated in the development of numerous diabetic cardiovascular diseases. The endothelial cell produces many vasoactive substances, hormones and cytoprotective biological factors. Endothelial cells are also involved in and affected by the initiation of inflammatory responses through the release and interaction of cytokines and other immune system molecules. Therefore, regulation of ...


Effect Of Water-Deficit Stress On Cotton During Reproductive Development, Dimitra Loka May 2012

Effect Of Water-Deficit Stress On Cotton During Reproductive Development, Dimitra Loka

Theses and Dissertations

Water deficit is a major abiotic factor limiting plant growth and crop productivity around the world. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is considered to be relatively tolerant to drought and the effects of water stress on leaf physiology and metabolism have been extensively documented. However, information is lacking on the effect of water-deficit stress on the cotton flower. It was hypothesized that water-deficit stress would impair gas exchange functions which consequently would result in perturbation of carbohydrates of cotton reproductive units. To investigate this hypothesis growth room studies and field studies were conducted with the objectives being to document the physiological ...


The Relationship Between Chronic Ankle Instability And Functional Movement Impairment In Division I Female Athletes, Akihito Tajima May 2012

The Relationship Between Chronic Ankle Instability And Functional Movement Impairment In Division I Female Athletes, Akihito Tajima

Theses and Dissertations

Lateral ankle sprains are the most common injury in athletics (Denegar & Miller, 2002; Ekstrand & Tropp, 1990). In addition, the recurrent rate of ankle sprains is as high as 80% (Smith & Reischl, 1986). Repetitive ankle sprains may lead to a phenomenon known as chronic ankle instability (Hertel, 2002). It has been theorized that there are two main attributions to chronic ankle instability: mechanical and functional instability (Monaghan, Delahunt, & Caulfield, 2006). The exact mechanism of chronic ankle instability is still unclear; however, recent studies focus on multiple factors rather than single measurements, in addition to functional testing. A few studies showed the validity of the use of functional movement screen to predict injury risk (Kiesel, Plisky, & Butler, 2007; Chorba, Bouilon, Overmyer, & Landis, 2010), however there is limited research concerning past injury history and movement impairment. Therefore it was the purpose of this study to use functional movement screen to determine if participants with chronic ankle instability exhibit notable functional movement impairments when compared to a group of matched control with no ...


The Correlation Between Hip Abductor Strength And Functional Performance In Division I Female Collegiate Soccer Athletes, Caitlin Elizabeth Whale May 2012

The Correlation Between Hip Abductor Strength And Functional Performance In Division I Female Collegiate Soccer Athletes, Caitlin Elizabeth Whale

Theses and Dissertations

Division I female soccer athletes have been documented to succumb to the greatest amount of lower extremity injuries, predominately ACL injuries. The risk for a lower extremity injury becomes greater when alterations to functional biomechanics are present. Specifically, the hip abductor strength has a crucial role in maintaining pelvic alignment. The purpose of this study was to determine if the hip abductor strength of a female athlete alters' biomechanics during functional performance. Thirty-two Division I female soccer athletes participated in this study (20+2yrs, 64.5+16.5kg, 166+14cm). Descriptive and anthropological statistics were recorded prior to participation. The ...


Systematic Observation Of Coach Feedback In Elite Youth Volleyball, Mark David Mann May 2012

Systematic Observation Of Coach Feedback In Elite Youth Volleyball, Mark David Mann

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to understand the relationship of coach feedback during time-outs to the performance of 16-18 year old volleyball players in competitive match play situations. The systematic observation of coach feedback during 89 time-outs was recorded using the Coach Time-Out Observation Instrument (CTOOI). Out of the 879 feedback statements that were made during the 89 time-outs, the CTOOI categorized coach feedback for technical feedback (with an internal or an external focus), tactical feedback (referring to our team or the opponent), and psychological feedback (as either encouraging or discouraging remarks). Data from the Game Performance Assessment Instrument ...


Multifunctionality In U.S. Rice Production: A Logit Analysis In Farmers Participation, Juan Tur Cardona May 2012

Multifunctionality In U.S. Rice Production: A Logit Analysis In Farmers Participation, Juan Tur Cardona

Theses and Dissertations

Multifunctional agriculture is particularly fundamental to some working lands conservation policies and programs, such as the Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP), Conservation Security Program (CSP) and Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program (WHIP). Farmers can also be engaged in providing recreational and agri-tourism services such as hunting, fishing, bird-watching, farm tours, petting zoos and hospitality services. Using the Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS) we analyze factors associated with participation in conservation, recreation and agri-tourism activities as a function of farm structure, farm financial measures, production practices, and socio-demographic characteristics of the farm operator. To estimate the functional relationships we estimate a binary ...


Intake, Digestibility, Insitu Disappearance And Ruminal Fermentation Of Bermuda Grass Hay By Lactating Beef Cows Offered Corn Or Hominy Feed As Supplements, Zibani Madzonga May 2012

Intake, Digestibility, Insitu Disappearance And Ruminal Fermentation Of Bermuda Grass Hay By Lactating Beef Cows Offered Corn Or Hominy Feed As Supplements, Zibani Madzonga

Theses and Dissertations

Hominy feed, a co-product of dry corn milling, has been evaluated to a limited extent in feedlot and dairy rations, but has not been evaluated as a supplemental energy source for lactating beef cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of level of hominy feed supplementation on intake, digestibility, in situ DM disappearance, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of medium quality bermudagrass hay. Five ruminally cannulated lactating beef cows (BW = 596 kg, SE = 13.9) were used in an experiment with a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Treatments were low hominy (LH; 0.25% of BW), medium ...