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Theses/Dissertations

Health and environmental sciences

University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Molecular Biology

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Articles 1 - 10 of 10

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Extracellular Matrix Remodeling And The Inflammatory Response During Skeletal Muscle Regeneration In Sarcopenic Obese Mice, Lemuel Arthur Brown Dec 2016

Extracellular Matrix Remodeling And The Inflammatory Response During Skeletal Muscle Regeneration In Sarcopenic Obese Mice, Lemuel Arthur Brown

Theses and Dissertations

AIM: Sarocpenic obesity is a national concern within the United States because this metabolic syndrome is tied with reduced mobility and quality of life. Both obesity and aging are associated with insulin-resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and muscle weakness. Skeletal muscle regeneration is a process that involves the coordinated effort of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), inflammatory signaling, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling for optimal regeneration. It has been demonstrated that obesity and aging have a reduction in muscle regeneration. It has not been examined if sarcopenic obesity will further reduce muscle mass and the regenerative process. The purpose of this study ...


Long-Term Supplementation With Leucine Does Not Prevent Development Of Obesity In Rats Fed A High-Fat Diet, Dameon Smith Aug 2016

Long-Term Supplementation With Leucine Does Not Prevent Development Of Obesity In Rats Fed A High-Fat Diet, Dameon Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Excess dietary fat consumption has been implicated in the development of obesity and diabetes. Obesity can be characterized by a disproportionate increase in fat mass compared to lean body mass. However, if muscle mass can be increased or maintained in obesity, this may facilitate weight loss by increasing the body’s overall metabolic capacity. Historically, supplementation with the branched-chain amino acid leucine has been shown to increase muscle protein synthesis via the protein kinase mTORC1. Recent studies suggest that supplementation with leucine also has the potential to reduce weight gain and fat deposition in high-fat fed, obese mice. The objective ...


Innate Immunity In Chickens: In Vivo Responses To Different Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns, Kristen Alicia Byrne Aug 2016

Innate Immunity In Chickens: In Vivo Responses To Different Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns, Kristen Alicia Byrne

Theses and Dissertations

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on host cells recognize motifs known as pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are common to groups of microbes. Examples include LPS on Gram-negative bacteria, the structural motif PGN common to all bacteria, MDP the smallest immunostimulatory unit of PGN, and poly I:C the dsRNA analog. PAMP recognition by and stimulation of the innate immune system is crucial to an individual’s ability to quickly limit microbial growth and stimulate the adaptive immune system. Characterization of the in vivo immune responses initiated by PAMPs has not been directly addressed. Using growing feathers (GF) as a ...


Proteomic Characterization Of Eggshell Membranes And Their Effect On Poultry Physiology And Immunity, Sarbjeet Kaur Makkar May 2016

Proteomic Characterization Of Eggshell Membranes And Their Effect On Poultry Physiology And Immunity, Sarbjeet Kaur Makkar

Theses and Dissertations

The use of antibiotics in poultry growth and disease control has led to antibiotics resistant problem in human beings, which is a big concern among consumers. With the necessity for judicious use of antibiotics in poultry production, alternative strategies to improve disease resistance in poultry production are necessary. The research is more inclined towards using the natural products available to grow healthier and antibiotic free meat animals. In the context of exploring natural and sustainable resource of alternative to antibiotics, the biochemical milieu of eggshell membranes (ESM) were analyzed by using mass spectrometry techniques including matrix assisted laser desorption ionization ...


In Vivo Periodical Monitoring Of Immune Cell Infiltration In Response To Feathers And Intramuscular Injection Of Ionps Using The Pulp (Dermis) Of Growing Feathers As Test Site Tissue In Chickens, Olfat Taleb Alaamri Dec 2015

In Vivo Periodical Monitoring Of Immune Cell Infiltration In Response To Feathers And Intramuscular Injection Of Ionps Using The Pulp (Dermis) Of Growing Feathers As Test Site Tissue In Chickens, Olfat Taleb Alaamri

Theses and Dissertations

The applications of nanoparticles are growing, but little is known about their interactions with the immune system as most studies did not use suitable in vivo test systems. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the utility of chicken growing feathers as an in vivo test site for iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP) interactions with the immune system. The first objective of this study was to monitor leukocyte infiltration into the growing feather pulp upon the administration of IONP and IO-mIgG preparations. The second objective was to test the utility of IONPs as vaccine adjuvants by monitoring primary and memory ...


Comparison Of Different Modulators That Affect Macrophage Activation In Vitro, Alda Alexa Díaz Pérez Jul 2015

Comparison Of Different Modulators That Affect Macrophage Activation In Vitro, Alda Alexa Díaz Pérez

Theses and Dissertations

Inflammation is known as a mechanism to regulate and control infections as well as promote tissue repair. Macrophages (Mф) are known to be a major cell type in the initiation, sustainability and resolution of inflammation. Moreover, Mф are essential for the remodeling process that is also known as the wound healing response. The objective of this research was to compare five modulators (acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), dexamethasone (DEX), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), iloprost, and resolvin D1 (RvD1) for their anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages in vitro. Then, Mф phenotype in terms of gene expression and secreted cytokine response was determined. Our study compared ...


Local Modulation And Measurement Of Macrophage-Derived Bioactive Proteins From Implanted Biomaterials In Rat, Geetika Bajpai May 2015

Local Modulation And Measurement Of Macrophage-Derived Bioactive Proteins From Implanted Biomaterials In Rat, Geetika Bajpai

Theses and Dissertations

Fibrosis around the implanted medical devices is a severe problem that can plague long-term device reliability. Activation of macrophage phenotype (macrophage polarization) has emerged as a new and possible means for reducing fibrosis in the fields of biomaterials and regenerative medicine. Macrophages are phagocytic cells that respond to microenvironmental cues that direct their phenotype. Macrophage activation has been widely studied in mouse and human in the context of tumor biology, yet little information is available regarding how macrophage activation could be used in a biomaterials context. Further, rats rather than mice are the common subjects in biomaterials experiments. A significant ...


Impacts Of Micrornas On Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis And Mitochondrial Quality, David Lee May 2015

Impacts Of Micrornas On Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis And Mitochondrial Quality, David Lee

Theses and Dissertations

microRNA (miRNA) post-transcriptional modification is becoming a well-established mechanism for controlling mRNA translation. microRNAs -1, -133, and -206 are under the control of skeletal muscle promoters and affect muscle plasticity and metabolic health. A detailed review on the generation and processing of miRNAs with a view to skeletal muscle brings up intriguing connections in the transcriptional connections between multiple miRNAs. Additionally, exciting new research has defined a role of miRNAs in skeletal muscle mitochondria showing an additional, direct link to metabolic function. Multiple investigations in models of exercise, aging, hypertrophy, and injury have shown how these interventions can affect miRNA ...


Design, Development, And Characterization Of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides For Pharmaceutical Applications, Yazan H. Akkam Aug 2013

Design, Development, And Characterization Of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides For Pharmaceutical Applications, Yazan H. Akkam

Theses and Dissertations

Candida species are the fourth leading cause of nosocomial infection. The increased incidence of drug-resistant Candida species has emphasized the need for new antifungal drugs. Histatin 5 is a naturally occurring human salivary antifungal peptide and the first line of defense against infections of the oral cavity. This research has focused on understanding the activity of histatin 5, and subsequently designing novel peptides that may serve as models for the further development of therapeutics to treat fungal infection.

This objective has been achieved in three steps: studying the structural requirement of histatin 5 involved in antifungal activity, the identification of ...


Characterization And Epidemiology Of Soybean Vein Necrosis Associated Virus, Jing Zhou Dec 2012

Characterization And Epidemiology Of Soybean Vein Necrosis Associated Virus, Jing Zhou

Theses and Dissertations

Soybean vein necrosis disease (SVND) is widespread in major soybean-producing areas in the U.S. The typical disease symptoms exhibit as vein clearing along the main vein, which turn into chlorosis or necrosis as season progresses. Double-stranded RNA isolation and shot gun cloning of symptomatic tissues revealed the presence of a new tospovirus, provisionally named as Soybean vein necrosis associated virus (SVNaV). The presence of the virus has been confirmed in 12 states: Arkansas, Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia and New York. Symptomatic samples collected from eight states (AR, IL, MO, MS, KS, TN, MD and ...