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Theses/Dissertations

Health and environmental sciences

University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Medicine and Health Sciences

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Influence Of Strength-Training Exercises On The Functional Fitness In Older Adults, Susie Engle Aug 2016

The Influence Of Strength-Training Exercises On The Functional Fitness In Older Adults, Susie Engle

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of strength-training exercises on the functional fitness in older adults. The original convenience sample consisted of 658 participants who attended group strength-training classes offered through the Cooperative Extension Service. The Senior Fitness Test was used to assess baseline fitness levels at the beginning and end of the 12-week strength-training program. Data was collected from 2008 to 2015. Of the 658 participants, 110 were aged 60 to 94 and presented posttest scores occurring approximately 12 weeks after pretest dates. Of the 110 subjects, 99 were female and 11 were male. The ...


Rice Consumption And Effects Of Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, On Human Health, Ellen Joy Pottgen Aug 2016

Rice Consumption And Effects Of Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, On Human Health, Ellen Joy Pottgen

Theses and Dissertations

Within the United States type 2 diabetes is an ever growing health epidemic. The prevalence in the adult population has quadrupled over the past 30 years and is expected to continue on a similar path in the coming decades. While the cause of type 2 diabetes is multifactorial, it is considered to be an acquired condition related to environmental contributors including poor diet, obesity, and physical inactivity, which may be managed to alter the course or progression of the disease. Preventative or maintenance measures emphasize nutritional intervention strategies, including encouraging individuals to follow a nutrient-dense, high-fiber diet with ample whole-grains ...


Identification Of Biomarkers Associated With Rous Sarcoma Virus-Induced Tumors In Two Divergently Selected Chicken Lines, Ashley Hayden Aug 2016

Identification Of Biomarkers Associated With Rous Sarcoma Virus-Induced Tumors In Two Divergently Selected Chicken Lines, Ashley Hayden

Theses and Dissertations

Poultry has become especially important to genetic research due to breeding feasibility, short generation turnover, and ease of maintaining large populations. The discovery of virus induced cancer has paved the way for further genetic studies. Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV) is a tumor-causing virus that infects poultry. While not prevalent today, it can serve as a model for virus-induced cancer in humans and create additional insight to marker assisted selection in poultry. Genetically selected Arkansas Progressor (AP) and Arkansas Regressor (AR) chicken lines have been established and maintained at the Arkansas Experimental Station (AES) in Fayetteville, AR. Previous research has investigated ...


Comparative Efficacy Of Foaming And Non-Foaming Handsoap In Reduction Of Microorganisms In Handwashing, Danielle Marie Conover May 2016

Comparative Efficacy Of Foaming And Non-Foaming Handsoap In Reduction Of Microorganisms In Handwashing, Danielle Marie Conover

Theses and Dissertations

Handwashing (HW) is a long established method to prevent disease transmission. Ensuring effectiveness of current HW methods is essential for optimal HW and enhanced disease prevention. The objectives of this research were to 1) conduct a survey of soap type and volume in food service establishments in Washington County, Arkansas; 2) investigate how soap type impacts HW behavior; and 3) determine the difference in microbial reduction between foaming (F) and liquid (L) handsoap. For Objective 1, food service establishments in Washington County, AR were selected based on exclusion criteria and random number generations, and handsoap samples were collected to determine ...


A Prediction Model For Acute Core And Lower Extremity Injuries In Division 1 Collegiate Football Players, Alexandra Aline Mcdonald May 2016

A Prediction Model For Acute Core And Lower Extremity Injuries In Division 1 Collegiate Football Players, Alexandra Aline Mcdonald

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Various intrinsic factors such as high exposure, poor endurance of core muscles, previous injury, strength deficits, suboptimal neurocognitive function, and orthopedic abnormalities have been found as predictors for sprains and strains among collegiate football players. Objective: Assess the applicability of pre-participation assessments as predictors of core or lower extremity injury. Design: Cohort Study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football program. Patients or Other Participants: Athletes who underwent mandatory pre-participation examinations before preseason football training over two consecutive seasons (n=225). Main Outcome Measure(s): Associations between preseason protocols and injury incidence for core and lower extremity injuries ...


The Effects Of Hypohydration On Neurocognitive, Balance, Vestibular Ocular Motor Functions And Mood State, Satoshi Iida May 2016

The Effects Of Hypohydration On Neurocognitive, Balance, Vestibular Ocular Motor Functions And Mood State, Satoshi Iida

Theses and Dissertations

Inconsistent findings have been observed on the impact of hydration state on cognitive functions. The isolated effect of hypohydration on neurocognitive performance, balance, vestibular ocular motor function and mood outcomes in widely used concussion assessment tools has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate how hypohydration affected the results in concussion testing batteries. A single-blind randomized crossover design was used. Thirteen healthy males (22 ± 4y, 180.9 ± 5.7cm) without history of concussion within the past six months or any condition or disease that could influence outcome measurements participated in this study. Each subject completed concussion ...


Effect Of Passive Heating On Males And Females With Elevated Arterial Stiffness, Forrest Blake Robinson May 2016

Effect Of Passive Heating On Males And Females With Elevated Arterial Stiffness, Forrest Blake Robinson

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality in the United States, accounting for about 1 in every 4 deaths annually. Studies have shown that passive heating does have some degree of effect on arterial stiffness, but not much is known about populations with higher stiffness. Objective: To examine the independent effect of core temperature increase during passive heating on arterial stiffness. Methods: Participants visited the lab three times; one familiarization and two experimental trials. The experimental trials consisted of subjects being passively heated in an environment of 40°C / 40% relative humidity (HEAT) or normal ...


Local Modulation And Measurement Of Macrophage-Derived Bioactive Proteins From Implanted Biomaterials In Rat, Geetika Bajpai May 2015

Local Modulation And Measurement Of Macrophage-Derived Bioactive Proteins From Implanted Biomaterials In Rat, Geetika Bajpai

Theses and Dissertations

Fibrosis around the implanted medical devices is a severe problem that can plague long-term device reliability. Activation of macrophage phenotype (macrophage polarization) has emerged as a new and possible means for reducing fibrosis in the fields of biomaterials and regenerative medicine. Macrophages are phagocytic cells that respond to microenvironmental cues that direct their phenotype. Macrophage activation has been widely studied in mouse and human in the context of tumor biology, yet little information is available regarding how macrophage activation could be used in a biomaterials context. Further, rats rather than mice are the common subjects in biomaterials experiments. A significant ...


The Effect Of Balance-Based Torso-Weighting On Mobility, Gait, Balance, Postural Control, And Falls Efficacy In Mobility Limited Older Adults, Jennifer L. Vincenzo May 2015

The Effect Of Balance-Based Torso-Weighting On Mobility, Gait, Balance, Postural Control, And Falls Efficacy In Mobility Limited Older Adults, Jennifer L. Vincenzo

Theses and Dissertations

Exercise is a known intervention to prevent fall risk among older adults; however, adherence is poor. Therefore, it is of interest to determine if other interventions improve function and decrease fall risk among older adults. Balance-Based Torso-Weighting (BBTW) is a non-exercise intervention that improves functional measures among adults with multiple sclerosis, yet the effectiveness of BBTW has not been assessed among older adults without progressive neurological disorders. We conducted a double-blind, randomized study to analyze the effect of BBTW on functional measures and falls efficacy among community-dwelling, mobility limited older adults after 5 days of wearing BalanceWear® for 4 hours ...


Effects Of Mild Hypohydration And Hyperthermia On Cognition And Mood In Obese And Non-Obese Females, Jenna Marie Burchfield May 2015

Effects Of Mild Hypohydration And Hyperthermia On Cognition And Mood In Obese And Non-Obese Females, Jenna Marie Burchfield

Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: Information regarding effects of hypohydration (HY) and hyperthermia (HT) on cognition, mood and development of symptoms is conflicting since the two conditions often confound each other. Further, although obese individuals may have physiological impairments during heat stress, whether psychological impairments occur with HY and HT is unknown. PURPOSE: To assess the independent and combined effects of mild HY and HT on cognition, mood, and the development of symptoms in obese and non-obese females. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy females (11 non-obese, 22±2y, 61±6kg, 25±4% body fat; 11 obese, 22±2y, 80±18kg, 44±5% body fat) volunteered in ...


Impact Of Healthy Lifestyle Choices On Smoking Behavior Among College Students Who Smoke Cigarettes, Mitchell Jenkins May 2014

Impact Of Healthy Lifestyle Choices On Smoking Behavior Among College Students Who Smoke Cigarettes, Mitchell Jenkins

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the impact certain healthy lifestyle choices had on smoking behavior among college students who smoke cigarettes. Even with continued reduction in prevalence, cigarette smoking is still the leading cause of preventable death in America. With that in mind, it is important to continue to identify factors that relate to decreased tobacco usage. Secondary data from the American College Health Association's bi-yearly National College Health Assessment was used for this study. This assessment/survey encompasses college students' habits, behaviors, and perceptions regarding prevalent health topics. The sample for this study consisted of 14,515 college students who ...


Effect Of Functional Starch In Brown Rice And Grain Sorghum On Plasma Glucose And Insulin Responses In Humans, Nicole Marie Poquette Dec 2013

Effect Of Functional Starch In Brown Rice And Grain Sorghum On Plasma Glucose And Insulin Responses In Humans, Nicole Marie Poquette

Theses and Dissertations

Diabetes and obesity are chronic illnesses increasing at dramatic rates in the U.S. and around the world. Research has looked to prevent or control diabetes and obesity through functional ingredients such as healthy-dietary carbohydrates to control blood glucose levels. Starch is a principle carbohydrate, which influences blood glucose levels, and measuring starch digestibility fractions can help predict the glucose response in the body. The objectives of this study were to investigate the functional starch content of parboiled brown rice flour and grain sorghum flour, and measure the effects on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels of 14 and 10 ...


Development Of Novel Antifungal Peptides Based On A Natural Model Of Histatin-5 Peptide, Duy Tu Nguyen Dec 2013

Development Of Novel Antifungal Peptides Based On A Natural Model Of Histatin-5 Peptide, Duy Tu Nguyen

Theses and Dissertations

Our research group is working toward the development of novel antifungal peptides based on a natural model of peptide histatin-5. Histatin-5 is found in human saliva and known to protect our body against oral infections by Candida species. Candidiasis, or an infection caused by Candida species, is considered one of the most medically important fungal infections worldwide. Blood stream infections caused by Candida species are the fourth leading cause of hospital-acquired fungal infections that is associated with high mortality rates and high costs of treatment. This study investigated the modes of action of histatin-5 with the use of one 16-mer ...


In Vitro Analysis Of Short Chain Fatty Acids And Human Fecal Microbiota Stimulated By Pectin Sources, Byungjick Min Dec 2013

In Vitro Analysis Of Short Chain Fatty Acids And Human Fecal Microbiota Stimulated By Pectin Sources, Byungjick Min

Theses and Dissertations

As interest increases for colonic health, various studies have been conducted to investigate functional ingredients for host health and prevention of chronic disease in humans such as colon cancer and Type 2 diabetes. In particular dietary fiber has been reported to have beneficial effects on colonic health. More recently, dietary fiber has been categorized based on its characteristics and numerous studies have been conducted to determine correlations with chronic diseases. Pectin is a naturally occurring biopolymer that has been used in various applications for purposes of pharmaceutical and biotechnology. Pectin is a soluble dietary fiber and can be entirely fermented ...


Design, Development, And Characterization Of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides For Pharmaceutical Applications, Yazan H. Akkam Aug 2013

Design, Development, And Characterization Of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides For Pharmaceutical Applications, Yazan H. Akkam

Theses and Dissertations

Candida species are the fourth leading cause of nosocomial infection. The increased incidence of drug-resistant Candida species has emphasized the need for new antifungal drugs. Histatin 5 is a naturally occurring human salivary antifungal peptide and the first line of defense against infections of the oral cavity. This research has focused on understanding the activity of histatin 5, and subsequently designing novel peptides that may serve as models for the further development of therapeutics to treat fungal infection.

This objective has been achieved in three steps: studying the structural requirement of histatin 5 involved in antifungal activity, the identification of ...


Characterization Of Host Immune Responses To Eimeria Adenoeides Infection In Turkey Poults, Ujvala Deepthi Gadde Aug 2013

Characterization Of Host Immune Responses To Eimeria Adenoeides Infection In Turkey Poults, Ujvala Deepthi Gadde

Theses and Dissertations

Coccidiosis is a common enteric disease of turkeys that is caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Eimeria. There are about seven species of Eimeria that affect turkeys and of these E. adenoeides is the most pathogenic and commonly recognized. Infection with Eimeria is known to induce a long lasting protective immunity in chickens, but nothing is known regarding the acquisition of immunity to Eimeria in turkeys. The experiments reported here were aimed at investigating the biological and cellular immune response to E. adenoeides in turkey poults under different conditions of exposure. In experiment 1 (Chapter II), 20 day ...


The Relationship Among Ankle Function, Functional Capacity, And Body Composition To Balance In Geriatric Populations, Joseph Robert Chaney Aug 2013

The Relationship Among Ankle Function, Functional Capacity, And Body Composition To Balance In Geriatric Populations, Joseph Robert Chaney

Theses and Dissertations

The primary purpose of this research study was to identify significant relationships among measures of ankle strength, ankle range of motion, body composition, and functional capacity to balance ability in geriatric populations which may potentially assist in identifying older individuals with increased risk of falling. A battery of five test (ankle strength assessments, ankle range of motion , DXA, functional fitness, and balance) were administered to 20 participants (6 males, 14 females, mean age 69.78 ± 3.98) that had indicated to be at least 65 years of age or older and no history of falls within the previous 12 months ...


Proteomic Studies Of The Influenza Virus-Human Cell Interactions: The Responses Of Host Cell Protein Expression To Viral Infection And The Novel Host Proteins That Interact With Virus Protein Ns1, Yimeng Wang May 2013

Proteomic Studies Of The Influenza Virus-Human Cell Interactions: The Responses Of Host Cell Protein Expression To Viral Infection And The Novel Host Proteins That Interact With Virus Protein Ns1, Yimeng Wang

Theses and Dissertations

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) continue to be a threat to human health. Despite extensive studies, the mechanisms underlying the IAVs-host interactions during IAV infection remain elusive. We employed quantitative proteomic methods to systematically explore the host cell protein expression responses to IAV infection and examine the function of a critical IAV protein called NS1 by identifying its host binding partners. Specifically, we used a 2-dimentional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) based proteomic method to screen host proteins whose expression was substantially altered by IAV. One critical protein named IκB kinase-gamma (IKKγ) was found to be significantly down-regulated during IAV infection. Functional studies ...


The Role Of Antioxidant Rich Berries In The Prevention Of Postmenopausal Bone Loss, Lydia Karimi Kaume Aug 2012

The Role Of Antioxidant Rich Berries In The Prevention Of Postmenopausal Bone Loss, Lydia Karimi Kaume

Theses and Dissertations

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most prevalent form of osteoporosis and results in fragility fractures. Smoking is one of the major risk factors for osteoporosis and is known to aggravate bone loss in postmenopausal women due to increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Diet-based interventions using berries have shown bone protective affects in animal studies partially due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of their phenolic compounds. The goal of this research was to determine the effects of antioxidant-rich fruits in the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss. Our first study examined the dose dependent effects of blackberries in preventing bone loss in an ...


Effects Of Head Position And Head-Supported Mass On Nerve Function Of The Flexor Carpi Radialis Muscle In Healthy Individuals, Bethany Lauren Shivers Aug 2012

Effects Of Head Position And Head-Supported Mass On Nerve Function Of The Flexor Carpi Radialis Muscle In Healthy Individuals, Bethany Lauren Shivers

Theses and Dissertations

Long-term exposure to head-supported mass (HSM) has been linked with spinal degeneration including foraminal stenosis and disc deterioration. Anecdotally, HSM has also been linked to neck and arm pain and muscle atrophy, but nerve function has not been tested specifically. The combined effect of various head positions and HSM may be sufficient to compress the nerve root in aviators and Soldiers during job performance, potentially leading to short- and long-term neuromuscular effects. The Hoffmann (H) reflex, a well-established measure of nerve function, has shown to be sensitive to changes in nerve root space which occurs with different head positions. This ...


The Use Of Cortisol And Hba1c As Biomarkers Of Stress In University Administrators, Jacilyn Marie Olson Aug 2012

The Use Of Cortisol And Hba1c As Biomarkers Of Stress In University Administrators, Jacilyn Marie Olson

Theses and Dissertations

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of perceived stress and cardiorespiratory fitness on cortisol and HbA1c, biomarkers of stress, in a group of select university administrators. The impact of gender on these relationships was of special concern. METHODS: University administrators with job titles of Chancellor, Provost, Vice Chancellors and Vice Provosts of the university, and Deans and Associate Deans at the college level were recruited. Twenty-five administrators (15 males and 10 females) agreed to participate and completed a battery of assessments that included completion of the University Administrative Concerns Questionnaire, a finger-stick blood test for ...


A Role Of Environmental Components In Autoimmune Vitiligo Of Smyth Line Chickens, Lei Dong May 2012

A Role Of Environmental Components In Autoimmune Vitiligo Of Smyth Line Chickens, Lei Dong

Theses and Dissertations

The Smyth line (SL) of chickens is a well-established animal model for the study of spontaneous autoimmune vitiligo, displaying all the characteristics of human vitiligo. In humans, phenolic derivative 4-tertiary butyl phenol (4-TBP) has been shown to trigger vitiligo in susceptible individuals. In vitiligo-prone SL-chickens, live turkey herpesvirus (HVT) infection at hatch was identified as the most effective trigger of SL-vitiligo expression. This dissertation examined the role of the environmental factors 4-TBP and HVT in the etiology of SL-vitiligo. Specifically, the generation of reactive-oxygen-species by melanocyte-containing feather tissue (MC-FT) and cultured melanocytes in response to 4-TBP exposure in vitro (Study ...


Investigation Of A Locus On Chromosome 9 For Contributions To Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Broilers, Sriram Krishnamoorthy May 2012

Investigation Of A Locus On Chromosome 9 For Contributions To Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Broilers, Sriram Krishnamoorthy

Theses and Dissertations

Although the ascites syndrome in chickens has been investigated for years, it continues to inflict financial losses to the world poultry industry. It is estimated that 8% of the 361 million broiler deaths are due to ascites leading to losses of millions of dollars annually. Efforts to curb the incidence of ascites are typically designed to slow early growth. This limits the birds' ability to show its true genetic potential and impacts later yields. In 1994 lines divergent for susceptibility to ascites were established from a commercial sire line through sibling selection of birds reared at local altitude after testing ...


Interactions Of Nitric Oxide And Superoxide Pathways In Hyperglycemic Endothelial Cells, Steven Clay Rogers May 2012

Interactions Of Nitric Oxide And Superoxide Pathways In Hyperglycemic Endothelial Cells, Steven Clay Rogers

Theses and Dissertations

Cardiovascular complications arising from diabetic hyperglycemia represents one of the leading causes of death and greatest public health challenges of modern societies. Despite state-of-the-art glucose control, diabetic patients remain at a markedly increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The loss of endothelial function (the development of diabetic endothelial dysfunction) has been implicated in the development of numerous diabetic cardiovascular diseases. The endothelial cell produces many vasoactive substances, hormones and cytoprotective biological factors. Endothelial cells are also involved in and affected by the initiation of inflammatory responses through the release and interaction of cytokines and other immune system molecules. Therefore, regulation of ...


Can Antioxidant-Rich Berries Improve Risk Factors Associated With Cardiovascular Disease In Postmenopausal Smokers?, Jordan Alaine Teeple Dec 2011

Can Antioxidant-Rich Berries Improve Risk Factors Associated With Cardiovascular Disease In Postmenopausal Smokers?, Jordan Alaine Teeple

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of smoking on risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and determine the efficacy of antioxidant-rich berries in ameliorating these risk factors in postmenopausal smokers. Menopause and cigarette smoking have been identified as major risk factors for CVD due to a decrease in antioxidant protection, increase in inflammation and oxidative stress, and adverse changes in serum lipids. Antioxidants, specifically flavonoid compounds found in blackberries and blueberries, have been shown to prevent low-density lipoprotein cholesterol oxidation and thus prevent downstream inflammation and oxidative stress. Healthy, postmenopausal nonsmokers (n=14) and smokers ...