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Theses/Dissertations

Health and environmental sciences

University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Human and Clinical Nutrition

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Long-Term Supplementation With Leucine Does Not Prevent Development Of Obesity In Rats Fed A High-Fat Diet, Dameon Smith Aug 2016

Long-Term Supplementation With Leucine Does Not Prevent Development Of Obesity In Rats Fed A High-Fat Diet, Dameon Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Excess dietary fat consumption has been implicated in the development of obesity and diabetes. Obesity can be characterized by a disproportionate increase in fat mass compared to lean body mass. However, if muscle mass can be increased or maintained in obesity, this may facilitate weight loss by increasing the body’s overall metabolic capacity. Historically, supplementation with the branched-chain amino acid leucine has been shown to increase muscle protein synthesis via the protein kinase mTORC1. Recent studies suggest that supplementation with leucine also has the potential to reduce weight gain and fat deposition in high-fat fed, obese mice. The objective ...


Rice Consumption And Effects Of Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, On Human Health, Ellen Joy Pottgen Aug 2016

Rice Consumption And Effects Of Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, On Human Health, Ellen Joy Pottgen

Theses and Dissertations

Within the United States type 2 diabetes is an ever growing health epidemic. The prevalence in the adult population has quadrupled over the past 30 years and is expected to continue on a similar path in the coming decades. While the cause of type 2 diabetes is multifactorial, it is considered to be an acquired condition related to environmental contributors including poor diet, obesity, and physical inactivity, which may be managed to alter the course or progression of the disease. Preventative or maintenance measures emphasize nutritional intervention strategies, including encouraging individuals to follow a nutrient-dense, high-fiber diet with ample whole-grains ...


The Impact Of Fast Food Marketing On Millennials, Kabo Tuelo Segokgo Aug 2016

The Impact Of Fast Food Marketing On Millennials, Kabo Tuelo Segokgo

Theses and Dissertations

Fast food marketing is an effective tool used by businesses to build food brand recognition among their consumers. Increased fast food consumption has been linked to the increase in high calorie consumption. This study sought among Millennials to assess the association between fast food marketing and consumption of fast food. It further dealt with perceptions on the relationship between fast food consumption and weight gain. A convenience sample of 507 participants was used to collect data from University of Arkansas’ students through an online survey and an in person survey. An independent sample t test and multivariate analysis of variance ...


The Effect Of Protein Quantity And Quality At Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Appetite And Metabolic Health, Brianna Lynne Neumann May 2016

The Effect Of Protein Quantity And Quality At Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Appetite And Metabolic Health, Brianna Lynne Neumann

Theses and Dissertations

Obesity is a global health concern and, within the United States, the current obesity rate is 36% and projected to double within the next two decades. Obesity is linked to many chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease and type 2 diabetes. In young females, weight gain (5-11 kg) between the ages of 20-30 years increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders later in life. The cause of obesity is multifactorial in nature, however fundamentally weight gain occurs when energy intake is greater than energy expended (i.e. calories in > calories out). Therefore, identifying and validating ...


Autophagy Regulation After Diet And Exercise In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Megan Elizabeth Rosa Jan 2016

Autophagy Regulation After Diet And Exercise In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Megan Elizabeth Rosa

Theses and Dissertations

Along with the rise in obesity, rates of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have also increased. NAFLD may begin with fat accumulation in the liver, but can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, and eventual cirrhosis. With no pharmacological treatment for NASH, lifestyle interventions appear vital to maintaining liver health. Previous work has shown aberrant mitochondrial content/quality and autophagy in models of NAFLD. Exercise is known to improve mitochondrial health and possibly autophagy, thus autophagy may be a key regulatory factor for treatment of obesity induced-NAFLD. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine how weight loss from ...


Portion Size Communication By Means Of Package Design, Tami J. Strickland Dec 2015

Portion Size Communication By Means Of Package Design, Tami J. Strickland

Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative study assessed consumers’ current methods of determining portion sizing of chicken products and examined their perceptions of how effectively three package designs communicate portion size. Everett M. Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations (DI) Theory analyzes the characteristics of the consumer of the innovation (adopter) and the impact these characteristics have on adopting new innovations. The innovation in this study will be the prototype packaging. Focusing on Rogers’ adopter characteristics and defined proprietary consumer segmentation characteristics, this study will be pivotal for future package design projects targeting nutrition education.

Focus group questions were scrutinized through a pilot study and revised ...


The Validity Of Urine Color Self-Assessment As An Index Of Hydration In Males, Daniel Layne Nixon Dec 2015

The Validity Of Urine Color Self-Assessment As An Index Of Hydration In Males, Daniel Layne Nixon

Theses and Dissertations

While water intake is so important, there are few practical hydration assessment techniques for the general population to use on a daily basis. The present study examined the accuracy of self-assessed urine color (Ucol) as a potential hydration assessment tool. Male college aged subjects provided a urine sample into a custom built urinal (n=76; 1.79±0.76 m, 83.9±16.0 kg). The urinal contained a picture of the 1-8 color scale and a light and dark urine color scale. Subjects were asked to give their urine color estimation as a whole number integer and to estimate ...


Effects Of Soybean Pectin On Blood Glucose And Insulin Responses In Healthy Men, Melissa Ann Jones Jul 2015

Effects Of Soybean Pectin On Blood Glucose And Insulin Responses In Healthy Men, Melissa Ann Jones

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study was to examine the effects of soy pectin on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin responses in healthy adult males␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣ intestinal microbiota to determine if differences in weight or body mass index would be linked to differences in microbiota populations. Pectin is a soluble fiber with demonstrated health benefits such as the ability to lower blood glucose and cholesterol, increase satiety leading to lower caloric intake, improve insulin resistance and lower inflammation. These benefits suggest that pectin may help in prevention and treatment of type II diabetes. Soy pectin is extracted from hulls, a waste product ...


Effects Of Mild Hypohydration And Hyperthermia On Cognition And Mood In Obese And Non-Obese Females, Jenna Marie Burchfield May 2015

Effects Of Mild Hypohydration And Hyperthermia On Cognition And Mood In Obese And Non-Obese Females, Jenna Marie Burchfield

Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: Information regarding effects of hypohydration (HY) and hyperthermia (HT) on cognition, mood and development of symptoms is conflicting since the two conditions often confound each other. Further, although obese individuals may have physiological impairments during heat stress, whether psychological impairments occur with HY and HT is unknown. PURPOSE: To assess the independent and combined effects of mild HY and HT on cognition, mood, and the development of symptoms in obese and non-obese females. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy females (11 non-obese, 22±2y, 61±6kg, 25±4% body fat; 11 obese, 22±2y, 80±18kg, 44±5% body fat) volunteered in ...


Hypohydration And Mood State In Free-Living Males And Females, Thomas Edward Vidal May 2015

Hypohydration And Mood State In Free-Living Males And Females, Thomas Edward Vidal

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has shown that acute dehydration can result in changes in mood. These changes have been reported in less than a 1% loss in total body water. However, the effect of hypohydration (i.e., reflected through high urine concentration) on mood in free-living conditions has not been studied. PURPOSE: The present study was designed to determine if hydration status is associated with mood within the general population under free-living conditions. METHODS: A group of 103 apparently healthy subjects (49 male, 54 female, 41±14 y, 1.7±0.1 m, 76.1±16.9 kg) completed three visits separated ...


Impact Of Healthy Lifestyle Choices On Smoking Behavior Among College Students Who Smoke Cigarettes, Mitchell Jenkins May 2014

Impact Of Healthy Lifestyle Choices On Smoking Behavior Among College Students Who Smoke Cigarettes, Mitchell Jenkins

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the impact certain healthy lifestyle choices had on smoking behavior among college students who smoke cigarettes. Even with continued reduction in prevalence, cigarette smoking is still the leading cause of preventable death in America. With that in mind, it is important to continue to identify factors that relate to decreased tobacco usage. Secondary data from the American College Health Association's bi-yearly National College Health Assessment was used for this study. This assessment/survey encompasses college students' habits, behaviors, and perceptions regarding prevalent health topics. The sample for this study consisted of 14,515 college students who ...


Effect Of Functional Starch In Brown Rice And Grain Sorghum On Plasma Glucose And Insulin Responses In Humans, Nicole Marie Poquette Dec 2013

Effect Of Functional Starch In Brown Rice And Grain Sorghum On Plasma Glucose And Insulin Responses In Humans, Nicole Marie Poquette

Theses and Dissertations

Diabetes and obesity are chronic illnesses increasing at dramatic rates in the U.S. and around the world. Research has looked to prevent or control diabetes and obesity through functional ingredients such as healthy-dietary carbohydrates to control blood glucose levels. Starch is a principle carbohydrate, which influences blood glucose levels, and measuring starch digestibility fractions can help predict the glucose response in the body. The objectives of this study were to investigate the functional starch content of parboiled brown rice flour and grain sorghum flour, and measure the effects on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels of 14 and 10 ...


The Impact Of Parent Education On Parental Feeding Practices, Larra Kolby Brawley Aug 2013

The Impact Of Parent Education On Parental Feeding Practices, Larra Kolby Brawley

Theses and Dissertations

This research looked at the potential impact that parent education may have on the feeding practices of parents of young children. Since eating behaviors are a national concern for both children and adults, it's important to examine how we can create not just healthier children but, as a result, healthier adults. This study utilized an intervention that was an adapted version of a healthy eating curriculum created by Sesame Workshop and the California WIC association with the intention of improving parental feeding practices through a behavior-based approach. Previous research with this curriculum has addressed only low-income populations, with a ...


Food Environment And Childhood Obesity, Yucong Jiao Aug 2012

Food Environment And Childhood Obesity, Yucong Jiao

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines whether children's food environment, especially food stores that have fresh produce, affects obesity prevalence among elementary school children in the state of Arkansas. Misclassified food outlet types in the Dun and Bradstreet commercial data set were first corrected and then food environment measures were computed and aggregated to geographic regions corresponding to school attendance areas. After applying classical panel estimation, it was found that the fixed effects model fit the data best. Results indicate that an additional supermarket within a one-mile radial of the census neighborhood block center will bring down childhood obesity prevalence by 0 ...


Can Antioxidant-Rich Berries Improve Risk Factors Associated With Cardiovascular Disease In Postmenopausal Smokers?, Jordan Alaine Teeple Dec 2011

Can Antioxidant-Rich Berries Improve Risk Factors Associated With Cardiovascular Disease In Postmenopausal Smokers?, Jordan Alaine Teeple

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of smoking on risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and determine the efficacy of antioxidant-rich berries in ameliorating these risk factors in postmenopausal smokers. Menopause and cigarette smoking have been identified as major risk factors for CVD due to a decrease in antioxidant protection, increase in inflammation and oxidative stress, and adverse changes in serum lipids. Antioxidants, specifically flavonoid compounds found in blackberries and blueberries, have been shown to prevent low-density lipoprotein cholesterol oxidation and thus prevent downstream inflammation and oxidative stress. Healthy, postmenopausal nonsmokers (n=14) and smokers ...