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Gonadal Intersex In Teleosts: Mechanisms, Molecular Biomarkers And Diagnostic Assays, Ahmed M.E. Abdel-Moneim Mohamed Dec 2016

Gonadal Intersex In Teleosts: Mechanisms, Molecular Biomarkers And Diagnostic Assays, Ahmed M.E. Abdel-Moneim Mohamed

Open Access Dissertations

Natural and synthetic estrogenic and androgenic compounds are continuously released into aquatic ecosystems. Exposure of teleost fishes to these contaminants can negatively impact sex differentiation and reproductive output. Specifically, development of gonadal intersex in gonochoristic (fixed sex) fish species has been studied extensively in relation to exposure to this class of compounds. The main objectives of this dissertation were to: 1) conduct field and laboratory studies to investigate the molecular signaling pathways behind the development of gonadal intersex; and 2) establish molecular biomarkers and assays for testing the ability of environmental pollutants to develop this condition using a battery of ...


The Relationship Between Protein And Phosphorus Digestion And Retention In Growing Pigs And Broiler Chickens, Pengcheng Xue Dec 2016

The Relationship Between Protein And Phosphorus Digestion And Retention In Growing Pigs And Broiler Chickens, Pengcheng Xue

Open Access Dissertations

Xue, Pengcheng. Ph.D., Purdue University, December 2016. The Relationship between Protein and Phosphorus Digestion and Retention in Growing Pigs and Broiler Chickens. Major Professor: Dr. Layi Adeola. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between protein and P digestion and retention in growing pigs and broiler chickens. The methodology of determining the digestibility of AA and P and the effect of dietary N and P on the digestion and retention of these two nutrients were investigated.

An experiment was conducted in growing pigs to investigate the additivity of AID or SID of CP and AA in ...


The Effects Of Dietary Probiotic Inclusion On Skeletal Health Of Poultry And Its Possible Mechanisms, Feifei Yan Dec 2016

The Effects Of Dietary Probiotic Inclusion On Skeletal Health Of Poultry And Its Possible Mechanisms, Feifei Yan

Open Access Dissertations

Probiotics are live microorganisms which may confer health benefits on the host when administered in appropriate amounts. Numerous studies have shown that probiotics improve bone health in humans and rodents with less information available on the skeletal health of avians given probiotics. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of probiotic supplementation on bone health of egg-laying and meat-type chickens. Dietary supplementation of a multi-species based probiotic reduced the percentage of shell-less eggs beginning at 4 wk following treatment and increased tibial and femoral bone mineral density in egg-laying hens at 7 wk post-treatment. Similarly, bone mineralization ...


Quantifying Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Dynamics With Mechanistically-Based Biogeochemistry Models And In Situ And Remotely Sensed Data, Shaoqing Liu Dec 2016

Quantifying Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Dynamics With Mechanistically-Based Biogeochemistry Models And In Situ And Remotely Sensed Data, Shaoqing Liu

Open Access Dissertations

Terrestrial ecosystem plays a critical role in the global carbon cycle and climate system. Therefore, it is important to accurately quantify the carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystem under future climatic change condition. This dissertation evaluates the regional carbon dynamics by using upscaling approach, mechanistically-based biogeochemistry models and in situ and remotely sensed data.

The upscaling studies based on FLUXNET network has provided us the spatial and temporal pattern of the carbon fluxes but it fails to consider the atmospheric CO2 effect given its important physiological role in carbon assimilation. In the second chapter, we consider the effect of atmospheric CO2 ...


Nanoparticle Toxicity And Molecular Mechanisms In Fish: A Case Study With Silver Nanoparticles, Jiejun Gao Dec 2016

Nanoparticle Toxicity And Molecular Mechanisms In Fish: A Case Study With Silver Nanoparticles, Jiejun Gao

Open Access Dissertations

Nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in a myriad of commercial and industrial products making their entry to the environment a likely event. NPs have unique physical-chemical properties that result from their small size and high surface area to volume ratio, making them highly reactive and potentially toxic. In Chapter 1, we summarize the effects and mechanisms of metal-based NPs on the vascular system. In vitro studies have shown that NPs are anti-angiogenic because they cause inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis of endothelial cells resulting in increased permeability and decreased proliferation and migration. Whole animal studies examining the effects of NPs ...


Repurposing Non-Antimicrobial Drugs To Treat Multi-Drug Resistant Bacterial And Fungal Infections, Shankar Thangamani Dec 2016

Repurposing Non-Antimicrobial Drugs To Treat Multi-Drug Resistant Bacterial And Fungal Infections, Shankar Thangamani

Open Access Dissertations

Bacterial and fungal resistance to conventional antimicrobials is a burgeoning global health epidemic that necessitates urgent action. Even more alarming, the development of new antimicrobials to treat these multidrug-resistant pathogens has not kept pace with the rapid emergence of resistance to current antimicrobials. Antimicrobial drug development through the traditional de novo process is a risky venture given the significant financial and time investment required by researchers and limited success rate of translating these compounds to the clinical setting. This has led researchers to mine existing libraries of clinical molecules in order to repurpose old drugs for new applications (as antimicrobials ...


Lower Food Web Dynamics In Lakes Michigan And Huron: Spatial And Temporal Responses To Recent Oligotrophication, Margaret Hutton Stadig Dec 2016

Lower Food Web Dynamics In Lakes Michigan And Huron: Spatial And Temporal Responses To Recent Oligotrophication, Margaret Hutton Stadig

Open Access Theses

Nutrient abatement programs, originally enacted to counter eutrophication have successfully suppressed nutrient loads and relative primary production in marine and freshwater systems. Recently, the additive impacts of invasive filter feeders have further reduced offshore primary production in several aquatic systems throughout the world. It has been hypothesized that the biological activity of these invasive species may sequester nutrients within the nearshore benthic environment, creating steep gradients in primary production between nearshore and offshore habitats. In the Laurentian Great Lakes, past studies of oligotrophication have primarily focused on food web responses in offshore habitats. Organisms at higher trophic levels have been ...


Mathematical Analysis Of Feedback Targets Of Bmp Signaling In Drosophila Embryonic Development, Yan Luo Dec 2016

Mathematical Analysis Of Feedback Targets Of Bmp Signaling In Drosophila Embryonic Development, Yan Luo

Open Access Theses

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) drive a range of cellular processes especially in the early stages of embryonic development. This family of proteins acts as one of the most important extracellular signals in development pattern formation across the animal kingdom. Cells in embryos differentiate into different cell types in response to the concentration level of BMP. This complex process is regulated by multiple regulators that serve to tune the signal response.

Extensive experimental and computational research has been performed to analyze BMP regulation in Drosophila, a widely studied model organism, and has advanced our understanding of animal development. Because of BMP ...


Nutrient Runoff And Leachate After Land-Application Of Digestate In A Laboratory Study Using Rainfall Simulations, Min Xiao Aug 2016

Nutrient Runoff And Leachate After Land-Application Of Digestate In A Laboratory Study Using Rainfall Simulations, Min Xiao

Open Access Theses

There has been an increasing number of anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States during the past two decades. Anaerobic digestion of manure allows production of renewable energy and generation of stabilized and nutrient-rich digestate that can be used as organic fertilizer. However, the majority of the existed studies using liquid digestate as fertilizer only focused on the effectiveness for crop yield, nutrient content and microorganism in soil. There is insufficient understanding in the environmental impact of digestate land-application. This laboratory study used six treatments including four different liquid digestate treatments, a chemical fertilizer treatment, and an unfertilized ...


X-Ray Fluorescence For Quantification Of Lead And Strontium In Vivo, Aaron James Specht Aug 2016

X-Ray Fluorescence For Quantification Of Lead And Strontium In Vivo, Aaron James Specht

Open Access Dissertations

Lead (Pb) is a toxicant well known for its effects on almost every organ system in the body. Pb use in industry has declined since removal of Pb from gasoline, but many developing countries still have significant use of Pb. Exposure to Pb has been linked with diseases causing neurodegeneration and thus have lasting effects long after the initial exposure. Another metal, strontium (Sr), has been linked with bone disease in particular situations and shown to have uses in treating osteoporosis as a supplement. However, there are no studies of the effects of Sr using a meaningful biomarker. The most ...


Influence Of Dietary Polyphenols On Carbohydrate Intestinal Digestion And Absorption, Sydney E. Moser Aug 2016

Influence Of Dietary Polyphenols On Carbohydrate Intestinal Digestion And Absorption, Sydney E. Moser

Open Access Dissertations

Both epidemiological and clinical evidence support the notion that polyphenol rich foods and beverages may modify glycemic response, glucose homeostasis and subsequent risk of Type-2 diabetes. In vitro evidence typically derived from experiments with pure phenolics and phenolic rich extracts have pointed to this benefit being associated with two potential mechanisms: (1) the ability of specific polyphenolics to inhibit carbohydrate digestion (amylase and glucosidase) and (2) polyphenolic inhibition of intestinal glucose transport. While the high potential of these activities is evident, little is actually known regarding the extent to which these benefits are extendable to the actual food matrix these ...


Intestinal Adaptation To Repeated Exposure Of Flavonoid-Rich Foods: In Vitro And Clinical Data, Bejamin W. Redan Aug 2016

Intestinal Adaptation To Repeated Exposure Of Flavonoid-Rich Foods: In Vitro And Clinical Data, Bejamin W. Redan

Open Access Dissertations

Interest in application of flavonoids for chronic disease prevention has grown significantly, but the low oral bioavailability of these compounds from acute doses is commonly highlighted as a limitation when considering their biological significance. Still, the impact of broad dietary patterns such as repeated exposure on flavonoid’s absorption, metabolism, and eventual efficacy is critical to consider since evidence suggests that their bioavailability may be enhanced with repeated exposure. To fill this gap in knowledge, this dissertation will focus on three major areas including characterization of flavonoid metabolites, in addition to use of in vitro models and clinical work to ...


Intestinal Cytoplasmic Lipid Droplets, Associated Proteins, And The Regulation Of Dietary Fat Absorption, Theresa M. D'Aquila Aug 2016

Intestinal Cytoplasmic Lipid Droplets, Associated Proteins, And The Regulation Of Dietary Fat Absorption, Theresa M. D'Aquila

Open Access Dissertations

Dietary fat provides essential nutrients, contributes to energy balance, and regulates blood lipid concentrations. These functions are important to health, but can also become dysregulated and contribute to diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The small intestine absorbs dietary fat through an efficient multi step process of digestion, uptake, metabolism, and secretion or storage. When dietary fat is taken up by the absorptive cells of the small intestine, enterocytes, it can be secreted into circulation where it contributes to blood lipid levels or temporarily stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs). The objective of this dissertation is to investigate ...


Influence Of Dietary Component Manipulation And Feed Management Strategies On Growth And Rumen Development Of Weaned Dairy Heifers, Tana Shea Dennis Aug 2016

Influence Of Dietary Component Manipulation And Feed Management Strategies On Growth And Rumen Development Of Weaned Dairy Heifers, Tana Shea Dennis

Open Access Dissertations

Well-developed replacement heifers provide a central foundation for the continued success of the dairy industry. Emphasis on improving pre-weaned calf nutrition has predominated in the industry, but opportunities exist to improve post-weaning heifer nutrition and management. We aimed to evaluate common feed management strategies seen in the industry and their effects on growth, feed efficiency (G:F), and rumen development of calves from birth to 8 mo of age using pen- and individually-fed animal trials. Little information exists regarding post-weaning performance and rumen development of calves fed conventional or high planes of nutrition pre-weaning; therefore, we evaluated two milk replacer ...


The Effects Of Including Almonds In An Energy-Restricted Diet On Weight, Body Composition, Visceral Adipose Tissue, Blood Pressure And Cognitive Function, Jaapna Dhillon Aug 2016

The Effects Of Including Almonds In An Energy-Restricted Diet On Weight, Body Composition, Visceral Adipose Tissue, Blood Pressure And Cognitive Function, Jaapna Dhillon

Open Access Dissertations

Inclusion of almonds in an energy restricted diet has been reported to enhance or have no effect on weight loss. Their effects specifically on visceral fat stores during energy restriction have not been widely examined. Additionally, almond consumption has been associated with reduced blood pressure, but whether this is linked to or is independent of changes of body composition has not been examined. Moreover, almond consumption during energy restriction may be an effective strategy for reversing the negative effects of dieting on cognitive performance. The unique nutrient profile of almonds also has the potential to influence cognitive function post-prandially. The ...


Biochemical Changes In Animal Models Of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Christine E. M. Keller Aug 2016

Biochemical Changes In Animal Models Of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Christine E. M. Keller

Open Access Dissertations

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a completely preventable disease, that has profound effects on life-long health and function of the affected individual. Prevalence estimates of FASD in the United States indicate 33.5 per 1,000 live births are affected with this disorder (Roozen, 2016). FASD is caused by maternal ethanol intake during pregnancy. However, recommendations of the amounts of alcohol safe to drink during pregnancy are not established. Further, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the biochemical pathways modified in prenatal ethanol exposure. Biomarkers are also lacking. Our results demonstrate the vast array of biochemical pathways modified in ...


The Interactive Effects Of Pesticide Exposure And Infectious Disease On Amphibian Hosts, Katherine M. Pochini Aug 2016

The Interactive Effects Of Pesticide Exposure And Infectious Disease On Amphibian Hosts, Katherine M. Pochini

Open Access Theses

Natural systems are home to a multitude of natural and anthropogenic stressors, which draw an array of effects on ecological communities. While these effects have been investigated individually, it is important, given the routine co-occurrence of these stressors, to understand their interactive effects. Pesticide exposure and infectious disease are two common, co-occurring stressors that each have documented detrimental effects on species and, as evidence suggests, may have interactive effects. Moreover, existing research suggests that these interactive effects are highly context dependent, eliciting different results based on species, disease agent, toxin, and environment. Given the variability with which species may experience ...


Pilot Study Of The Effect Of High-Protein, Renal-Appropriate Meals During Hemodialysis On Intradialytic Hypotension In Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients, Mun Sun Choi Aug 2016

Pilot Study Of The Effect Of High-Protein, Renal-Appropriate Meals During Hemodialysis On Intradialytic Hypotension In Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients, Mun Sun Choi

Open Access Theses

Background: In the United Sates (US), more than 400,000 people have end stage renal disease (ESRD) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5D requiring in-center hemodialysis (HD), and approximately $35 billion is spent annually in healthcare costs. Maintenance HD patients with ESRD have increased protein (1.2 g/kg/d) and energy (30-35 kcal/kg/d) requirements, but the average protein and energy intake in these patients is only 0.8-1.0 g/kg/d and 20-25 kcal/kg/d, respectively. Subsequently, protein-energy wasting (PEW) is common, affecting up to an estimated 75% of maintenance HD patients, and low ...


Manufacturer Perspectives On Content Transparency And Material Health In The Us Building Products Industry, Alexandra A. Muller Aug 2016

Manufacturer Perspectives On Content Transparency And Material Health In The Us Building Products Industry, Alexandra A. Muller

Open Access Theses

Flawed U.S. federal regulation of chemicals has resulted in a materials market that undervalues human and environmental health in favor of the more traditional attributes of price, performance and aesthetics. In the building products industry, global, dynamic supply chains and proprietary information concerns further complicate the task of assessing the material health of products.

Voluntary material health programs in the green building industry are intended to incentivize the manufacture and selection of safer products by getting companies to gather and assess ingredient, hazard and risk information from their supply chain. Building product manufacturers considered early adopters of the main ...


Immune Modulating Functions By Soypeptide Lunasin In Cancer Immunotherapy, Chun-Yu Tung May 2016

Immune Modulating Functions By Soypeptide Lunasin In Cancer Immunotherapy, Chun-Yu Tung

Open Access Dissertations

Chemotherapy is currently the mainstay of treatment for most cancer patients. Despite its efficacy in eliminating cancer cells, a high percentage of chemotherapy patients eventually relapse or suffer progression of the disease. Immunosurveillance is capable of recognizing and eliminating continuously arising transformed mutant cells, and thus cancer immunotherapy is one of the emerging therapeutic strategies that harnesses the power of the immune system to eradicate chemotherapy-resistant cancerous cells. However, the adverse side effects of chemotherapy impede the therapeutic effects of immunotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrate that lymphoma patients are refractory to clinical immunotherapy because of chemotherapy-induced immune dysfunction. In addition ...


Investigating The Role Of The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor Mist1 In Pancreatic Diseases, Anju Karki Apr 2016

Investigating The Role Of The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor Mist1 In Pancreatic Diseases, Anju Karki

Open Access Dissertations

Acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas are dedicated to synthesize, package and secrete immense quantities of pro-digestive enzymes to maintain proper metabolic homeostasis for the organism. Dysregulation of enzyme secretion in acinar cells can give rise to exocrine diseases including acute pancreatitis (AP), a disease that targets acinar cells, leading to acinar-ductal metaplasia (ADM), inflammation and fibrosis—events that can transition into the earliest stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The focus of this thesis is to interrogate transcriptional regulatory networks that are susceptible to AP and the role that these networks play in acinar cell and exocrine pancreas responses ...


Behavioral Responses And Policy Evaluation: Revisiting Water And Fuel Policies, Shanxia Sun Apr 2016

Behavioral Responses And Policy Evaluation: Revisiting Water And Fuel Policies, Shanxia Sun

Open Access Dissertations

In my dissertation, I examine how policies regulating agricultural production and clean technology impact the environment. I focus on policies affecting water depletion, water pollution, and fuel consumption. I assess their cost-effectiveness by modeling and quantifying the behavioral responses of farmers and households.

My first essay focuses on decreasing groundwater depletion through increasing irrigation efficiency in Mexico. I quantify the impacts of different sources of inefficiency on groundwater extraction, and I evaluate the effectiveness of alternative policies that aim to reduce the over-extraction of groundwater. I find that mechanisms of electricity cost-sharing implemented in many wells have a sizable impact ...


Failures In Adaptive Locomotion In Healthy Young Adults, Michel J. H. Heijnen Apr 2016

Failures In Adaptive Locomotion In Healthy Young Adults, Michel J. H. Heijnen

Open Access Dissertations

Young adults fall most frequently when walking, and trips account for 25% of these falls (Heijnen & Rietdyk, 2016). Common approaches to understanding tripping include the examination of behavior when a stationary obstacle is crossed successfully, or to deliberately trip the participant with a covert obstacle. However, these approaches do not establish the underlying cause of failure; examining inadvertent failures does, as this occurs most often in the field (Heijnen & Rietdyk, 2016). In order to identify the behavior that results in obstacle contact, this dissertation examined gait characteristics during inadvertent failures and manipulated the sensory information available to guide the limb trajectory. Manipulating the availability of sensory information is important to determine the information used to successfully guide the limbs, particularly the trail limb. Three experiments were conducted to systematically examine the role of visual and somatosensory information in young adults ...


Influence Of The 3d Microenvironment On Glioblastoma Migration And Drug Response, Ruth Marisol Herrera Perez Apr 2016

Influence Of The 3d Microenvironment On Glioblastoma Migration And Drug Response, Ruth Marisol Herrera Perez

Open Access Dissertations

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly invasive brain cancer characterized by poor prognosis. Despite significant efforts by the basic and clinical research community our understanding of GBM progression and recurrence has been incremental. Improvements in therapeutic response have been dismal, and GBM continues to be the deadliest tumor of the central nervous system, with patient average survival rate of 12 months. Synergistic relationships that the tumor cells establish with the brain microenvironment have been proven fundamental for successful tumor progression and maintenance. Yet, many in vitro GBM studies are performed in formats that fail to recapitulate the most essential component of ...


Economic And Environmental Impacts Of A Hypothetical Global Gmo Ban, Harrison H. Mahaffey Apr 2016

Economic And Environmental Impacts Of A Hypothetical Global Gmo Ban, Harrison H. Mahaffey

Open Access Theses

The objective of this research is to assess the global economic and greenhouse gas emission impacts of GMO crops. This is done by modeling two counterfactual scenarios and evaluating them apart and in combination. The first scenario models the impact of a global GMO ban. The second scenario models the impact of increased GMO penetration. The focus is on the price and welfare impacts, and land use change greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with GMO technologies. Much of the prior work on the economic impacts of GMO technology has relied on a combination of partial equilibrium analysis and econometric techniques ...


Investigating U.S. Resident Perceptions Of Corporate Social Responsibility In Food And Agriculture, Carissa Jae Morgan Apr 2016

Investigating U.S. Resident Perceptions Of Corporate Social Responsibility In Food And Agriculture, Carissa Jae Morgan

Open Access Theses

Corporations are prioritizing corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities by investing in and actively promoting their social practices. In the U.S. of the modern food supply chain creates a unique challenge for corporations to address concerns about social issues of consumers and non-consumers alike. This study is motivated by the need to better understand individuals’ perceptions of CSR as it pertains to the food supply chain. In April 2015 an online survey collected information from 1,201 U.S. residents with the objective of investigating individuals’ perceptions of relative importance of eight prominent CSR areas relevant to food and agriculture ...


Consonant Discrimination In The Inferior Colliculus Of Young And Aged Rats, Christopher S. Soverns Apr 2016

Consonant Discrimination In The Inferior Colliculus Of Young And Aged Rats, Christopher S. Soverns

Open Access Theses

Complex acoustic stimuli are thoroughly encoded and processed along the primary auditory pathway to give reliable and relevant information about the environment, and elucidating the neural coding mechanisms is essential to informing clinical attempts to combat auditory dysfuntion. Receiving a uniquely diverse set of ascending and descending inputs, the inferior colliculus (IC) is a site of intricate temporal processing. In this work, natural and modified human speech is used to investigate discrimination of voice onset time (VOT) in the spiking output of IC neurons. A template-matching classification model is proposed in which single stimulus presentation responses are correlated with aggregate ...


Alternative Regulation Of Myc In Lung Cancer, Patrick N. Backman Mar 2016

Alternative Regulation Of Myc In Lung Cancer, Patrick N. Backman

Open Access Theses

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States, accounting for 27% of all cancer induced deaths1. In an attempt to create a effective targeted therapy for the treatment of lung cancer, a strategy used to treat an activated KrasG12D/+;p53 R172H/+ transgenic lung cancer mouse model was to deliver a known tumor suppressive microRNA (miRNA) to stop tumor growth. The tumor suppressive miRNA let-7 was lentivirally delivered in the form of its primary transcript, pri-let-7a-1, and resulted in increased lung size and inflammation compared to lungs exposed to a control lentivirus. It was ...


Analysis Of Vitamin E Metabolites By Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Tianlin Xu Oct 2014

Analysis Of Vitamin E Metabolites By Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Tianlin Xu

Open Access Theses

Naturally occurring forms of Vitamin E are metabolized to various carboxychromanols and conjugated carboxychromanols. Recent studies showed that vitamin E metabolites, especially the long-chain carboxychromanols are more bioactive than unmetabolized vitamin E forms. It is necessary to quantify vitamin E metabolites in biological environment. Here a simple and effective extraction method was developed to achieve extraction efficacy of more than 90% of various forms of vitamin E and metabolites with less than 10% inter- or intra-day variation. An LC-MS/MS assay was developed and optimized to acquire best sensitivity for the detection of vitamin E and metabolites. This method allows ...


Postural Sway In Infants At Low And High Risk For Autism Spectrum Disorder, Rachel C. Harris Oct 2014

Postural Sway In Infants At Low And High Risk For Autism Spectrum Disorder, Rachel C. Harris

Open Access Theses

ABSTRACT Harris, Rachel C. M. S., Purdue University, December 2014. Postural Control in Infants at Low and High Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder. Major Professor: Laura J. Claxton. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder more commonly known for deficits in social and communication skills. More recently, aspects of motor development have been shown to be delayed in children with ASD, including deficits in their postural control abilities. Children with ASD have difficulty integrating information from their sensory systems to help control their balance. Infants at risk for ASD and infants who are later diagnosed with ASD have delays ...