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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Gonadal Intersex In Teleosts: Mechanisms, Molecular Biomarkers And Diagnostic Assays, Ahmed M.E. Abdel-Moneim Mohamed Dec 2016

Gonadal Intersex In Teleosts: Mechanisms, Molecular Biomarkers And Diagnostic Assays, Ahmed M.E. Abdel-Moneim Mohamed

Open Access Dissertations

Natural and synthetic estrogenic and androgenic compounds are continuously released into aquatic ecosystems. Exposure of teleost fishes to these contaminants can negatively impact sex differentiation and reproductive output. Specifically, development of gonadal intersex in gonochoristic (fixed sex) fish species has been studied extensively in relation to exposure to this class of compounds. The main objectives of this dissertation were to: 1) conduct field and laboratory studies to investigate the molecular signaling pathways behind the development of gonadal intersex; and 2) establish molecular biomarkers and assays for testing the ability of environmental pollutants to develop this condition using a battery of ...


Nanoparticle Toxicity And Molecular Mechanisms In Fish: A Case Study With Silver Nanoparticles, Jiejun Gao Dec 2016

Nanoparticle Toxicity And Molecular Mechanisms In Fish: A Case Study With Silver Nanoparticles, Jiejun Gao

Open Access Dissertations

Nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in a myriad of commercial and industrial products making their entry to the environment a likely event. NPs have unique physical-chemical properties that result from their small size and high surface area to volume ratio, making them highly reactive and potentially toxic. In Chapter 1, we summarize the effects and mechanisms of metal-based NPs on the vascular system. In vitro studies have shown that NPs are anti-angiogenic because they cause inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis of endothelial cells resulting in increased permeability and decreased proliferation and migration. Whole animal studies examining the effects of NPs ...


The Interactive Effects Of Pesticide Exposure And Infectious Disease On Amphibian Hosts, Katherine M. Pochini Aug 2016

The Interactive Effects Of Pesticide Exposure And Infectious Disease On Amphibian Hosts, Katherine M. Pochini

Open Access Theses

Natural systems are home to a multitude of natural and anthropogenic stressors, which draw an array of effects on ecological communities. While these effects have been investigated individually, it is important, given the routine co-occurrence of these stressors, to understand their interactive effects. Pesticide exposure and infectious disease are two common, co-occurring stressors that each have documented detrimental effects on species and, as evidence suggests, may have interactive effects. Moreover, existing research suggests that these interactive effects are highly context dependent, eliciting different results based on species, disease agent, toxin, and environment. Given the variability with which species may experience ...


Manufacturer Perspectives On Content Transparency And Material Health In The Us Building Products Industry, Alexandra A. Muller Aug 2016

Manufacturer Perspectives On Content Transparency And Material Health In The Us Building Products Industry, Alexandra A. Muller

Open Access Theses

Flawed U.S. federal regulation of chemicals has resulted in a materials market that undervalues human and environmental health in favor of the more traditional attributes of price, performance and aesthetics. In the building products industry, global, dynamic supply chains and proprietary information concerns further complicate the task of assessing the material health of products.

Voluntary material health programs in the green building industry are intended to incentivize the manufacture and selection of safer products by getting companies to gather and assess ingredient, hazard and risk information from their supply chain. Building product manufacturers considered early adopters of the main ...


Pharmaceuticals And Personal Care Products: Emerging Contaminants In Aquatic Ecosystems, Jenny E. Zenobio Apr 2014

Pharmaceuticals And Personal Care Products: Emerging Contaminants In Aquatic Ecosystems, Jenny E. Zenobio

Open Access Theses

In recent years, the presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in aquatic systems has led to research on their fate and effects. PPCPs have been found in mixture in wastewater effluents, surface, ground, and drinking water at low concentrations from areas of intense urbanization. Although adverse effects to human health from the current environmental concentrations are unlikely, the impacts to ecological receptors are not clear. We performed field and laboratory studies to quantify and evaluate effects of PPCPs on fish. First, a field study was conducted at the Baca National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado (2010-2012) because a portion of ...


Fatty Acids And Mercury In Seventy Seven Species Of Commercially Available Finfish In The United States, Dennis P. Cladis Apr 2014

Fatty Acids And Mercury In Seventy Seven Species Of Commercially Available Finfish In The United States, Dennis P. Cladis

Open Access Theses

Finfish are consumed across the United States and constitute an important part of the American diet. However, seafood consumption can be a tenuous topic, with supporters highlighting the health benefits of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n3) and opponents emphasizing the neurotoxicity of methylmercury. Because all fish contain varying amounts of EPA, DHA, and methylmercury, the need for clear and unbiased information is essential to alleviate the confusion experienced by many consumers and empower them to make informed decisions regarding seafood consumption. As the market changes and more fish originate from aquaculture sources, where diets ...


In Vitro Assessment Of The Toxicity Of Cocaine And Its Metabolites In The Human Umbilical Artery, Tessa L. Long Aug 1998

In Vitro Assessment Of The Toxicity Of Cocaine And Its Metabolites In The Human Umbilical Artery, Tessa L. Long

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

An in vitro model was used to assess the effect of cocaine and its metabolites on the umbilical artery. Objectives were to pharmacologically confirm the presence of adrenergic innervation using tyramine, evaluate the ability of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, norcocaine and cocaethylene to potentiate vasoconstriction by serotonin and norepinephrine, examine the ability of ketanserin to block the enhanced vasoconstriction produced by cocaine, and determine displacement of 3 H-ketanserin by serotonin, norepinephrine, tyramine and mianserin. The vasoconstrictive effect of tyramine (100 μM) was enhanced in the presence of cocaine by 257%. Vasoconstrictive effects of serotonin and norepinephrine were significantly enhanced by cocaine by ...


Indomethacin Reduces Splenic Red Pulp Macrophage Populations In Female New Zealand White Rabbits, Thane S. Thurmond May 1995

Indomethacin Reduces Splenic Red Pulp Macrophage Populations In Female New Zealand White Rabbits, Thane S. Thurmond

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In an effort to elucidate the mechanism by which indomethacin (IN) attenuates the stimulatory effect of estradiol (E$\sb2$) on rabbit splenic red pulp macrophages (RPM), thirty-nine female New Zealand White rabbits were divided into 10 groups: ovariectomized (OVX), OVX/IN at 0.1 and 5.0 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day; sham OVX (SOVX), SOVX/IN at 0.1 and 5.0 mg/kg bw/day; OVX/25 mg E2, OVX/25 mg E$\sb2$/IN at 0.1 and 5.0 mg/kg bw/day; intact Control. Quantitative changes in RPM population in response to the treatments ...


The Effect Of Trimethyltin On The Cholinergic System Of The Rat Hippocampus, Richard L. Cannon Dec 1992

The Effect Of Trimethyltin On The Cholinergic System Of The Rat Hippocampus, Richard L. Cannon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Trimethyltin (TMT) is a neurotoxin occurring in the environment. Exposure to (TMT) is known to destroy specific neuronal components of the hippocampus in the rat and to cause clinical symptoms in exposed humans, including mnemonic deficits, that indicate hippocampal involvement. In addition to hippocampal cell loss TMT causes significant increases in cholinergic markers such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) stain density and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in the hippocampus of rats. However, despite these observations the effect of TMT on hippocampal cholinergic system has not been investigated in detail. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate more fully the consequences ...


Nitrogen Dioxide Reaction With Proteins: Evidence For Peptide Bond Cleavage At Lysine Residues, Darryl B. Hood May 1991

Nitrogen Dioxide Reaction With Proteins: Evidence For Peptide Bond Cleavage At Lysine Residues, Darryl B. Hood

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Nitrogen dioxide (NO$\sb2$), an air pollutant produced by burning fossil fuels and a component of cigarette smoke, is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases, such as emphysema. To gain information on the mechanism by which NO$\sb2$ damages the lung, in vitro exposures of $\alpha\sb1$-proteinase inhibitor ($\alpha\sb1$-PI), elastin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and synthetic poly-L-lysine were performed. A genetic deficiency of $\alpha\sb1$-PI predisposes humans to emphysema and NO$\sb2$ has been hypothesized to damage $\alpha\sb1$-PI, which would leave proteases such as human neutrophil elastase ...