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The Relationship Between Protein And Phosphorus Digestion And Retention In Growing Pigs And Broiler Chickens, Pengcheng Xue Dec 2016

The Relationship Between Protein And Phosphorus Digestion And Retention In Growing Pigs And Broiler Chickens, Pengcheng Xue

Open Access Dissertations

Xue, Pengcheng. Ph.D., Purdue University, December 2016. The Relationship between Protein and Phosphorus Digestion and Retention in Growing Pigs and Broiler Chickens. Major Professor: Dr. Layi Adeola. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between protein and P digestion and retention in growing pigs and broiler chickens. The methodology of determining the digestibility of AA and P and the effect of dietary N and P on the digestion and retention of these two nutrients were investigated.

An experiment was conducted in growing pigs to investigate the additivity of AID or SID of CP and AA in ...


Effect Of Delayed Wrapping And Wrapping Source On Intake And Digestibility Of Alfalfa Silage In Gestating Sheep, Valens Niyigena Dec 2016

Effect Of Delayed Wrapping And Wrapping Source On Intake And Digestibility Of Alfalfa Silage In Gestating Sheep, Valens Niyigena

Theses and Dissertations

Baling silage with oxygen can result in dry matter deterioration and reduce silage intake by animals. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of two different wrapping sources and time intervals between baling and wrapping on intake and digestibility of alfalfa silage. The second objective was to assess the correlation of alfalfa silage fermentation parameters with intake and digestibility parameters in gestating sheep. Alfalfa silage was baled in large round bales then wrapped with plastic either with (KURA) or without (SUN) an oxygen-limiting barrier either the day of baling or 1, 2 or 3 d after baling. Beginning in ...


Influence Of Dietary Polyphenols On Carbohydrate Intestinal Digestion And Absorption, Sydney E. Moser Aug 2016

Influence Of Dietary Polyphenols On Carbohydrate Intestinal Digestion And Absorption, Sydney E. Moser

Open Access Dissertations

Both epidemiological and clinical evidence support the notion that polyphenol rich foods and beverages may modify glycemic response, glucose homeostasis and subsequent risk of Type-2 diabetes. In vitro evidence typically derived from experiments with pure phenolics and phenolic rich extracts have pointed to this benefit being associated with two potential mechanisms: (1) the ability of specific polyphenolics to inhibit carbohydrate digestion (amylase and glucosidase) and (2) polyphenolic inhibition of intestinal glucose transport. While the high potential of these activities is evident, little is actually known regarding the extent to which these benefits are extendable to the actual food matrix these ...


Intestinal Adaptation To Repeated Exposure Of Flavonoid-Rich Foods: In Vitro And Clinical Data, Bejamin W. Redan Aug 2016

Intestinal Adaptation To Repeated Exposure Of Flavonoid-Rich Foods: In Vitro And Clinical Data, Bejamin W. Redan

Open Access Dissertations

Interest in application of flavonoids for chronic disease prevention has grown significantly, but the low oral bioavailability of these compounds from acute doses is commonly highlighted as a limitation when considering their biological significance. Still, the impact of broad dietary patterns such as repeated exposure on flavonoid’s absorption, metabolism, and eventual efficacy is critical to consider since evidence suggests that their bioavailability may be enhanced with repeated exposure. To fill this gap in knowledge, this dissertation will focus on three major areas including characterization of flavonoid metabolites, in addition to use of in vitro models and clinical work to ...


Intestinal Cytoplasmic Lipid Droplets, Associated Proteins, And The Regulation Of Dietary Fat Absorption, Theresa M. D'Aquila Aug 2016

Intestinal Cytoplasmic Lipid Droplets, Associated Proteins, And The Regulation Of Dietary Fat Absorption, Theresa M. D'Aquila

Open Access Dissertations

Dietary fat provides essential nutrients, contributes to energy balance, and regulates blood lipid concentrations. These functions are important to health, but can also become dysregulated and contribute to diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The small intestine absorbs dietary fat through an efficient multi step process of digestion, uptake, metabolism, and secretion or storage. When dietary fat is taken up by the absorptive cells of the small intestine, enterocytes, it can be secreted into circulation where it contributes to blood lipid levels or temporarily stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs). The objective of this dissertation is to investigate ...


Influence Of Dietary Component Manipulation And Feed Management Strategies On Growth And Rumen Development Of Weaned Dairy Heifers, Tana Shea Dennis Aug 2016

Influence Of Dietary Component Manipulation And Feed Management Strategies On Growth And Rumen Development Of Weaned Dairy Heifers, Tana Shea Dennis

Open Access Dissertations

Well-developed replacement heifers provide a central foundation for the continued success of the dairy industry. Emphasis on improving pre-weaned calf nutrition has predominated in the industry, but opportunities exist to improve post-weaning heifer nutrition and management. We aimed to evaluate common feed management strategies seen in the industry and their effects on growth, feed efficiency (G:F), and rumen development of calves from birth to 8 mo of age using pen- and individually-fed animal trials. Little information exists regarding post-weaning performance and rumen development of calves fed conventional or high planes of nutrition pre-weaning; therefore, we evaluated two milk replacer ...


The Effects Of Including Almonds In An Energy-Restricted Diet On Weight, Body Composition, Visceral Adipose Tissue, Blood Pressure And Cognitive Function, Jaapna Dhillon Aug 2016

The Effects Of Including Almonds In An Energy-Restricted Diet On Weight, Body Composition, Visceral Adipose Tissue, Blood Pressure And Cognitive Function, Jaapna Dhillon

Open Access Dissertations

Inclusion of almonds in an energy restricted diet has been reported to enhance or have no effect on weight loss. Their effects specifically on visceral fat stores during energy restriction have not been widely examined. Additionally, almond consumption has been associated with reduced blood pressure, but whether this is linked to or is independent of changes of body composition has not been examined. Moreover, almond consumption during energy restriction may be an effective strategy for reversing the negative effects of dieting on cognitive performance. The unique nutrient profile of almonds also has the potential to influence cognitive function post-prandially. The ...


Biochemical Changes In Animal Models Of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Christine E. M. Keller Aug 2016

Biochemical Changes In Animal Models Of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Christine E. M. Keller

Open Access Dissertations

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a completely preventable disease, that has profound effects on life-long health and function of the affected individual. Prevalence estimates of FASD in the United States indicate 33.5 per 1,000 live births are affected with this disorder (Roozen, 2016). FASD is caused by maternal ethanol intake during pregnancy. However, recommendations of the amounts of alcohol safe to drink during pregnancy are not established. Further, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the biochemical pathways modified in prenatal ethanol exposure. Biomarkers are also lacking. Our results demonstrate the vast array of biochemical pathways modified in ...


Pilot Study Of The Effect Of High-Protein, Renal-Appropriate Meals During Hemodialysis On Intradialytic Hypotension In Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients, Mun Sun Choi Aug 2016

Pilot Study Of The Effect Of High-Protein, Renal-Appropriate Meals During Hemodialysis On Intradialytic Hypotension In Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients, Mun Sun Choi

Open Access Theses

Background: In the United Sates (US), more than 400,000 people have end stage renal disease (ESRD) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5D requiring in-center hemodialysis (HD), and approximately $35 billion is spent annually in healthcare costs. Maintenance HD patients with ESRD have increased protein (1.2 g/kg/d) and energy (30-35 kcal/kg/d) requirements, but the average protein and energy intake in these patients is only 0.8-1.0 g/kg/d and 20-25 kcal/kg/d, respectively. Subsequently, protein-energy wasting (PEW) is common, affecting up to an estimated 75% of maintenance HD patients, and low ...


In Vitro Fermentation Patterns Of Rice Bran Components By Human Gut Microbiota, Tung Minh Pham Aug 2016

In Vitro Fermentation Patterns Of Rice Bran Components By Human Gut Microbiota, Tung Minh Pham

Theses and Dissertations

The prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been increasing in recent years worldwide. In the United States, it is ranked the second leading cause of cancer death. Risks of CRC increase with age and are associated with several lifestyle factors such as diet, drinking and smoking habits, and levels of physical activity. There is an abundance of scientific literature demonstrating the protective roles of several dietary components including fibers and polyphenolic compounds. These compounds have been shown to be able to positively modulate gastrointestinal ecology by increasing the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and promoting the population of beneficial ...


Long-Term Supplementation With Leucine Does Not Prevent Development Of Obesity In Rats Fed A High-Fat Diet, Dameon Smith Aug 2016

Long-Term Supplementation With Leucine Does Not Prevent Development Of Obesity In Rats Fed A High-Fat Diet, Dameon Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Excess dietary fat consumption has been implicated in the development of obesity and diabetes. Obesity can be characterized by a disproportionate increase in fat mass compared to lean body mass. However, if muscle mass can be increased or maintained in obesity, this may facilitate weight loss by increasing the body’s overall metabolic capacity. Historically, supplementation with the branched-chain amino acid leucine has been shown to increase muscle protein synthesis via the protein kinase mTORC1. Recent studies suggest that supplementation with leucine also has the potential to reduce weight gain and fat deposition in high-fat fed, obese mice. The objective ...


Culinary Competence: Skills And Knowledge Assessment For Dietetic Students, Nancy Harris Buckley Aug 2016

Culinary Competence: Skills And Knowledge Assessment For Dietetic Students, Nancy Harris Buckley

Theses and Dissertations

Graduates of didactic programs in dietetics are entering internships with little cooking experience. The Food and Culinary Professionals’ Dietetic Practice Group (FCP DPG) has identified 11 core competencies that were developed as a recommendation to dietetic educators to include more culinary knowledge into existing programs. The purpose of this study was to determine if developing and incorporating experiential learning targeted to the competencies would increase dietetic students’ culinary skills and knowledge at a southern land-grant university. Food and Culinary Professionals’ DGP core competencies were used to guide the development of curriculum, experiential learning, and assessment in the Principles of Foods ...


The Impact Of Fast Food Marketing On Millennials, Kabo Tuelo Segokgo Aug 2016

The Impact Of Fast Food Marketing On Millennials, Kabo Tuelo Segokgo

Theses and Dissertations

Fast food marketing is an effective tool used by businesses to build food brand recognition among their consumers. Increased fast food consumption has been linked to the increase in high calorie consumption. This study sought among Millennials to assess the association between fast food marketing and consumption of fast food. It further dealt with perceptions on the relationship between fast food consumption and weight gain. A convenience sample of 507 participants was used to collect data from University of Arkansas’ students through an online survey and an in person survey. An independent sample t test and multivariate analysis of variance ...


Rice Consumption And Effects Of Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, On Human Health, Ellen Joy Pottgen Aug 2016

Rice Consumption And Effects Of Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, On Human Health, Ellen Joy Pottgen

Theses and Dissertations

Within the United States type 2 diabetes is an ever growing health epidemic. The prevalence in the adult population has quadrupled over the past 30 years and is expected to continue on a similar path in the coming decades. While the cause of type 2 diabetes is multifactorial, it is considered to be an acquired condition related to environmental contributors including poor diet, obesity, and physical inactivity, which may be managed to alter the course or progression of the disease. Preventative or maintenance measures emphasize nutritional intervention strategies, including encouraging individuals to follow a nutrient-dense, high-fiber diet with ample whole-grains ...


The Effect Of Protein Quantity And Quality At Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Appetite And Metabolic Health, Brianna Lynne Neumann May 2016

The Effect Of Protein Quantity And Quality At Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Appetite And Metabolic Health, Brianna Lynne Neumann

Theses and Dissertations

Obesity is a global health concern and, within the United States, the current obesity rate is 36% and projected to double within the next two decades. Obesity is linked to many chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease and type 2 diabetes. In young females, weight gain (5-11 kg) between the ages of 20-30 years increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders later in life. The cause of obesity is multifactorial in nature, however fundamentally weight gain occurs when energy intake is greater than energy expended (i.e. calories in > calories out). Therefore, identifying and validating ...


Autophagy Regulation After Diet And Exercise In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Megan Elizabeth Rosa Jan 2016

Autophagy Regulation After Diet And Exercise In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Megan Elizabeth Rosa

Theses and Dissertations

Along with the rise in obesity, rates of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have also increased. NAFLD may begin with fat accumulation in the liver, but can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, and eventual cirrhosis. With no pharmacological treatment for NASH, lifestyle interventions appear vital to maintaining liver health. Previous work has shown aberrant mitochondrial content/quality and autophagy in models of NAFLD. Exercise is known to improve mitochondrial health and possibly autophagy, thus autophagy may be a key regulatory factor for treatment of obesity induced-NAFLD. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine how weight loss from ...


Portion Size Communication By Means Of Package Design, Tami J. Strickland Dec 2015

Portion Size Communication By Means Of Package Design, Tami J. Strickland

Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative study assessed consumers’ current methods of determining portion sizing of chicken products and examined their perceptions of how effectively three package designs communicate portion size. Everett M. Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations (DI) Theory analyzes the characteristics of the consumer of the innovation (adopter) and the impact these characteristics have on adopting new innovations. The innovation in this study will be the prototype packaging. Focusing on Rogers’ adopter characteristics and defined proprietary consumer segmentation characteristics, this study will be pivotal for future package design projects targeting nutrition education.

Focus group questions were scrutinized through a pilot study and revised ...


The Validity Of Urine Color Self-Assessment As An Index Of Hydration In Males, Daniel Layne Nixon Dec 2015

The Validity Of Urine Color Self-Assessment As An Index Of Hydration In Males, Daniel Layne Nixon

Theses and Dissertations

While water intake is so important, there are few practical hydration assessment techniques for the general population to use on a daily basis. The present study examined the accuracy of self-assessed urine color (Ucol) as a potential hydration assessment tool. Male college aged subjects provided a urine sample into a custom built urinal (n=76; 1.79±0.76 m, 83.9±16.0 kg). The urinal contained a picture of the 1-8 color scale and a light and dark urine color scale. Subjects were asked to give their urine color estimation as a whole number integer and to estimate ...


The Effect Of Alternative Fertilization And Application Time On Voluntary Intake Of Forages, Jessica Clark Dec 2015

The Effect Of Alternative Fertilization And Application Time On Voluntary Intake Of Forages, Jessica Clark

Theses and Dissertations

Dairy slurry and poultry litter have increased in popularity as fertilizers in the agriculture industry. However, residual effects of these manures on voluntary intake of forages from subsequent harvests are not well known. The objectives of this two part study were to determine if moisture level of alfalfa silage and the use of dairy slurry as a fertilizer have an effect on intake and digestibility by sheep, and if forage species and the use of poultry litter as a fertilizer have an effect on intake by horses. Eighteen ewes (47.6 ± 5.34 kg) were used in experiment 1 and ...


Effects Of Soybean Pectin On Blood Glucose And Insulin Responses In Healthy Men, Melissa Ann Jones Jul 2015

Effects Of Soybean Pectin On Blood Glucose And Insulin Responses In Healthy Men, Melissa Ann Jones

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study was to examine the effects of soy pectin on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin responses in healthy adult males␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣ intestinal microbiota to determine if differences in weight or body mass index would be linked to differences in microbiota populations. Pectin is a soluble fiber with demonstrated health benefits such as the ability to lower blood glucose and cholesterol, increase satiety leading to lower caloric intake, improve insulin resistance and lower inflammation. These benefits suggest that pectin may help in prevention and treatment of type II diabetes. Soy pectin is extracted from hulls, a waste product ...


Water Consumption Behavior In Broilers, David Harold Mccreery Jul 2015

Water Consumption Behavior In Broilers, David Harold Mccreery

Theses and Dissertations

A series of trials were conducted to analyze broiler water consumption behaviors under commercial conditions. The first trial was to quantify the number of broilers drinking at times of peak water demand. Birds were evaluated at time intervals of 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes from the start of the light period to establish the percentage birds having consumed water by that point in time. Significant differences were found by bird age in the 5, 10, and 15 minute intervals, however there were no significant differences in the percentage of birds having consumed water in the 30, 45 ...


Novel Biomarkers For Calcium And Phosphorus Metabolism In Breeder Hens And Broilers, Andrew Dick Magnuson Jul 2015

Novel Biomarkers For Calcium And Phosphorus Metabolism In Breeder Hens And Broilers, Andrew Dick Magnuson

Theses and Dissertations

Broiler breeder hens are subject to the dual expectation to not only maintain a high production of eggs for an extended time period, but to produce eggs which can support the life of chicks which will be used for either meat production or as parent stock. Egg fertility and hatchability are heavily influenced by the thickness of the egg shell, the mineral calcium carbonate shell of the egg necessary for protecting the embryo growing inside. Many factors affect egg shell quality including age of the hen, diet, environmental conditions, genetic strain, stress, disease, and nutrition. Laying hens will mobilize calcium ...


Hypohydration And Mood State In Free-Living Males And Females, Thomas Edward Vidal May 2015

Hypohydration And Mood State In Free-Living Males And Females, Thomas Edward Vidal

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has shown that acute dehydration can result in changes in mood. These changes have been reported in less than a 1% loss in total body water. However, the effect of hypohydration (i.e., reflected through high urine concentration) on mood in free-living conditions has not been studied. PURPOSE: The present study was designed to determine if hydration status is associated with mood within the general population under free-living conditions. METHODS: A group of 103 apparently healthy subjects (49 male, 54 female, 41±14 y, 1.7±0.1 m, 76.1±16.9 kg) completed three visits separated ...


Effects Of Mild Hypohydration And Hyperthermia On Cognition And Mood In Obese And Non-Obese Females, Jenna Marie Burchfield May 2015

Effects Of Mild Hypohydration And Hyperthermia On Cognition And Mood In Obese And Non-Obese Females, Jenna Marie Burchfield

Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: Information regarding effects of hypohydration (HY) and hyperthermia (HT) on cognition, mood and development of symptoms is conflicting since the two conditions often confound each other. Further, although obese individuals may have physiological impairments during heat stress, whether psychological impairments occur with HY and HT is unknown. PURPOSE: To assess the independent and combined effects of mild HY and HT on cognition, mood, and the development of symptoms in obese and non-obese females. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy females (11 non-obese, 22±2y, 61±6kg, 25±4% body fat; 11 obese, 22±2y, 80±18kg, 44±5% body fat) volunteered in ...


Analysis Of Vitamin E Metabolites By Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Tianlin Xu Oct 2014

Analysis Of Vitamin E Metabolites By Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Tianlin Xu

Open Access Theses

Naturally occurring forms of Vitamin E are metabolized to various carboxychromanols and conjugated carboxychromanols. Recent studies showed that vitamin E metabolites, especially the long-chain carboxychromanols are more bioactive than unmetabolized vitamin E forms. It is necessary to quantify vitamin E metabolites in biological environment. Here a simple and effective extraction method was developed to achieve extraction efficacy of more than 90% of various forms of vitamin E and metabolites with less than 10% inter- or intra-day variation. An LC-MS/MS assay was developed and optimized to acquire best sensitivity for the detection of vitamin E and metabolites. This method allows ...


The Impact Of An Omega-3 Enriched Diet On Hyperactivity And Biochemistry In An Animal Model For Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Nadine M. Hammoud Oct 2014

The Impact Of An Omega-3 Enriched Diet On Hyperactivity And Biochemistry In An Animal Model For Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Nadine M. Hammoud

Open Access Theses

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most diagnosed behavioral disorder in children. It affects around 5% of children worldwide and 11% of children in the United States, with rates increasing. Pharmaceutical treatments, such as amphetamines and methylphenidates, are not effective for everyone and are known to have unwanted side effects. While the etiology of the disorder is not yet fully understood, there are clear genetic and environmental components. Nutritional insufficiencies have recently become a popular environmental risk factor under investigation. Essential fatty acids (EFA), omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in particular, are needed for proper brain development and function. Our ...


1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Alters Lipid Metabolism And Epithelialto- Mesenchymal Transition In Metastatic Epithelial Breast Cancer Cells, Alle Nicole Barnard Jul 2014

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Alters Lipid Metabolism And Epithelialto- Mesenchymal Transition In Metastatic Epithelial Breast Cancer Cells, Alle Nicole Barnard

Open Access Theses

Evidence suggests that high vitamin D status (marked by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)2 D) is associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. It has been established that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) can alter glycolysis and the Krebs cycle of breast cancer cells (Jiang et al., 2010; Zheng et al., 2013) but little information is available on 1,25(OH) 2 D's alterations of lipid metabolism in breast cancer cells. Thus, the current research investigates if there was an effect of 1,25(OH) 2 D on proteins that regulate lipid metabolism in ...


Impact Of Healthy Lifestyle Choices On Smoking Behavior Among College Students Who Smoke Cigarettes, Mitchell Jenkins May 2014

Impact Of Healthy Lifestyle Choices On Smoking Behavior Among College Students Who Smoke Cigarettes, Mitchell Jenkins

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the impact certain healthy lifestyle choices had on smoking behavior among college students who smoke cigarettes. Even with continued reduction in prevalence, cigarette smoking is still the leading cause of preventable death in America. With that in mind, it is important to continue to identify factors that relate to decreased tobacco usage. Secondary data from the American College Health Association's bi-yearly National College Health Assessment was used for this study. This assessment/survey encompasses college students' habits, behaviors, and perceptions regarding prevalent health topics. The sample for this study consisted of 14,515 college students who ...


Consumer Perceptions Of Child-Friendly Shaped Healthy Fruit And Vegetable Snacks, Selena Lauren Baker Apr 2014

Consumer Perceptions Of Child-Friendly Shaped Healthy Fruit And Vegetable Snacks, Selena Lauren Baker

Open Access Theses

Fruits and vegetables (FV) are widely recognized as healthful foods by the public, and most individuals are aware of dietary guidance recommendations to consume more FV. However, actual consumption of FV has been and continues to be low in the United States and many other countries, despite public health efforts to change this trend. The sub-optimal intake of FV among children and adolescents is of particular concern due to high nutrient requirements for proper growth and development during these life stages. Fruit and vegetable intake patterns in childhood have been shown to track into later life and may affect individuals ...


An Exploratory Analysis Of Fruit And Vegetable Consumption In Black Men, Jacqueline Reiter Apr 2014

An Exploratory Analysis Of Fruit And Vegetable Consumption In Black Men, Jacqueline Reiter

Open Access Theses

Objective: Multiple peer-reviewed studies have found an association between fruit and vegetable consumption and lower risk for diseases such as hypertension, stroke and cancer. In other related studies, education level, retail food environment, and fruit and vegetable consumption were also examined together to discover patterns and associations. Currently, Black males have a higher risk for poor health outcomes. Limited research has focused specifically on Black men's fruit and vegetable consumption. This study explored the association between education level, food store access (measured by proximity) and fruit and vegetable consumption in black African American men.

Design: The data for this ...