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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Repurposing Non-Antimicrobial Drugs To Treat Multi-Drug Resistant Bacterial And Fungal Infections, Shankar Thangamani Dec 2016

Repurposing Non-Antimicrobial Drugs To Treat Multi-Drug Resistant Bacterial And Fungal Infections, Shankar Thangamani

Open Access Dissertations

Bacterial and fungal resistance to conventional antimicrobials is a burgeoning global health epidemic that necessitates urgent action. Even more alarming, the development of new antimicrobials to treat these multidrug-resistant pathogens has not kept pace with the rapid emergence of resistance to current antimicrobials. Antimicrobial drug development through the traditional de novo process is a risky venture given the significant financial and time investment required by researchers and limited success rate of translating these compounds to the clinical setting. This has led researchers to mine existing libraries of clinical molecules in order to repurpose old drugs for new applications (as antimicrobials ...


Dissemination And Persistence Of Plasmid Located, Integron Associated Antibiotic Resistant Genes In Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent And Stream Water Bacteria, _ Suhartono May 2016

Dissemination And Persistence Of Plasmid Located, Integron Associated Antibiotic Resistant Genes In Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent And Stream Water Bacteria, _ Suhartono

Theses and Dissertations

Transmissible plasmid-mediated integrons play important role in the persistence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance throughout the environment. Plasmids from 139 multi-antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli recovered from wastewater treatment plant effluent and upstream and downstream receiving stream water in Northwest Arkansas were extracted and profiled. Genes of class 1 and class 2 integrase (intI), mobilization (mob), sulfamethoxazole resistance (sul), and trimethoprim resistance (dfr) were detected using PCR and confirmed through DNA sequencing. Plasmids from almost half of the isolates (47%) were transmissible with mobF12 gene as the most frequently detected mobilization gene. Plasmid-borne class 1 with and without class 2 integrons ...


Proteomic Studies Of The Influenza Virus-Human Cell Interactions: The Responses Of Host Cell Protein Expression To Viral Infection And The Novel Host Proteins That Interact With Virus Protein Ns1, Yimeng Wang May 2013

Proteomic Studies Of The Influenza Virus-Human Cell Interactions: The Responses Of Host Cell Protein Expression To Viral Infection And The Novel Host Proteins That Interact With Virus Protein Ns1, Yimeng Wang

Theses and Dissertations

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) continue to be a threat to human health. Despite extensive studies, the mechanisms underlying the IAVs-host interactions during IAV infection remain elusive. We employed quantitative proteomic methods to systematically explore the host cell protein expression responses to IAV infection and examine the function of a critical IAV protein called NS1 by identifying its host binding partners. Specifically, we used a 2-dimentional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) based proteomic method to screen host proteins whose expression was substantially altered by IAV. One critical protein named IκB kinase-gamma (IKKγ) was found to be significantly down-regulated during IAV infection. Functional studies ...


Litter Conditioning Is Differentially Affected By Leaf Species, Phosphorus Enrichment, And Light Availability, Erin E. Scott May 2013

Litter Conditioning Is Differentially Affected By Leaf Species, Phosphorus Enrichment, And Light Availability, Erin E. Scott

Theses and Dissertations

Anthropogenic enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorus is one of the most pervasive and detrimental threats to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. In streams that rely on allochthonous basal food resources, such as leaves, nutrient pollution can result in altered food quality and decreased carbon (C) standing stocks. However, the magnitude and mechanisms of this change in quality are poorly understood. Laboratory microcosm studies were conducted to 1) quantify the response of litter C:P to a gradient of phosphorus (P) enrichment (0, 0.05, and 0.5 mg SRP/L) across leaf species with variable levels of degradability (sugar maple and oak ...


A Polymerase Chain Reaction Method For The Detection Of Selenomonas Noxia, Arthuro Mehretu Dec 2011

A Polymerase Chain Reaction Method For The Detection Of Selenomonas Noxia, Arthuro Mehretu

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In recent studies, periodontal health has been linked to being overweight and/or obese. Among common oral bacteria, Selenomonas noxia has been implicated in converting periodontal health to disease. Selenomonas spp. have also been found in gastric ulcers, and were misdiagnosed as Helicobacter -like organisms, but no further studies were conducted. The increasing clinical and epidemiological importance of S. noxia necessitates the development of a rapid detection method. In this study, a TaqMan 16S rRNA based real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method was developed, optimized and evaluated for the rapid and specific detection of S. noxia . The 16S PCR assay ...


Retrospective Evaluation Of Microbial Presence In Existing Saliva Repository: A Pcr Based Molecular Survey Of Oral Microbial Populations From Existing Saliva Samples, Jay Ericksen Davis Dec 2011

Retrospective Evaluation Of Microbial Presence In Existing Saliva Repository: A Pcr Based Molecular Survey Of Oral Microbial Populations From Existing Saliva Samples, Jay Ericksen Davis

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The overall purpose of this research project is to explore the link between oral health and disease in the University of Nevada, Las Vegas - School of Dental Medicine (UNLV-SDM) clinic patient population. More specifically, the population of interest is the UNLV-SDM orthodontic clinic patient population, which is mostly composed of adults, females, and minorities. The University of Nevada, Las Vegas, School of Dental Medicine, with more than 70,000 active patients and a post-graduate specialty program in Orthodontics is uniquely positioned to perform this type of oral health epidemiology survey, as well as targeted oral microbial testing among populations within ...


Moraxella (Branhamella) Catarrhalis: A Molecular Epidemiology Study, Lyndell R. Gill May 1995

Moraxella (Branhamella) Catarrhalis: A Molecular Epidemiology Study, Lyndell R. Gill

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis is the third-most-frequently isolated microorganism associated with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis in patients during their stay at the Mountain Home VA Medical Center (MHVAMC). In order to develop a practical, epidemiologically-meaningful typing method for M. (B.) catarrhalis, we tested two methods based on analysis of chromosomal DNA for typeability, reproducibility, and ability to differentiate between unrelated strains (discriminatory power, D). M. (B.) catarrhalis isolants from MHVAMC from 7/1/87-6/30/88 were grown overnight in broth and embedded in agarose. DNA was isolated by standard methods. The DNA was subjected to: (1) restriction endonuclease digestion ...


Nitric Oxide Production: A Mechanism For Inhibition Of Chlamydia Trachomatis Replication, Bojun Chen Dec 1993

Nitric Oxide Production: A Mechanism For Inhibition Of Chlamydia Trachomatis Replication, Bojun Chen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) replicates in macrophages, but is inhibited by IFN-$\gamma$ or LPS. IFN-$\gamma$ and/or LPS induced nitrite production in mouse peritoneal macrophages, macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1) and McCoy cells. Kinetic studies indicated that peak production occurred 48 hours post-treatment. CT infection itself was insufficient to induce nitrite production, but resulted in enhancement of nitrite production in IFN-$\gamma$-treated cells. Treatment with IFN-$\gamma$ or LPS resulted in significant inhibition of CT replication in these cells. Strong correlation between nitrite production and inhibition of CT replication was observed in RAW264.7 and ...


Molecular And Cellular Analysis Of Chlamydia Trachomatis: Persistence And Reactivation, Kimberly R. Tau May 1992

Molecular And Cellular Analysis Of Chlamydia Trachomatis: Persistence And Reactivation, Kimberly R. Tau

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent sexually-transmitted infection in the United States. It has been suggested that CT infections can become latent. This has not been substantiated. CT persistence was examined at the molecular and cellular level in vitro and in vivo. Penicillin treatment of CT in vitro results in abnormal inclusions and reduced recovery of infectious CT. Penicillin did not inhibit initial stages of infection, but did downregulate CT rRNA levels after 25 hours post-inoculation (p.i.). DNA amplification was employed to differentiate between a resolved infection and a persistent one. Utilizing a primer pair that amplified a ...