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Gonadal Intersex In Teleosts: Mechanisms, Molecular Biomarkers And Diagnostic Assays, Ahmed M.E. Abdel-Moneim Mohamed Dec 2016

Gonadal Intersex In Teleosts: Mechanisms, Molecular Biomarkers And Diagnostic Assays, Ahmed M.E. Abdel-Moneim Mohamed

Open Access Dissertations

Natural and synthetic estrogenic and androgenic compounds are continuously released into aquatic ecosystems. Exposure of teleost fishes to these contaminants can negatively impact sex differentiation and reproductive output. Specifically, development of gonadal intersex in gonochoristic (fixed sex) fish species has been studied extensively in relation to exposure to this class of compounds. The main objectives of this dissertation were to: 1) conduct field and laboratory studies to investigate the molecular signaling pathways behind the development of gonadal intersex; and 2) establish molecular biomarkers and assays for testing the ability of environmental pollutants to develop this condition using a battery of ...


Nanoparticle Toxicity And Molecular Mechanisms In Fish: A Case Study With Silver Nanoparticles, Jiejun Gao Dec 2016

Nanoparticle Toxicity And Molecular Mechanisms In Fish: A Case Study With Silver Nanoparticles, Jiejun Gao

Open Access Dissertations

Nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in a myriad of commercial and industrial products making their entry to the environment a likely event. NPs have unique physical-chemical properties that result from their small size and high surface area to volume ratio, making them highly reactive and potentially toxic. In Chapter 1, we summarize the effects and mechanisms of metal-based NPs on the vascular system. In vitro studies have shown that NPs are anti-angiogenic because they cause inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis of endothelial cells resulting in increased permeability and decreased proliferation and migration. Whole animal studies examining the effects of NPs ...


Influence Of Dietary Component Manipulation And Feed Management Strategies On Growth And Rumen Development Of Weaned Dairy Heifers, Tana Shea Dennis Aug 2016

Influence Of Dietary Component Manipulation And Feed Management Strategies On Growth And Rumen Development Of Weaned Dairy Heifers, Tana Shea Dennis

Open Access Dissertations

Well-developed replacement heifers provide a central foundation for the continued success of the dairy industry. Emphasis on improving pre-weaned calf nutrition has predominated in the industry, but opportunities exist to improve post-weaning heifer nutrition and management. We aimed to evaluate common feed management strategies seen in the industry and their effects on growth, feed efficiency (G:F), and rumen development of calves from birth to 8 mo of age using pen- and individually-fed animal trials. Little information exists regarding post-weaning performance and rumen development of calves fed conventional or high planes of nutrition pre-weaning; therefore, we evaluated two milk replacer ...


The Interactive Effects Of Pesticide Exposure And Infectious Disease On Amphibian Hosts, Katherine M. Pochini Aug 2016

The Interactive Effects Of Pesticide Exposure And Infectious Disease On Amphibian Hosts, Katherine M. Pochini

Open Access Theses

Natural systems are home to a multitude of natural and anthropogenic stressors, which draw an array of effects on ecological communities. While these effects have been investigated individually, it is important, given the routine co-occurrence of these stressors, to understand their interactive effects. Pesticide exposure and infectious disease are two common, co-occurring stressors that each have documented detrimental effects on species and, as evidence suggests, may have interactive effects. Moreover, existing research suggests that these interactive effects are highly context dependent, eliciting different results based on species, disease agent, toxin, and environment. Given the variability with which species may experience ...


Manufacturer Perspectives On Content Transparency And Material Health In The Us Building Products Industry, Alexandra A. Muller Aug 2016

Manufacturer Perspectives On Content Transparency And Material Health In The Us Building Products Industry, Alexandra A. Muller

Open Access Theses

Flawed U.S. federal regulation of chemicals has resulted in a materials market that undervalues human and environmental health in favor of the more traditional attributes of price, performance and aesthetics. In the building products industry, global, dynamic supply chains and proprietary information concerns further complicate the task of assessing the material health of products.

Voluntary material health programs in the green building industry are intended to incentivize the manufacture and selection of safer products by getting companies to gather and assess ingredient, hazard and risk information from their supply chain. Building product manufacturers considered early adopters of the main ...


Identification Of Biomarkers Associated With Rous Sarcoma Virus-Induced Tumors In Two Divergently Selected Chicken Lines, Ashley Hayden Aug 2016

Identification Of Biomarkers Associated With Rous Sarcoma Virus-Induced Tumors In Two Divergently Selected Chicken Lines, Ashley Hayden

Theses and Dissertations

Poultry has become especially important to genetic research due to breeding feasibility, short generation turnover, and ease of maintaining large populations. The discovery of virus induced cancer has paved the way for further genetic studies. Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV) is a tumor-causing virus that infects poultry. While not prevalent today, it can serve as a model for virus-induced cancer in humans and create additional insight to marker assisted selection in poultry. Genetically selected Arkansas Progressor (AP) and Arkansas Regressor (AR) chicken lines have been established and maintained at the Arkansas Experimental Station (AES) in Fayetteville, AR. Previous research has investigated ...


The Influence Of Strength-Training Exercises On The Functional Fitness In Older Adults, Susie Engle Aug 2016

The Influence Of Strength-Training Exercises On The Functional Fitness In Older Adults, Susie Engle

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of strength-training exercises on the functional fitness in older adults. The original convenience sample consisted of 658 participants who attended group strength-training classes offered through the Cooperative Extension Service. The Senior Fitness Test was used to assess baseline fitness levels at the beginning and end of the 12-week strength-training program. Data was collected from 2008 to 2015. Of the 658 participants, 110 were aged 60 to 94 and presented posttest scores occurring approximately 12 weeks after pretest dates. Of the 110 subjects, 99 were female and 11 were male. The ...


Rice Consumption And Effects Of Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, On Human Health, Ellen Joy Pottgen Aug 2016

Rice Consumption And Effects Of Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, On Human Health, Ellen Joy Pottgen

Theses and Dissertations

Within the United States type 2 diabetes is an ever growing health epidemic. The prevalence in the adult population has quadrupled over the past 30 years and is expected to continue on a similar path in the coming decades. While the cause of type 2 diabetes is multifactorial, it is considered to be an acquired condition related to environmental contributors including poor diet, obesity, and physical inactivity, which may be managed to alter the course or progression of the disease. Preventative or maintenance measures emphasize nutritional intervention strategies, including encouraging individuals to follow a nutrient-dense, high-fiber diet with ample whole-grains ...


Immune Modulating Functions By Soypeptide Lunasin In Cancer Immunotherapy, Chun-Yu Tung May 2016

Immune Modulating Functions By Soypeptide Lunasin In Cancer Immunotherapy, Chun-Yu Tung

Open Access Dissertations

Chemotherapy is currently the mainstay of treatment for most cancer patients. Despite its efficacy in eliminating cancer cells, a high percentage of chemotherapy patients eventually relapse or suffer progression of the disease. Immunosurveillance is capable of recognizing and eliminating continuously arising transformed mutant cells, and thus cancer immunotherapy is one of the emerging therapeutic strategies that harnesses the power of the immune system to eradicate chemotherapy-resistant cancerous cells. However, the adverse side effects of chemotherapy impede the therapeutic effects of immunotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrate that lymphoma patients are refractory to clinical immunotherapy because of chemotherapy-induced immune dysfunction. In addition ...


Comparative Efficacy Of Foaming And Non-Foaming Handsoap In Reduction Of Microorganisms In Handwashing, Danielle Marie Conover May 2016

Comparative Efficacy Of Foaming And Non-Foaming Handsoap In Reduction Of Microorganisms In Handwashing, Danielle Marie Conover

Theses and Dissertations

Handwashing (HW) is a long established method to prevent disease transmission. Ensuring effectiveness of current HW methods is essential for optimal HW and enhanced disease prevention. The objectives of this research were to 1) conduct a survey of soap type and volume in food service establishments in Washington County, Arkansas; 2) investigate how soap type impacts HW behavior; and 3) determine the difference in microbial reduction between foaming (F) and liquid (L) handsoap. For Objective 1, food service establishments in Washington County, AR were selected based on exclusion criteria and random number generations, and handsoap samples were collected to determine ...


A Prediction Model For Acute Core And Lower Extremity Injuries In Division 1 Collegiate Football Players, Alexandra Aline Mcdonald May 2016

A Prediction Model For Acute Core And Lower Extremity Injuries In Division 1 Collegiate Football Players, Alexandra Aline Mcdonald

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Various intrinsic factors such as high exposure, poor endurance of core muscles, previous injury, strength deficits, suboptimal neurocognitive function, and orthopedic abnormalities have been found as predictors for sprains and strains among collegiate football players. Objective: Assess the applicability of pre-participation assessments as predictors of core or lower extremity injury. Design: Cohort Study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football program. Patients or Other Participants: Athletes who underwent mandatory pre-participation examinations before preseason football training over two consecutive seasons (n=225). Main Outcome Measure(s): Associations between preseason protocols and injury incidence for core and lower extremity injuries ...


Effect Of Passive Heating On Males And Females With Elevated Arterial Stiffness, Forrest Blake Robinson May 2016

Effect Of Passive Heating On Males And Females With Elevated Arterial Stiffness, Forrest Blake Robinson

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality in the United States, accounting for about 1 in every 4 deaths annually. Studies have shown that passive heating does have some degree of effect on arterial stiffness, but not much is known about populations with higher stiffness. Objective: To examine the independent effect of core temperature increase during passive heating on arterial stiffness. Methods: Participants visited the lab three times; one familiarization and two experimental trials. The experimental trials consisted of subjects being passively heated in an environment of 40°C / 40% relative humidity (HEAT) or normal ...


The Effects Of Hypohydration On Neurocognitive, Balance, Vestibular Ocular Motor Functions And Mood State, Satoshi Iida May 2016

The Effects Of Hypohydration On Neurocognitive, Balance, Vestibular Ocular Motor Functions And Mood State, Satoshi Iida

Theses and Dissertations

Inconsistent findings have been observed on the impact of hydration state on cognitive functions. The isolated effect of hypohydration on neurocognitive performance, balance, vestibular ocular motor function and mood outcomes in widely used concussion assessment tools has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate how hypohydration affected the results in concussion testing batteries. A single-blind randomized crossover design was used. Thirteen healthy males (22 ± 4y, 180.9 ± 5.7cm) without history of concussion within the past six months or any condition or disease that could influence outcome measurements participated in this study. Each subject completed concussion ...


Investigating The Role Of The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor Mist1 In Pancreatic Diseases, Anju Karki Apr 2016

Investigating The Role Of The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor Mist1 In Pancreatic Diseases, Anju Karki

Open Access Dissertations

Acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas are dedicated to synthesize, package and secrete immense quantities of pro-digestive enzymes to maintain proper metabolic homeostasis for the organism. Dysregulation of enzyme secretion in acinar cells can give rise to exocrine diseases including acute pancreatitis (AP), a disease that targets acinar cells, leading to acinar-ductal metaplasia (ADM), inflammation and fibrosis—events that can transition into the earliest stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The focus of this thesis is to interrogate transcriptional regulatory networks that are susceptible to AP and the role that these networks play in acinar cell and exocrine pancreas responses ...


Influence Of The 3d Microenvironment On Glioblastoma Migration And Drug Response, Ruth Marisol Herrera Perez Apr 2016

Influence Of The 3d Microenvironment On Glioblastoma Migration And Drug Response, Ruth Marisol Herrera Perez

Open Access Dissertations

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly invasive brain cancer characterized by poor prognosis. Despite significant efforts by the basic and clinical research community our understanding of GBM progression and recurrence has been incremental. Improvements in therapeutic response have been dismal, and GBM continues to be the deadliest tumor of the central nervous system, with patient average survival rate of 12 months. Synergistic relationships that the tumor cells establish with the brain microenvironment have been proven fundamental for successful tumor progression and maintenance. Yet, many in vitro GBM studies are performed in formats that fail to recapitulate the most essential component of ...


Alternative Regulation Of Myc In Lung Cancer, Patrick N. Backman Mar 2016

Alternative Regulation Of Myc In Lung Cancer, Patrick N. Backman

Open Access Theses

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States, accounting for 27% of all cancer induced deaths1. In an attempt to create a effective targeted therapy for the treatment of lung cancer, a strategy used to treat an activated KrasG12D/+;p53 R172H/+ transgenic lung cancer mouse model was to deliver a known tumor suppressive microRNA (miRNA) to stop tumor growth. The tumor suppressive miRNA let-7 was lentivirally delivered in the form of its primary transcript, pri-let-7a-1, and resulted in increased lung size and inflammation compared to lungs exposed to a control lentivirus. It was ...


Local Modulation And Measurement Of Macrophage-Derived Bioactive Proteins From Implanted Biomaterials In Rat, Geetika Bajpai May 2015

Local Modulation And Measurement Of Macrophage-Derived Bioactive Proteins From Implanted Biomaterials In Rat, Geetika Bajpai

Theses and Dissertations

Fibrosis around the implanted medical devices is a severe problem that can plague long-term device reliability. Activation of macrophage phenotype (macrophage polarization) has emerged as a new and possible means for reducing fibrosis in the fields of biomaterials and regenerative medicine. Macrophages are phagocytic cells that respond to microenvironmental cues that direct their phenotype. Macrophage activation has been widely studied in mouse and human in the context of tumor biology, yet little information is available regarding how macrophage activation could be used in a biomaterials context. Further, rats rather than mice are the common subjects in biomaterials experiments. A significant ...


The Effect Of Balance-Based Torso-Weighting On Mobility, Gait, Balance, Postural Control, And Falls Efficacy In Mobility Limited Older Adults, Jennifer L. Vincenzo May 2015

The Effect Of Balance-Based Torso-Weighting On Mobility, Gait, Balance, Postural Control, And Falls Efficacy In Mobility Limited Older Adults, Jennifer L. Vincenzo

Theses and Dissertations

Exercise is a known intervention to prevent fall risk among older adults; however, adherence is poor. Therefore, it is of interest to determine if other interventions improve function and decrease fall risk among older adults. Balance-Based Torso-Weighting (BBTW) is a non-exercise intervention that improves functional measures among adults with multiple sclerosis, yet the effectiveness of BBTW has not been assessed among older adults without progressive neurological disorders. We conducted a double-blind, randomized study to analyze the effect of BBTW on functional measures and falls efficacy among community-dwelling, mobility limited older adults after 5 days of wearing BalanceWear® for 4 hours ...


Effects Of Mild Hypohydration And Hyperthermia On Cognition And Mood In Obese And Non-Obese Females, Jenna Marie Burchfield May 2015

Effects Of Mild Hypohydration And Hyperthermia On Cognition And Mood In Obese And Non-Obese Females, Jenna Marie Burchfield

Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: Information regarding effects of hypohydration (HY) and hyperthermia (HT) on cognition, mood and development of symptoms is conflicting since the two conditions often confound each other. Further, although obese individuals may have physiological impairments during heat stress, whether psychological impairments occur with HY and HT is unknown. PURPOSE: To assess the independent and combined effects of mild HY and HT on cognition, mood, and the development of symptoms in obese and non-obese females. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy females (11 non-obese, 22±2y, 61±6kg, 25±4% body fat; 11 obese, 22±2y, 80±18kg, 44±5% body fat) volunteered in ...


The Impact Of An Omega-3 Enriched Diet On Hyperactivity And Biochemistry In An Animal Model For Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Nadine M. Hammoud Oct 2014

The Impact Of An Omega-3 Enriched Diet On Hyperactivity And Biochemistry In An Animal Model For Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Nadine M. Hammoud

Open Access Theses

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most diagnosed behavioral disorder in children. It affects around 5% of children worldwide and 11% of children in the United States, with rates increasing. Pharmaceutical treatments, such as amphetamines and methylphenidates, are not effective for everyone and are known to have unwanted side effects. While the etiology of the disorder is not yet fully understood, there are clear genetic and environmental components. Nutritional insufficiencies have recently become a popular environmental risk factor under investigation. Essential fatty acids (EFA), omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in particular, are needed for proper brain development and function. Our ...


1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Alters Lipid Metabolism And Epithelialto- Mesenchymal Transition In Metastatic Epithelial Breast Cancer Cells, Alle Nicole Barnard Jul 2014

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Alters Lipid Metabolism And Epithelialto- Mesenchymal Transition In Metastatic Epithelial Breast Cancer Cells, Alle Nicole Barnard

Open Access Theses

Evidence suggests that high vitamin D status (marked by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)2 D) is associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. It has been established that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) can alter glycolysis and the Krebs cycle of breast cancer cells (Jiang et al., 2010; Zheng et al., 2013) but little information is available on 1,25(OH) 2 D's alterations of lipid metabolism in breast cancer cells. Thus, the current research investigates if there was an effect of 1,25(OH) 2 D on proteins that regulate lipid metabolism in ...


Impact Of Healthy Lifestyle Choices On Smoking Behavior Among College Students Who Smoke Cigarettes, Mitchell Jenkins May 2014

Impact Of Healthy Lifestyle Choices On Smoking Behavior Among College Students Who Smoke Cigarettes, Mitchell Jenkins

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the impact certain healthy lifestyle choices had on smoking behavior among college students who smoke cigarettes. Even with continued reduction in prevalence, cigarette smoking is still the leading cause of preventable death in America. With that in mind, it is important to continue to identify factors that relate to decreased tobacco usage. Secondary data from the American College Health Association's bi-yearly National College Health Assessment was used for this study. This assessment/survey encompasses college students' habits, behaviors, and perceptions regarding prevalent health topics. The sample for this study consisted of 14,515 college students who ...


An Exploratory Analysis Of Fruit And Vegetable Consumption In Black Men, Jacqueline Reiter Apr 2014

An Exploratory Analysis Of Fruit And Vegetable Consumption In Black Men, Jacqueline Reiter

Open Access Theses

Objective: Multiple peer-reviewed studies have found an association between fruit and vegetable consumption and lower risk for diseases such as hypertension, stroke and cancer. In other related studies, education level, retail food environment, and fruit and vegetable consumption were also examined together to discover patterns and associations. Currently, Black males have a higher risk for poor health outcomes. Limited research has focused specifically on Black men's fruit and vegetable consumption. This study explored the association between education level, food store access (measured by proximity) and fruit and vegetable consumption in black African American men.

Design: The data for this ...


Pharmaceuticals And Personal Care Products: Emerging Contaminants In Aquatic Ecosystems, Jenny E. Zenobio Apr 2014

Pharmaceuticals And Personal Care Products: Emerging Contaminants In Aquatic Ecosystems, Jenny E. Zenobio

Open Access Theses

In recent years, the presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in aquatic systems has led to research on their fate and effects. PPCPs have been found in mixture in wastewater effluents, surface, ground, and drinking water at low concentrations from areas of intense urbanization. Although adverse effects to human health from the current environmental concentrations are unlikely, the impacts to ecological receptors are not clear. We performed field and laboratory studies to quantify and evaluate effects of PPCPs on fish. First, a field study was conducted at the Baca National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado (2010-2012) because a portion of ...


Physical Activity Informational Websites: Accuracy, Language Ease, And Fear Appeal, Samantha Rose Paige Apr 2014

Physical Activity Informational Websites: Accuracy, Language Ease, And Fear Appeal, Samantha Rose Paige

Open Access Theses

Introduction. Health information is one of the most common searches on the Internet. Literature supports that, in general, health information readily available to Internet consumers is not accurate, lacks plain language for ease of understanding, and does not incorporate behavior-change theoretical frameworks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate each of these components. Method. Three keywords, "physical activity," "exercise," and "fitness," were entered into four popular search engines: Google, Bing, and Yahoo. The first 5 result pages were considered, totaling a sample of 493 websites. After exclusionary criteria, 102 websites were reviewed and analyzed with guidance from ACSM recommendations ...


Effect Of Functional Starch In Brown Rice And Grain Sorghum On Plasma Glucose And Insulin Responses In Humans, Nicole Marie Poquette Dec 2013

Effect Of Functional Starch In Brown Rice And Grain Sorghum On Plasma Glucose And Insulin Responses In Humans, Nicole Marie Poquette

Theses and Dissertations

Diabetes and obesity are chronic illnesses increasing at dramatic rates in the U.S. and around the world. Research has looked to prevent or control diabetes and obesity through functional ingredients such as healthy-dietary carbohydrates to control blood glucose levels. Starch is a principle carbohydrate, which influences blood glucose levels, and measuring starch digestibility fractions can help predict the glucose response in the body. The objectives of this study were to investigate the functional starch content of parboiled brown rice flour and grain sorghum flour, and measure the effects on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels of 14 and 10 ...


In Vitro Analysis Of Short Chain Fatty Acids And Human Fecal Microbiota Stimulated By Pectin Sources, Byungjick Min Dec 2013

In Vitro Analysis Of Short Chain Fatty Acids And Human Fecal Microbiota Stimulated By Pectin Sources, Byungjick Min

Theses and Dissertations

As interest increases for colonic health, various studies have been conducted to investigate functional ingredients for host health and prevention of chronic disease in humans such as colon cancer and Type 2 diabetes. In particular dietary fiber has been reported to have beneficial effects on colonic health. More recently, dietary fiber has been categorized based on its characteristics and numerous studies have been conducted to determine correlations with chronic diseases. Pectin is a naturally occurring biopolymer that has been used in various applications for purposes of pharmaceutical and biotechnology. Pectin is a soluble dietary fiber and can be entirely fermented ...


Development Of Novel Antifungal Peptides Based On A Natural Model Of Histatin-5 Peptide, Duy Tu Nguyen Dec 2013

Development Of Novel Antifungal Peptides Based On A Natural Model Of Histatin-5 Peptide, Duy Tu Nguyen

Theses and Dissertations

Our research group is working toward the development of novel antifungal peptides based on a natural model of peptide histatin-5. Histatin-5 is found in human saliva and known to protect our body against oral infections by Candida species. Candidiasis, or an infection caused by Candida species, is considered one of the most medically important fungal infections worldwide. Blood stream infections caused by Candida species are the fourth leading cause of hospital-acquired fungal infections that is associated with high mortality rates and high costs of treatment. This study investigated the modes of action of histatin-5 with the use of one 16-mer ...


Effects Of Hearing Aid Amplification On Robust Neural Coding Of Speech, Jonathan Daniel Boley Oct 2013

Effects Of Hearing Aid Amplification On Robust Neural Coding Of Speech, Jonathan Daniel Boley

Open Access Dissertations

Hearing aids are able to restore some hearing abilities for people with auditory impairments, but background noise remains a significant problem. Unfortunately, we know very little about how speech is encoded in the auditory system, particularly in impaired systems with prosthetic amplifiers. There is growing evidence that relative timing in the neural signals (known as spatiotemporal coding) is important for speech perception, but there is little research that relates spatiotemporal coding and hearing aid amplification.

This research uses a combination of computational modeling and physiological experiments to characterize how hearing aids affect vowel coding in noise at the level of ...


Design, Development, And Characterization Of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides For Pharmaceutical Applications, Yazan H. Akkam Aug 2013

Design, Development, And Characterization Of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides For Pharmaceutical Applications, Yazan H. Akkam

Theses and Dissertations

Candida species are the fourth leading cause of nosocomial infection. The increased incidence of drug-resistant Candida species has emphasized the need for new antifungal drugs. Histatin 5 is a naturally occurring human salivary antifungal peptide and the first line of defense against infections of the oral cavity. This research has focused on understanding the activity of histatin 5, and subsequently designing novel peptides that may serve as models for the further development of therapeutics to treat fungal infection.

This objective has been achieved in three steps: studying the structural requirement of histatin 5 involved in antifungal activity, the identification of ...