Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 24 of 24

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Gonadal Intersex In Teleosts: Mechanisms, Molecular Biomarkers And Diagnostic Assays, Ahmed M.E. Abdel-Moneim Mohamed Dec 2016

Gonadal Intersex In Teleosts: Mechanisms, Molecular Biomarkers And Diagnostic Assays, Ahmed M.E. Abdel-Moneim Mohamed

Open Access Dissertations

Natural and synthetic estrogenic and androgenic compounds are continuously released into aquatic ecosystems. Exposure of teleost fishes to these contaminants can negatively impact sex differentiation and reproductive output. Specifically, development of gonadal intersex in gonochoristic (fixed sex) fish species has been studied extensively in relation to exposure to this class of compounds. The main objectives of this dissertation were to: 1) conduct field and laboratory studies to investigate the molecular signaling pathways behind the development of gonadal intersex; and 2) establish molecular biomarkers and assays for testing the ability of environmental pollutants to develop this condition using a battery of ...


Nanoparticle Toxicity And Molecular Mechanisms In Fish: A Case Study With Silver Nanoparticles, Jiejun Gao Dec 2016

Nanoparticle Toxicity And Molecular Mechanisms In Fish: A Case Study With Silver Nanoparticles, Jiejun Gao

Open Access Dissertations

Nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in a myriad of commercial and industrial products making their entry to the environment a likely event. NPs have unique physical-chemical properties that result from their small size and high surface area to volume ratio, making them highly reactive and potentially toxic. In Chapter 1, we summarize the effects and mechanisms of metal-based NPs on the vascular system. In vitro studies have shown that NPs are anti-angiogenic because they cause inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis of endothelial cells resulting in increased permeability and decreased proliferation and migration. Whole animal studies examining the effects of NPs ...


The Interactive Effects Of Pesticide Exposure And Infectious Disease On Amphibian Hosts, Katherine M. Pochini Aug 2016

The Interactive Effects Of Pesticide Exposure And Infectious Disease On Amphibian Hosts, Katherine M. Pochini

Open Access Theses

Natural systems are home to a multitude of natural and anthropogenic stressors, which draw an array of effects on ecological communities. While these effects have been investigated individually, it is important, given the routine co-occurrence of these stressors, to understand their interactive effects. Pesticide exposure and infectious disease are two common, co-occurring stressors that each have documented detrimental effects on species and, as evidence suggests, may have interactive effects. Moreover, existing research suggests that these interactive effects are highly context dependent, eliciting different results based on species, disease agent, toxin, and environment. Given the variability with which species may experience ...


Manufacturer Perspectives On Content Transparency And Material Health In The Us Building Products Industry, Alexandra A. Muller Aug 2016

Manufacturer Perspectives On Content Transparency And Material Health In The Us Building Products Industry, Alexandra A. Muller

Open Access Theses

Flawed U.S. federal regulation of chemicals has resulted in a materials market that undervalues human and environmental health in favor of the more traditional attributes of price, performance and aesthetics. In the building products industry, global, dynamic supply chains and proprietary information concerns further complicate the task of assessing the material health of products.

Voluntary material health programs in the green building industry are intended to incentivize the manufacture and selection of safer products by getting companies to gather and assess ingredient, hazard and risk information from their supply chain. Building product manufacturers considered early adopters of the main ...


Rice Consumption And Effects Of Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, On Human Health, Ellen Joy Pottgen Aug 2016

Rice Consumption And Effects Of Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, On Human Health, Ellen Joy Pottgen

Theses and Dissertations

Within the United States type 2 diabetes is an ever growing health epidemic. The prevalence in the adult population has quadrupled over the past 30 years and is expected to continue on a similar path in the coming decades. While the cause of type 2 diabetes is multifactorial, it is considered to be an acquired condition related to environmental contributors including poor diet, obesity, and physical inactivity, which may be managed to alter the course or progression of the disease. Preventative or maintenance measures emphasize nutritional intervention strategies, including encouraging individuals to follow a nutrient-dense, high-fiber diet with ample whole-grains ...


Immune Modulating Functions By Soypeptide Lunasin In Cancer Immunotherapy, Chun-Yu Tung May 2016

Immune Modulating Functions By Soypeptide Lunasin In Cancer Immunotherapy, Chun-Yu Tung

Open Access Dissertations

Chemotherapy is currently the mainstay of treatment for most cancer patients. Despite its efficacy in eliminating cancer cells, a high percentage of chemotherapy patients eventually relapse or suffer progression of the disease. Immunosurveillance is capable of recognizing and eliminating continuously arising transformed mutant cells, and thus cancer immunotherapy is one of the emerging therapeutic strategies that harnesses the power of the immune system to eradicate chemotherapy-resistant cancerous cells. However, the adverse side effects of chemotherapy impede the therapeutic effects of immunotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrate that lymphoma patients are refractory to clinical immunotherapy because of chemotherapy-induced immune dysfunction. In addition ...


A Prediction Model For Acute Core And Lower Extremity Injuries In Division 1 Collegiate Football Players, Alexandra Aline Mcdonald May 2016

A Prediction Model For Acute Core And Lower Extremity Injuries In Division 1 Collegiate Football Players, Alexandra Aline Mcdonald

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Various intrinsic factors such as high exposure, poor endurance of core muscles, previous injury, strength deficits, suboptimal neurocognitive function, and orthopedic abnormalities have been found as predictors for sprains and strains among collegiate football players. Objective: Assess the applicability of pre-participation assessments as predictors of core or lower extremity injury. Design: Cohort Study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football program. Patients or Other Participants: Athletes who underwent mandatory pre-participation examinations before preseason football training over two consecutive seasons (n=225). Main Outcome Measure(s): Associations between preseason protocols and injury incidence for core and lower extremity injuries ...


Investigating The Role Of The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor Mist1 In Pancreatic Diseases, Anju Karki Apr 2016

Investigating The Role Of The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor Mist1 In Pancreatic Diseases, Anju Karki

Open Access Dissertations

Acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas are dedicated to synthesize, package and secrete immense quantities of pro-digestive enzymes to maintain proper metabolic homeostasis for the organism. Dysregulation of enzyme secretion in acinar cells can give rise to exocrine diseases including acute pancreatitis (AP), a disease that targets acinar cells, leading to acinar-ductal metaplasia (ADM), inflammation and fibrosis—events that can transition into the earliest stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The focus of this thesis is to interrogate transcriptional regulatory networks that are susceptible to AP and the role that these networks play in acinar cell and exocrine pancreas responses ...


Influence Of The 3d Microenvironment On Glioblastoma Migration And Drug Response, Ruth Marisol Herrera Perez Apr 2016

Influence Of The 3d Microenvironment On Glioblastoma Migration And Drug Response, Ruth Marisol Herrera Perez

Open Access Dissertations

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly invasive brain cancer characterized by poor prognosis. Despite significant efforts by the basic and clinical research community our understanding of GBM progression and recurrence has been incremental. Improvements in therapeutic response have been dismal, and GBM continues to be the deadliest tumor of the central nervous system, with patient average survival rate of 12 months. Synergistic relationships that the tumor cells establish with the brain microenvironment have been proven fundamental for successful tumor progression and maintenance. Yet, many in vitro GBM studies are performed in formats that fail to recapitulate the most essential component of ...


Alternative Regulation Of Myc In Lung Cancer, Patrick N. Backman Mar 2016

Alternative Regulation Of Myc In Lung Cancer, Patrick N. Backman

Open Access Theses

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States, accounting for 27% of all cancer induced deaths1. In an attempt to create a effective targeted therapy for the treatment of lung cancer, a strategy used to treat an activated KrasG12D/+;p53 R172H/+ transgenic lung cancer mouse model was to deliver a known tumor suppressive microRNA (miRNA) to stop tumor growth. The tumor suppressive miRNA let-7 was lentivirally delivered in the form of its primary transcript, pri-let-7a-1, and resulted in increased lung size and inflammation compared to lungs exposed to a control lentivirus. It was ...


Local Modulation And Measurement Of Macrophage-Derived Bioactive Proteins From Implanted Biomaterials In Rat, Geetika Bajpai May 2015

Local Modulation And Measurement Of Macrophage-Derived Bioactive Proteins From Implanted Biomaterials In Rat, Geetika Bajpai

Theses and Dissertations

Fibrosis around the implanted medical devices is a severe problem that can plague long-term device reliability. Activation of macrophage phenotype (macrophage polarization) has emerged as a new and possible means for reducing fibrosis in the fields of biomaterials and regenerative medicine. Macrophages are phagocytic cells that respond to microenvironmental cues that direct their phenotype. Macrophage activation has been widely studied in mouse and human in the context of tumor biology, yet little information is available regarding how macrophage activation could be used in a biomaterials context. Further, rats rather than mice are the common subjects in biomaterials experiments. A significant ...


1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Alters Lipid Metabolism And Epithelialto- Mesenchymal Transition In Metastatic Epithelial Breast Cancer Cells, Alle Nicole Barnard Jul 2014

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Alters Lipid Metabolism And Epithelialto- Mesenchymal Transition In Metastatic Epithelial Breast Cancer Cells, Alle Nicole Barnard

Open Access Theses

Evidence suggests that high vitamin D status (marked by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)2 D) is associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. It has been established that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) can alter glycolysis and the Krebs cycle of breast cancer cells (Jiang et al., 2010; Zheng et al., 2013) but little information is available on 1,25(OH) 2 D's alterations of lipid metabolism in breast cancer cells. Thus, the current research investigates if there was an effect of 1,25(OH) 2 D on proteins that regulate lipid metabolism in ...


Pharmaceuticals And Personal Care Products: Emerging Contaminants In Aquatic Ecosystems, Jenny E. Zenobio Apr 2014

Pharmaceuticals And Personal Care Products: Emerging Contaminants In Aquatic Ecosystems, Jenny E. Zenobio

Open Access Theses

In recent years, the presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in aquatic systems has led to research on their fate and effects. PPCPs have been found in mixture in wastewater effluents, surface, ground, and drinking water at low concentrations from areas of intense urbanization. Although adverse effects to human health from the current environmental concentrations are unlikely, the impacts to ecological receptors are not clear. We performed field and laboratory studies to quantify and evaluate effects of PPCPs on fish. First, a field study was conducted at the Baca National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado (2010-2012) because a portion of ...


Effect Of Functional Starch In Brown Rice And Grain Sorghum On Plasma Glucose And Insulin Responses In Humans, Nicole Marie Poquette Dec 2013

Effect Of Functional Starch In Brown Rice And Grain Sorghum On Plasma Glucose And Insulin Responses In Humans, Nicole Marie Poquette

Theses and Dissertations

Diabetes and obesity are chronic illnesses increasing at dramatic rates in the U.S. and around the world. Research has looked to prevent or control diabetes and obesity through functional ingredients such as healthy-dietary carbohydrates to control blood glucose levels. Starch is a principle carbohydrate, which influences blood glucose levels, and measuring starch digestibility fractions can help predict the glucose response in the body. The objectives of this study were to investigate the functional starch content of parboiled brown rice flour and grain sorghum flour, and measure the effects on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels of 14 and 10 ...


The Relationship Among Ankle Function, Functional Capacity, And Body Composition To Balance In Geriatric Populations, Joseph Robert Chaney Aug 2013

The Relationship Among Ankle Function, Functional Capacity, And Body Composition To Balance In Geriatric Populations, Joseph Robert Chaney

Theses and Dissertations

The primary purpose of this research study was to identify significant relationships among measures of ankle strength, ankle range of motion, body composition, and functional capacity to balance ability in geriatric populations which may potentially assist in identifying older individuals with increased risk of falling. A battery of five test (ankle strength assessments, ankle range of motion , DXA, functional fitness, and balance) were administered to 20 participants (6 males, 14 females, mean age 69.78 ± 3.98) that had indicated to be at least 65 years of age or older and no history of falls within the previous 12 months ...


Interactions Of Nitric Oxide And Superoxide Pathways In Hyperglycemic Endothelial Cells, Steven Clay Rogers May 2012

Interactions Of Nitric Oxide And Superoxide Pathways In Hyperglycemic Endothelial Cells, Steven Clay Rogers

Theses and Dissertations

Cardiovascular complications arising from diabetic hyperglycemia represents one of the leading causes of death and greatest public health challenges of modern societies. Despite state-of-the-art glucose control, diabetic patients remain at a markedly increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The loss of endothelial function (the development of diabetic endothelial dysfunction) has been implicated in the development of numerous diabetic cardiovascular diseases. The endothelial cell produces many vasoactive substances, hormones and cytoprotective biological factors. Endothelial cells are also involved in and affected by the initiation of inflammatory responses through the release and interaction of cytokines and other immune system molecules. Therefore, regulation of ...


Effects Of Environment On Children's Motor Scores, Eligibility Status, And Administration Times, Derrick Mittelstadt, Abigail Parker, Kirsten Pickett, Heather Temkin May 2011

Effects Of Environment On Children's Motor Scores, Eligibility Status, And Administration Times, Derrick Mittelstadt, Abigail Parker, Kirsten Pickett, Heather Temkin

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Best practices for assessing developmental skills in young children focus on naturalistic observation in everyday settings, but the effects of environment on test scores, eligibility status and administration time have not been explored. The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-Second Edition (PDMS-2) was administered to 34 children aged 18 to 59 months in natural and pull-out settings. PDMS-2 total, gross, and fine motor quotient (TMQ, GMQ, and FMQ) scores were significantly lower in the natural environment (p’s≤.014). Based on our results, more children would qualify for services when tested in natural environments using TMQ and GMQ scores. It also took ...


Signaling Mechanisms For Muscarinic Receptor-Mediated Coronary Vasoconstriction In Isolated Rat Hearts, Yi Zhang Aug 1999

Signaling Mechanisms For Muscarinic Receptor-Mediated Coronary Vasoconstriction In Isolated Rat Hearts, Yi Zhang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The signaling mechanisms for muscarinic receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in coronary resistance arteries were studied in KCl-arrested isolated rat hearts perfused at a constant flow rate. The cholinergic agonists acetylcholine and bethanechol were given by bolus injection or constant infusion. The coronary vascular resistance was monitored by measuring the changes in perfusion pressure. The selective muscarinic agonist bethanechol caused a similar vasoconstrictor response as ACh, but with less potency and efficacy. Bolus injection of bethanechol evoked a phasic vasoconstriction in a dose-dependent manner, while infusion of bethanechol evoked a tonic vasoconstriction without producing tachyphylaxis. Coronary vascular responses to bethanechol were further examined ...


Comparison Of Beta-Adrenoceptor Coupled Camp Production In Cultured Human Mononuclear Leukocytes And Myometrial Cells, Yu-Li Liu Dec 1997

Comparison Of Beta-Adrenoceptor Coupled Camp Production In Cultured Human Mononuclear Leukocytes And Myometrial Cells, Yu-Li Liu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

$\beta\sb2$-Adrenoceptor ($\beta\sb2$-AR) agonists, such as terbutaline, are used as tocolytic agents in the treatment of preterm labor. $\beta$-Adrenoceptor stimulation relaxes myometrium through specific receptors coupled through Gs to adenylyl cyclase (AC) that catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cAMP. The purpose of this study was to compare $\beta$-adrenoceptors and cAMP production in cultured human leukocytes and myometrial cells, and to determine the importance of $\beta$-adrenoceptors and cAMP production in isoproterenol-induced myometrial relaxation. $\sp{125}$I-iodopindolol was used to assess $\beta$-adrenoceptor affinity and number cAMP levels were analyzed before and after stimulation by ...


Moraxella (Branhamella) Catarrhalis: A Molecular Epidemiology Study, Lyndell R. Gill May 1995

Moraxella (Branhamella) Catarrhalis: A Molecular Epidemiology Study, Lyndell R. Gill

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis is the third-most-frequently isolated microorganism associated with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis in patients during their stay at the Mountain Home VA Medical Center (MHVAMC). In order to develop a practical, epidemiologically-meaningful typing method for M. (B.) catarrhalis, we tested two methods based on analysis of chromosomal DNA for typeability, reproducibility, and ability to differentiate between unrelated strains (discriminatory power, D). M. (B.) catarrhalis isolants from MHVAMC from 7/1/87-6/30/88 were grown overnight in broth and embedded in agarose. DNA was isolated by standard methods. The DNA was subjected to: (1) restriction endonuclease digestion ...


Persistent Oral Dyskinesias Induced By Long-Term Haloperidol Treatment Is Dissociated From Changes In Neostriatal B(Max) And Mrna Content For Dopamine D(2) Receptors, Nuoyu Huang May 1995

Persistent Oral Dyskinesias Induced By Long-Term Haloperidol Treatment Is Dissociated From Changes In Neostriatal B(Max) And Mrna Content For Dopamine D(2) Receptors, Nuoyu Huang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Due to the presumed associations of dopamine (DA) receptor supersensitivity phenomena in both long-term neuroleptic-treated tardive dyskinetic rats and neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine (n6-OHDA)-lesioned rats, we studied the influence of haloperidol on n6-OHDA-lesioned rats. At 3 days after birth rats received 6-OHDA-HBr (200 $\mu$g, bilateral intracerebroventricularly; desipramine pretreatment, 20 mg/kg, 1h) or vehicle. Two months later haloperidol (1.5/kg/day $\times$ 2 days/week for 4 weeks, then 1.5 mg/kg/day, every day for 10 months) was added to the drinking water. Spontaneous oral activity of intact and n6-OHDA-lesioned rats receiving haloperidol was reached and maintained ...


Indomethacin Reduces Splenic Red Pulp Macrophage Populations In Female New Zealand White Rabbits, Thane S. Thurmond May 1995

Indomethacin Reduces Splenic Red Pulp Macrophage Populations In Female New Zealand White Rabbits, Thane S. Thurmond

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In an effort to elucidate the mechanism by which indomethacin (IN) attenuates the stimulatory effect of estradiol (E$\sb2$) on rabbit splenic red pulp macrophages (RPM), thirty-nine female New Zealand White rabbits were divided into 10 groups: ovariectomized (OVX), OVX/IN at 0.1 and 5.0 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day; sham OVX (SOVX), SOVX/IN at 0.1 and 5.0 mg/kg bw/day; OVX/25 mg E2, OVX/25 mg E$\sb2$/IN at 0.1 and 5.0 mg/kg bw/day; intact Control. Quantitative changes in RPM population in response to the treatments ...


Co-Sensitization Of Dopamine And Serotonin Receptors Occurs In The Absence Of A Change In The Dopamine D1 Receptor Complex After A Neonatal 6-Ohda Lesion, Li Gong Dec 1993

Co-Sensitization Of Dopamine And Serotonin Receptors Occurs In The Absence Of A Change In The Dopamine D1 Receptor Complex After A Neonatal 6-Ohda Lesion, Li Gong

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

To test whether SKF 38393 could ontogenetically sensitize dopamine (DA) D$\sb1$ receptors and whether this sensitization would be associated with biochemical changes, intact and neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats (200 $\mu$g i.c.v.) were treated daily from birth with SKF 38393 (3.0 mg/kg i.p. x 28 days) or its vehicle. In DA D$\sb1$ neonatally sensitized 6-OHDA rats, enhanced locomotor responses were observed with the first SKF 38393 challenge dose (3.0 mg/kg i.p.) at 6 weeks. This response increased further with weekly SKF 38393 treatments. Enhanced stereotyped behaviors were seen in ...


The Effect Of Trimethyltin On The Cholinergic System Of The Rat Hippocampus, Richard L. Cannon Dec 1992

The Effect Of Trimethyltin On The Cholinergic System Of The Rat Hippocampus, Richard L. Cannon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Trimethyltin (TMT) is a neurotoxin occurring in the environment. Exposure to (TMT) is known to destroy specific neuronal components of the hippocampus in the rat and to cause clinical symptoms in exposed humans, including mnemonic deficits, that indicate hippocampal involvement. In addition to hippocampal cell loss TMT causes significant increases in cholinergic markers such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) stain density and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in the hippocampus of rats. However, despite these observations the effect of TMT on hippocampal cholinergic system has not been investigated in detail. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate more fully the consequences ...