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Comparing Before-And After-School Neurocognitive Performance In High School Athletes- Implications For Concussion Management, Morgan Anderson May 2017

Comparing Before-And After-School Neurocognitive Performance In High School Athletes- Implications For Concussion Management, Morgan Anderson

Theses and Dissertations

There are several factors that influence computerized neurocognitive testing performance however, one factor that has not been examined is the potential deleterious effects of cognitive fatigue from an academic school day combined with time of computerized neurocognitive testing (CNT) administration. The primary purpose of this study was to compare before-and after-school CNT performance and total symptoms in non-concussed high school student athletes. The secondary purpose of this study was to compare before-school and after-school CNT performance and total symptoms and chronotypes in non-concussed student athletes. A crossover design was used to compare before-and after-school CNT performance and total symptoms of ...


Examining Fear Of Re-Injury In High School Athletes With Sport-Related Concussion, Melissa Nicole Anderson May 2017

Examining Fear Of Re-Injury In High School Athletes With Sport-Related Concussion, Melissa Nicole Anderson

Theses and Dissertations

Recent consensus statements have advocated for research on the emotional sequelae that is associated with sport-related concussion (McCrory et al., 2012). However, changes in fear of re-injury throughout SRC recovery are understudied. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to describe fear of re-injury in high school athletes with SRC, and 2) to document changes in fear of re-injury throughout SRC recovery. This study addressed several exploratory questions regarding fear of re-injury in high school athletes with SRC that pertain to identifying predictors of fear of re-injury as well as examining the relationship between fear of re-injury and locus ...


Daily Variability Of Body Weight And Hydration Markers In Free Living Men And Women, Lynndee Grace Summers Dec 2016

Daily Variability Of Body Weight And Hydration Markers In Free Living Men And Women, Lynndee Grace Summers

Theses and Dissertations

Body weight and hydration markers change greatly during strenuous exercise, especially in the heat. However, in a non-athletic population, changes in body weight and hydration markers may not be so obvious. It is important to classify the normal fluctuation of these measurements for future studies in order to delineate when an intervention results in a change outside of what can be expected during normal daily living. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the normal fluctuations in body weight and urine hydration markers over the course of 29 days. METHODS: One-hundred two male and female participants, ranging from ...


The Influence Of Strength-Training Exercises On The Functional Fitness In Older Adults, Susie Engle Aug 2016

The Influence Of Strength-Training Exercises On The Functional Fitness In Older Adults, Susie Engle

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of strength-training exercises on the functional fitness in older adults. The original convenience sample consisted of 658 participants who attended group strength-training classes offered through the Cooperative Extension Service. The Senior Fitness Test was used to assess baseline fitness levels at the beginning and end of the 12-week strength-training program. Data was collected from 2008 to 2015. Of the 658 participants, 110 were aged 60 to 94 and presented posttest scores occurring approximately 12 weeks after pretest dates. Of the 110 subjects, 99 were female and 11 were male. The ...


Mental Toughness, Grit, And Motivational Differences In Single-Sport And Multi-Sport Athletes, Cole Justin Shewmake Aug 2016

Mental Toughness, Grit, And Motivational Differences In Single-Sport And Multi-Sport Athletes, Cole Justin Shewmake

Theses and Dissertations

Whether it is at work, school or sports, mental toughness (MT), grit and motivation are essential to accomplishing goals. Sports can be an integral platform for developing MT, grit, and factors that increase motivation levels, and it is during childhood and adolescence that these characteristics may develop. All of this could prove beneficial into adulthood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine MT, grit and motivational orientations of single-sport and multi-sport athletes at different levels of competition. Considering MT, a 2 x 2 ANOVA indicated no significant interaction effect between athlete type and competition level, F(1, 387 ...


Observing Renal Responses To Endurance Cycling In The Heat, Cody Smith Aug 2016

Observing Renal Responses To Endurance Cycling In The Heat, Cody Smith

Theses and Dissertations

AIM: To observe the effects of endurance cycling in the heat on renal function, and determine if the extent of impairment is related to hydration. METHODS: 40 cyclists (34 male, 6 female, 52 ± 9 y, 21.7 ± 6.5 % body fat) completed an endurance cycling event (5.7 ± 1.2 hours) in the heat (33.2 ± 5.0ºC, 38.4 ± 10.7% RH). Body mass was assessed to determine net fluid loss, muscle damage in the legs was assessed with a pain scale, a urine sample was collected to analyze hydration status, and a blood sample was drawn. All measurements ...


Effect Of Hydration Status On Thermoregulatory Responses In Non-Obese And Obese Males, Matthew Tucker Aug 2016

Effect Of Hydration Status On Thermoregulatory Responses In Non-Obese And Obese Males, Matthew Tucker

Theses and Dissertations

During heat stress the human body thermoregulates via cutaneous vasodilation and sweating. Hypohydration can impair thermoregulatory responses that stem from the central nervous system (CNS), but it is unknown if impairments also occur post-synaptically in the microcirculation. Moreover, obese individuals may have impaired thermoregulation, possibly due to microvascular dysfunction. Purpose: The purpose of these studies was two-fold: 1) to determine if obese (OB) individuals exhibit impairments in thermoregulatory responses during exercise heat-stress (centrally-mediated) and intradermal infusion of vasoactive substances (peripherally-mediated) versus non-obese (N-OB), and 2) to determine if hypohydration subsequently affects these thermoregulatory responses differently between groups. Methods: Twenty-one healthy ...


A Prediction Model For Acute Core And Lower Extremity Injuries In Division 1 Collegiate Football Players, Alexandra Aline Mcdonald May 2016

A Prediction Model For Acute Core And Lower Extremity Injuries In Division 1 Collegiate Football Players, Alexandra Aline Mcdonald

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Various intrinsic factors such as high exposure, poor endurance of core muscles, previous injury, strength deficits, suboptimal neurocognitive function, and orthopedic abnormalities have been found as predictors for sprains and strains among collegiate football players. Objective: Assess the applicability of pre-participation assessments as predictors of core or lower extremity injury. Design: Cohort Study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football program. Patients or Other Participants: Athletes who underwent mandatory pre-participation examinations before preseason football training over two consecutive seasons (n=225). Main Outcome Measure(s): Associations between preseason protocols and injury incidence for core and lower extremity injuries ...


Effect Of Passive Heating On Males And Females With Elevated Arterial Stiffness, Forrest Blake Robinson May 2016

Effect Of Passive Heating On Males And Females With Elevated Arterial Stiffness, Forrest Blake Robinson

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality in the United States, accounting for about 1 in every 4 deaths annually. Studies have shown that passive heating does have some degree of effect on arterial stiffness, but not much is known about populations with higher stiffness. Objective: To examine the independent effect of core temperature increase during passive heating on arterial stiffness. Methods: Participants visited the lab three times; one familiarization and two experimental trials. The experimental trials consisted of subjects being passively heated in an environment of 40°C / 40% relative humidity (HEAT) or normal ...


The Effect Of Fluid Balance On Exercise Performance In The Heat, Yasuki Sekiguchi May 2016

The Effect Of Fluid Balance On Exercise Performance In The Heat, Yasuki Sekiguchi

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: In dehydrated individuals thirst seems to disappear after ingestion of small amount of water before full rehydration. This phenomenon has been linked to oropharyngeal receptors. However, some researchers suggest that drinking to satisfy thirst is enough for optimal performance. It is well established that water deficit greater than 2% of body weight decreases exercise performance in the heat. No study has ever examined the effect hydration on exercise performance in the absence of thirst via oropharyngeal stimulation. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of dehydration on exercise performance and thermoregulation during exercise in the ...


The Effects Of Hypohydration On Neurocognitive, Balance, Vestibular Ocular Motor Functions And Mood State, Satoshi Iida May 2016

The Effects Of Hypohydration On Neurocognitive, Balance, Vestibular Ocular Motor Functions And Mood State, Satoshi Iida

Theses and Dissertations

Inconsistent findings have been observed on the impact of hydration state on cognitive functions. The isolated effect of hypohydration on neurocognitive performance, balance, vestibular ocular motor function and mood outcomes in widely used concussion assessment tools has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate how hypohydration affected the results in concussion testing batteries. A single-blind randomized crossover design was used. Thirteen healthy males (22 ± 4y, 180.9 ± 5.7cm) without history of concussion within the past six months or any condition or disease that could influence outcome measurements participated in this study. Each subject completed concussion ...


Failures In Adaptive Locomotion In Healthy Young Adults, Michel J. H. Heijnen Apr 2016

Failures In Adaptive Locomotion In Healthy Young Adults, Michel J. H. Heijnen

Open Access Dissertations

Young adults fall most frequently when walking, and trips account for 25% of these falls (Heijnen & Rietdyk, 2016). Common approaches to understanding tripping include the examination of behavior when a stationary obstacle is crossed successfully, or to deliberately trip the participant with a covert obstacle. However, these approaches do not establish the underlying cause of failure; examining inadvertent failures does, as this occurs most often in the field (Heijnen & Rietdyk, 2016). In order to identify the behavior that results in obstacle contact, this dissertation examined gait characteristics during inadvertent failures and manipulated the sensory information available to guide the limb trajectory. Manipulating the availability of sensory information is important to determine the information used to successfully guide the limbs, particularly the trail limb. Three experiments were conducted to systematically examine the role of visual and somatosensory information in young adults ...


Autophagy Regulation After Diet And Exercise In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Megan Elizabeth Rosa Jan 2016

Autophagy Regulation After Diet And Exercise In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Megan Elizabeth Rosa

Theses and Dissertations

Along with the rise in obesity, rates of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have also increased. NAFLD may begin with fat accumulation in the liver, but can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, and eventual cirrhosis. With no pharmacological treatment for NASH, lifestyle interventions appear vital to maintaining liver health. Previous work has shown aberrant mitochondrial content/quality and autophagy in models of NAFLD. Exercise is known to improve mitochondrial health and possibly autophagy, thus autophagy may be a key regulatory factor for treatment of obesity induced-NAFLD. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine how weight loss from ...


The Validity Of Urine Color Self-Assessment As An Index Of Hydration In Males, Daniel Layne Nixon Dec 2015

The Validity Of Urine Color Self-Assessment As An Index Of Hydration In Males, Daniel Layne Nixon

Theses and Dissertations

While water intake is so important, there are few practical hydration assessment techniques for the general population to use on a daily basis. The present study examined the accuracy of self-assessed urine color (Ucol) as a potential hydration assessment tool. Male college aged subjects provided a urine sample into a custom built urinal (n=76; 1.79±0.76 m, 83.9±16.0 kg). The urinal contained a picture of the 1-8 color scale and a light and dark urine color scale. Subjects were asked to give their urine color estimation as a whole number integer and to estimate ...


The Longitudinal Effects Of Beta-Alanine Supplementation On Isometric Strength, Time To Exhaustion, And Lower-Body Isometric Torque In Female Masters Athlete Cyclists, Jordan Mckenzie Glenn Jul 2015

The Longitudinal Effects Of Beta-Alanine Supplementation On Isometric Strength, Time To Exhaustion, And Lower-Body Isometric Torque In Female Masters Athlete Cyclists, Jordan Mckenzie Glenn

Theses and Dissertations

Within the population of aging individuals exists a subset of competitive seniors or masters athletes (MA). As masters-level competition increases in popularity, MA must find methods to enhance individual athletic performance. Beta-alanine (BA) is an amino acid used to enhance physical capability based on ability increase intramuscular carnosine concentrations. Older adults and females have naturally lower carnosine levels compared to age- and gender-matched counterparts and may experience enhanced benefits from BA supplementation. Purpose: Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the longitudinal effects of BA supplementation on isometric handgrip strength (HG), time to exhaustion (TTE), total work completed ...


The Comparative Effects Of Hot Yoga And Thermoneutral Yoga On Flexibility, Heart Rate, Sweat Rate, And Mood, Hannah Kirkland Campbell Jul 2015

The Comparative Effects Of Hot Yoga And Thermoneutral Yoga On Flexibility, Heart Rate, Sweat Rate, And Mood, Hannah Kirkland Campbell

Theses and Dissertations

Yoga is an ancient Indian philosophy, described as a therapeutic intervention and health maintenance practice that unites the mind and body to aid healing through the combination of physical postures, breathing techniques, and meditation. There is ample research regarding yoga practiced in an environment that is thermoneutral, or in an environment that does not alter the metabolic heat production or evaporative heat loss of people. However, minimal research exists on the increasingly popular form of yoga known as hot yoga, or yoga practiced in an environment that is often humidified and 95° F or warmer. This exploratory study compared the ...


The Effect Of Balance-Based Torso-Weighting On Mobility, Gait, Balance, Postural Control, And Falls Efficacy In Mobility Limited Older Adults, Jennifer L. Vincenzo May 2015

The Effect Of Balance-Based Torso-Weighting On Mobility, Gait, Balance, Postural Control, And Falls Efficacy In Mobility Limited Older Adults, Jennifer L. Vincenzo

Theses and Dissertations

Exercise is a known intervention to prevent fall risk among older adults; however, adherence is poor. Therefore, it is of interest to determine if other interventions improve function and decrease fall risk among older adults. Balance-Based Torso-Weighting (BBTW) is a non-exercise intervention that improves functional measures among adults with multiple sclerosis, yet the effectiveness of BBTW has not been assessed among older adults without progressive neurological disorders. We conducted a double-blind, randomized study to analyze the effect of BBTW on functional measures and falls efficacy among community-dwelling, mobility limited older adults after 5 days of wearing BalanceWear® for 4 hours ...


Perceptual Differences In Children Learning To Play Golf With Traditional Or Modified (Scaled) Equipment, Lindsey Dawn Sams May 2015

Perceptual Differences In Children Learning To Play Golf With Traditional Or Modified (Scaled) Equipment, Lindsey Dawn Sams

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to examine perception differences of competence and enjoyment between learners using modified and traditional equipment, and the potential effects these factors could have on intent for future participation. The participants in this study were 123 children (65 girls, 58 boys) aged 7 to 17 years. Through a convenience sampling method, data was obtained through surveys measuring golf participation and self-perceptions concerning perceived competence, enjoyment and intention to continue participation. To avoid an age confound, the dataset was limited to 2nd through 5th grade children (24 traditional/ 75 modified) for secondary analyses (MANOVA and ...


The Effect Of Physical Activity Levels On Hydration Markers In Non-Athletic Free-Living Individuals, Mikell Lucas Hammer May 2015

The Effect Of Physical Activity Levels On Hydration Markers In Non-Athletic Free-Living Individuals, Mikell Lucas Hammer

Theses and Dissertations

Higher levels of physical activity requires increased fluid intake due to increased water losses via sweating. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of physical activity on hydration status and water intake. METHODS: This study involved 8 visits to the Human Performance Laboratory over 22 days. Body weight and urine measurements were taken every visit. Physical activity was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), water intake by the Water Frequency Questionnaire (WFQ), and hydration status by urine osmolality (UOsm), urine specific gravity (USG), and urine color (UC). From the IPAQ subjects were classified as low, moderate and high physical activity ...


Impacts Of Micrornas On Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis And Mitochondrial Quality, David Lee May 2015

Impacts Of Micrornas On Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis And Mitochondrial Quality, David Lee

Theses and Dissertations

microRNA (miRNA) post-transcriptional modification is becoming a well-established mechanism for controlling mRNA translation. microRNAs -1, -133, and -206 are under the control of skeletal muscle promoters and affect muscle plasticity and metabolic health. A detailed review on the generation and processing of miRNAs with a view to skeletal muscle brings up intriguing connections in the transcriptional connections between multiple miRNAs. Additionally, exciting new research has defined a role of miRNAs in skeletal muscle mitochondria showing an additional, direct link to metabolic function. Multiple investigations in models of exercise, aging, hypertrophy, and injury have shown how these interventions can affect miRNA ...


The Status Of Small Group Training As Perceived By Program Administrators, Jade Alexis Dworkin May 2015

The Status Of Small Group Training As Perceived By Program Administrators, Jade Alexis Dworkin

Theses and Dissertations

This descriptive study was obtain program components and administrative perceptions of collegiate recreation small group training programs. Through an extensive review of literature and valued input from key campus recreation professionals, a preliminary survey with 30 items was created. The preliminary survey, Administrative Effectiveness of Small Group Training Programs Survey (AESGTPS), was administered electronically to collegiate recreation small group training program directors. Research questions investigated were identifying ways in which various program components may vary from institution to institution, identifying program components that were perceived to be contributing to perceived program effectiveness, and defining ways in which program administrators perceived ...


Postural Sway In Infants At Low And High Risk For Autism Spectrum Disorder, Rachel C. Harris Oct 2014

Postural Sway In Infants At Low And High Risk For Autism Spectrum Disorder, Rachel C. Harris

Open Access Theses

ABSTRACT Harris, Rachel C. M. S., Purdue University, December 2014. Postural Control in Infants at Low and High Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder. Major Professor: Laura J. Claxton. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder more commonly known for deficits in social and communication skills. More recently, aspects of motor development have been shown to be delayed in children with ASD, including deficits in their postural control abilities. Children with ASD have difficulty integrating information from their sensory systems to help control their balance. Infants at risk for ASD and infants who are later diagnosed with ASD have delays ...


Design, Development And Testing Of A Balance Board With Variable Torsional Stiffness And Time Delay, Denise Renee Cruise Jul 2014

Design, Development And Testing Of A Balance Board With Variable Torsional Stiffness And Time Delay, Denise Renee Cruise

Open Access Theses

The ability to balance and maintain upright posture can decline for a variety of reasons, such as aging and neuromuscular impairment. As the ability to balance declines, the risk of falling increases. Falls are a major cause of injury, and often lead to a dramatic decline in quality of life. Currently, to alleviate balance deficiencies, people participate in balance training, which most commonly refers to standing on an unstable balance board; the most common boards used are either passive wobble boards, or more advanced commercial systems such as the Biodex System SD ® or the Neurocom SMART Balance Master® . Balance training ...


The Effects Of Apoe Knock Out On Skeletal Muscle Regeneration: A Look Into Markers Of Protein Synthesis And Satellite Cell Function, Joshua Eden Ragland May 2014

The Effects Of Apoe Knock Out On Skeletal Muscle Regeneration: A Look Into Markers Of Protein Synthesis And Satellite Cell Function, Joshua Eden Ragland

Theses and Dissertations

ApoE helps regulate serum cholesterol levels by adding in transport of cholesterol into the cells, as well as, to the liver. ApoE knockout mice (ApoE KO) present a model that demonstrates the effects of hypercholesterolemia. Damage to muscle stimulates a complex regenerative response. The effects of high cholesterol on this regenerative response are not known. PURPOSE: To determine if skeletal muscle regeneration is altered in apoE KO mice by measuring protein synthesis regulator IGF-1, Akt, mTOR, and p70S6K, cell cycle regulator cyclin D1, and myogenic regulatory factors myoD and myogenin. METHODS: Female C57/BL6 (WT) and apoE KO were assigned ...


Physical Activity Informational Websites: Accuracy, Language Ease, And Fear Appeal, Samantha Rose Paige Apr 2014

Physical Activity Informational Websites: Accuracy, Language Ease, And Fear Appeal, Samantha Rose Paige

Open Access Theses

Introduction. Health information is one of the most common searches on the Internet. Literature supports that, in general, health information readily available to Internet consumers is not accurate, lacks plain language for ease of understanding, and does not incorporate behavior-change theoretical frameworks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate each of these components. Method. Three keywords, "physical activity," "exercise," and "fitness," were entered into four popular search engines: Google, Bing, and Yahoo. The first 5 result pages were considered, totaling a sample of 493 websites. After exclusionary criteria, 102 websites were reviewed and analyzed with guidance from ACSM recommendations ...


Engagement Of Seniors: 'How' And 'Why' Engagement Profiles Change Over Time, Kelly Carr Jan 2014

Engagement Of Seniors: 'How' And 'Why' Engagement Profiles Change Over Time, Kelly Carr

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study explored 'how' and 'why' engagement profiles change throughout older adulthood within a framework of successful aging. A convergent parallel mixed methods design was employed. Fifty-four participants (mean age = 79.17, age range = 65-97 years; 21 males, 33 females) completed questionnaires to quantify 'past' and 'present' engagement. Focus groups segmented by decade of life and semi-structured interviews were completed with a subsample of participants (n = 42). Results indicated that participation in productive and active leisure activities decreased with increasing age, while social and passive leisure engagement remained stable. This change in engagement pattern may be a function of the ...


Effectiveness Of Commercial Video Gaming On Fine Motor Recovery In Chronic Stroke Within Community-Level Rehabilitation, Kathleen C. Paquin Jan 2014

Effectiveness Of Commercial Video Gaming On Fine Motor Recovery In Chronic Stroke Within Community-Level Rehabilitation, Kathleen C. Paquin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Chronic stroke survivors often live with persisting upper extremity deficits that affect their daily life, and are traditionally offered little rehabilitation. Commercial gaming can act as a motivating way to complete rehabilitation. Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of commercial gaming as an intervention for fine motor recovery in chronic stroke. Methods: Ten chronic phase post-stroke participants completed a 16-session program using the Nintendo Wii for 15 minutes 2x/week with their more affected hand. Measures used at four testing sessions included: Jebsen Hand Function Test (JHFT), Box and Blocks Test (BBT), Nine Hole Peg Test (NHPT), Stroke Impact Scale ...


Post-Exercise And Post-Recovery Blood Lactate In Peripheral Arterial Disease, Rebecca Kate Roderick Dec 2013

Post-Exercise And Post-Recovery Blood Lactate In Peripheral Arterial Disease, Rebecca Kate Roderick

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to observe how the presence of peripheral arterial disease affects the level of post-exercise blood lactate and post-recovery blood lactate during and following the six-minute walk test (6MWT). The 6MWT was administered to 49 participants (33 classified as Non-PAD and 16 classified as PAD) over the age of 50 with no uncontrolled cardiovascular or metabolic diseases or a cardiovascular event in the previous 6 months. Results demonstrated that no significant statistical difference exists between the presence of PAD and resting blood lactate (F = 0.86, p = .36), post-exercise blood lactate (F= 0.48, p ...


Evaluation Of Shake Weight Protocol In Senior Populations, Isaac F. Cook Dec 2013

Evaluation Of Shake Weight Protocol In Senior Populations, Isaac F. Cook

Theses and Dissertations

The Shake Weight® (SW®) is designed to improve muscular fitness in a quick and inexpensive way. This study aimed to determine if the SW® was an effective tool at improving muscular fitness, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in post-menopausal women. Participants were 17 healthy, post-menopausal women from aMidwestern University and divided into two training (SW® and HIT) interventions that lasted 10 weeks. HIT participants performed three sets of 8 repetitions at 80% of their estimated 1RM for the chest press, leg press, lat pulldown, and seated row. SW® participants performed the exercises prescribed by the SW® manufacturer. Changes ...


Effects Of High-Velocity Versus Low-Velocity Resistance Training On Resting Metabolic Rate And Functional Performance In Older Adults, Laura Ashleigh Morgan Aug 2013

Effects Of High-Velocity Versus Low-Velocity Resistance Training On Resting Metabolic Rate And Functional Performance In Older Adults, Laura Ashleigh Morgan

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 12-week high-velocity resistance training (HVRT) protocol to a traditional low-velocity resistance training (LVRT) protocol on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and other selected measures of muscular and functional fitness in older adults. Nineteen adults between the ages of 65 and 82 participated: 8 HVRT, 7 LVRT, and 4 controls (CTRL). Initially, no differences existed between groups except for age (p = .016). HVRT (75.6 years) was older than LVRT (69.6 years) and CTRL (69.3 years). The exercise intervention consisted of 2 days/week sessions for 12 weeks ...