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Comparing Before-And After-School Neurocognitive Performance In High School Athletes- Implications For Concussion Management, Morgan Anderson May 2017

Comparing Before-And After-School Neurocognitive Performance In High School Athletes- Implications For Concussion Management, Morgan Anderson

Theses and Dissertations

There are several factors that influence computerized neurocognitive testing performance however, one factor that has not been examined is the potential deleterious effects of cognitive fatigue from an academic school day combined with time of computerized neurocognitive testing (CNT) administration. The primary purpose of this study was to compare before-and after-school CNT performance and total symptoms in non-concussed high school student athletes. The secondary purpose of this study was to compare before-school and after-school CNT performance and total symptoms and chronotypes in non-concussed student athletes. A crossover design was used to compare before-and after-school CNT performance and total symptoms of ...


Examining Fear Of Re-Injury In High School Athletes With Sport-Related Concussion, Melissa Nicole Anderson May 2017

Examining Fear Of Re-Injury In High School Athletes With Sport-Related Concussion, Melissa Nicole Anderson

Theses and Dissertations

Recent consensus statements have advocated for research on the emotional sequelae that is associated with sport-related concussion (McCrory et al., 2012). However, changes in fear of re-injury throughout SRC recovery are understudied. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to describe fear of re-injury in high school athletes with SRC, and 2) to document changes in fear of re-injury throughout SRC recovery. This study addressed several exploratory questions regarding fear of re-injury in high school athletes with SRC that pertain to identifying predictors of fear of re-injury as well as examining the relationship between fear of re-injury and locus ...


Daily Variability Of Body Weight And Hydration Markers In Free Living Men And Women, Lynndee Grace Summers Dec 2016

Daily Variability Of Body Weight And Hydration Markers In Free Living Men And Women, Lynndee Grace Summers

Theses and Dissertations

Body weight and hydration markers change greatly during strenuous exercise, especially in the heat. However, in a non-athletic population, changes in body weight and hydration markers may not be so obvious. It is important to classify the normal fluctuation of these measurements for future studies in order to delineate when an intervention results in a change outside of what can be expected during normal daily living. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the normal fluctuations in body weight and urine hydration markers over the course of 29 days. METHODS: One-hundred two male and female participants, ranging from ...


The Influence Of Strength-Training Exercises On The Functional Fitness In Older Adults, Susie Engle Aug 2016

The Influence Of Strength-Training Exercises On The Functional Fitness In Older Adults, Susie Engle

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of strength-training exercises on the functional fitness in older adults. The original convenience sample consisted of 658 participants who attended group strength-training classes offered through the Cooperative Extension Service. The Senior Fitness Test was used to assess baseline fitness levels at the beginning and end of the 12-week strength-training program. Data was collected from 2008 to 2015. Of the 658 participants, 110 were aged 60 to 94 and presented posttest scores occurring approximately 12 weeks after pretest dates. Of the 110 subjects, 99 were female and 11 were male. The ...


Mental Toughness, Grit, And Motivational Differences In Single-Sport And Multi-Sport Athletes, Cole Justin Shewmake Aug 2016

Mental Toughness, Grit, And Motivational Differences In Single-Sport And Multi-Sport Athletes, Cole Justin Shewmake

Theses and Dissertations

Whether it is at work, school or sports, mental toughness (MT), grit and motivation are essential to accomplishing goals. Sports can be an integral platform for developing MT, grit, and factors that increase motivation levels, and it is during childhood and adolescence that these characteristics may develop. All of this could prove beneficial into adulthood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine MT, grit and motivational orientations of single-sport and multi-sport athletes at different levels of competition. Considering MT, a 2 x 2 ANOVA indicated no significant interaction effect between athlete type and competition level, F(1, 387 ...


Observing Renal Responses To Endurance Cycling In The Heat, Cody Smith Aug 2016

Observing Renal Responses To Endurance Cycling In The Heat, Cody Smith

Theses and Dissertations

AIM: To observe the effects of endurance cycling in the heat on renal function, and determine if the extent of impairment is related to hydration. METHODS: 40 cyclists (34 male, 6 female, 52 ± 9 y, 21.7 ± 6.5 % body fat) completed an endurance cycling event (5.7 ± 1.2 hours) in the heat (33.2 ± 5.0ºC, 38.4 ± 10.7% RH). Body mass was assessed to determine net fluid loss, muscle damage in the legs was assessed with a pain scale, a urine sample was collected to analyze hydration status, and a blood sample was drawn. All measurements ...


Effect Of Hydration Status On Thermoregulatory Responses In Non-Obese And Obese Males, Matthew Tucker Aug 2016

Effect Of Hydration Status On Thermoregulatory Responses In Non-Obese And Obese Males, Matthew Tucker

Theses and Dissertations

During heat stress the human body thermoregulates via cutaneous vasodilation and sweating. Hypohydration can impair thermoregulatory responses that stem from the central nervous system (CNS), but it is unknown if impairments also occur post-synaptically in the microcirculation. Moreover, obese individuals may have impaired thermoregulation, possibly due to microvascular dysfunction. Purpose: The purpose of these studies was two-fold: 1) to determine if obese (OB) individuals exhibit impairments in thermoregulatory responses during exercise heat-stress (centrally-mediated) and intradermal infusion of vasoactive substances (peripherally-mediated) versus non-obese (N-OB), and 2) to determine if hypohydration subsequently affects these thermoregulatory responses differently between groups. Methods: Twenty-one healthy ...


A Prediction Model For Acute Core And Lower Extremity Injuries In Division 1 Collegiate Football Players, Alexandra Aline Mcdonald May 2016

A Prediction Model For Acute Core And Lower Extremity Injuries In Division 1 Collegiate Football Players, Alexandra Aline Mcdonald

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Various intrinsic factors such as high exposure, poor endurance of core muscles, previous injury, strength deficits, suboptimal neurocognitive function, and orthopedic abnormalities have been found as predictors for sprains and strains among collegiate football players. Objective: Assess the applicability of pre-participation assessments as predictors of core or lower extremity injury. Design: Cohort Study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football program. Patients or Other Participants: Athletes who underwent mandatory pre-participation examinations before preseason football training over two consecutive seasons (n=225). Main Outcome Measure(s): Associations between preseason protocols and injury incidence for core and lower extremity injuries ...


The Effect Of Fluid Balance On Exercise Performance In The Heat, Yasuki Sekiguchi May 2016

The Effect Of Fluid Balance On Exercise Performance In The Heat, Yasuki Sekiguchi

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: In dehydrated individuals thirst seems to disappear after ingestion of small amount of water before full rehydration. This phenomenon has been linked to oropharyngeal receptors. However, some researchers suggest that drinking to satisfy thirst is enough for optimal performance. It is well established that water deficit greater than 2% of body weight decreases exercise performance in the heat. No study has ever examined the effect hydration on exercise performance in the absence of thirst via oropharyngeal stimulation. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of dehydration on exercise performance and thermoregulation during exercise in the ...


Autophagy Regulation After Diet And Exercise In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Megan Elizabeth Rosa Jan 2016

Autophagy Regulation After Diet And Exercise In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Megan Elizabeth Rosa

Theses and Dissertations

Along with the rise in obesity, rates of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have also increased. NAFLD may begin with fat accumulation in the liver, but can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, and eventual cirrhosis. With no pharmacological treatment for NASH, lifestyle interventions appear vital to maintaining liver health. Previous work has shown aberrant mitochondrial content/quality and autophagy in models of NAFLD. Exercise is known to improve mitochondrial health and possibly autophagy, thus autophagy may be a key regulatory factor for treatment of obesity induced-NAFLD. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine how weight loss from ...


The Longitudinal Effects Of Beta-Alanine Supplementation On Isometric Strength, Time To Exhaustion, And Lower-Body Isometric Torque In Female Masters Athlete Cyclists, Jordan Mckenzie Glenn Jul 2015

The Longitudinal Effects Of Beta-Alanine Supplementation On Isometric Strength, Time To Exhaustion, And Lower-Body Isometric Torque In Female Masters Athlete Cyclists, Jordan Mckenzie Glenn

Theses and Dissertations

Within the population of aging individuals exists a subset of competitive seniors or masters athletes (MA). As masters-level competition increases in popularity, MA must find methods to enhance individual athletic performance. Beta-alanine (BA) is an amino acid used to enhance physical capability based on ability increase intramuscular carnosine concentrations. Older adults and females have naturally lower carnosine levels compared to age- and gender-matched counterparts and may experience enhanced benefits from BA supplementation. Purpose: Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the longitudinal effects of BA supplementation on isometric handgrip strength (HG), time to exhaustion (TTE), total work completed ...


The Comparative Effects Of Hot Yoga And Thermoneutral Yoga On Flexibility, Heart Rate, Sweat Rate, And Mood, Hannah Kirkland Campbell Jul 2015

The Comparative Effects Of Hot Yoga And Thermoneutral Yoga On Flexibility, Heart Rate, Sweat Rate, And Mood, Hannah Kirkland Campbell

Theses and Dissertations

Yoga is an ancient Indian philosophy, described as a therapeutic intervention and health maintenance practice that unites the mind and body to aid healing through the combination of physical postures, breathing techniques, and meditation. There is ample research regarding yoga practiced in an environment that is thermoneutral, or in an environment that does not alter the metabolic heat production or evaporative heat loss of people. However, minimal research exists on the increasingly popular form of yoga known as hot yoga, or yoga practiced in an environment that is often humidified and 95° F or warmer. This exploratory study compared the ...


The Effect Of Physical Activity Levels On Hydration Markers In Non-Athletic Free-Living Individuals, Mikell Lucas Hammer May 2015

The Effect Of Physical Activity Levels On Hydration Markers In Non-Athletic Free-Living Individuals, Mikell Lucas Hammer

Theses and Dissertations

Higher levels of physical activity requires increased fluid intake due to increased water losses via sweating. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of physical activity on hydration status and water intake. METHODS: This study involved 8 visits to the Human Performance Laboratory over 22 days. Body weight and urine measurements were taken every visit. Physical activity was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), water intake by the Water Frequency Questionnaire (WFQ), and hydration status by urine osmolality (UOsm), urine specific gravity (USG), and urine color (UC). From the IPAQ subjects were classified as low, moderate and high physical activity ...


The Status Of Small Group Training As Perceived By Program Administrators, Jade Alexis Dworkin May 2015

The Status Of Small Group Training As Perceived By Program Administrators, Jade Alexis Dworkin

Theses and Dissertations

This descriptive study was obtain program components and administrative perceptions of collegiate recreation small group training programs. Through an extensive review of literature and valued input from key campus recreation professionals, a preliminary survey with 30 items was created. The preliminary survey, Administrative Effectiveness of Small Group Training Programs Survey (AESGTPS), was administered electronically to collegiate recreation small group training program directors. Research questions investigated were identifying ways in which various program components may vary from institution to institution, identifying program components that were perceived to be contributing to perceived program effectiveness, and defining ways in which program administrators perceived ...


Post-Exercise And Post-Recovery Blood Lactate In Peripheral Arterial Disease, Rebecca Kate Roderick Dec 2013

Post-Exercise And Post-Recovery Blood Lactate In Peripheral Arterial Disease, Rebecca Kate Roderick

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to observe how the presence of peripheral arterial disease affects the level of post-exercise blood lactate and post-recovery blood lactate during and following the six-minute walk test (6MWT). The 6MWT was administered to 49 participants (33 classified as Non-PAD and 16 classified as PAD) over the age of 50 with no uncontrolled cardiovascular or metabolic diseases or a cardiovascular event in the previous 6 months. Results demonstrated that no significant statistical difference exists between the presence of PAD and resting blood lactate (F = 0.86, p = .36), post-exercise blood lactate (F= 0.48, p ...


Evaluation Of Shake Weight Protocol In Senior Populations, Isaac F. Cook Dec 2013

Evaluation Of Shake Weight Protocol In Senior Populations, Isaac F. Cook

Theses and Dissertations

The Shake Weight® (SW®) is designed to improve muscular fitness in a quick and inexpensive way. This study aimed to determine if the SW® was an effective tool at improving muscular fitness, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in post-menopausal women. Participants were 17 healthy, post-menopausal women from aMidwestern University and divided into two training (SW® and HIT) interventions that lasted 10 weeks. HIT participants performed three sets of 8 repetitions at 80% of their estimated 1RM for the chest press, leg press, lat pulldown, and seated row. SW® participants performed the exercises prescribed by the SW® manufacturer. Changes ...


Effects Of High-Velocity Versus Low-Velocity Resistance Training On Resting Metabolic Rate And Functional Performance In Older Adults, Laura Ashleigh Morgan Aug 2013

Effects Of High-Velocity Versus Low-Velocity Resistance Training On Resting Metabolic Rate And Functional Performance In Older Adults, Laura Ashleigh Morgan

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 12-week high-velocity resistance training (HVRT) protocol to a traditional low-velocity resistance training (LVRT) protocol on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and other selected measures of muscular and functional fitness in older adults. Nineteen adults between the ages of 65 and 82 participated: 8 HVRT, 7 LVRT, and 4 controls (CTRL). Initially, no differences existed between groups except for age (p = .016). HVRT (75.6 years) was older than LVRT (69.6 years) and CTRL (69.3 years). The exercise intervention consisted of 2 days/week sessions for 12 weeks ...


Effect Of Body Size And Exercise On Mood State, Alexandra Lachance Dec 2012

Effect Of Body Size And Exercise On Mood State, Alexandra Lachance

Theses and Dissertations

Exercising in the presence of nature (i.e., "green exercise"), has been shown to heighten the physiological and mental benefits of traditional exercise on non-obese individuals. The effects of green exercise on obese individuals are unknown. It is hypothesized that green exercise is more beneficial for obese (greater positive improvements in mental health scores), compared to non-obese individuals. For example, the benefits of green exercise could help lower feelings of depression, improve mood and self-esteem to increase the propensity of obese individuals to meet exercise recommendations. Accordingly, this study investigated the physiological and psychological effects of green exercise on 12 ...


Interactions Between The Thermic Effect Of Food And Exercise On Total Energy Expenditure In Moderately Active Females, Ashley Binns Aug 2012

Interactions Between The Thermic Effect Of Food And Exercise On Total Energy Expenditure In Moderately Active Females, Ashley Binns

Theses and Dissertations

Diet and exercise are key components to overall health maintenance. Aspects contributing to weight maintenance include the thermic effect of food (TEF) and total energy expenditure (TEE), with TEF contributing to upwards of 10% TEE. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the interaction between TEF and exercise on TEE in moderately active females. METHODS: A sample population was established with the use of a health history questionnaire (HHQ). Ten active females of normal body composition, determined by body mass index (BMI) and a dual energy absorptiometry x-ray (DEXA) scan, participated in the study. Maximal aerobic capacity was ...


The Relationship Between Chronic Ankle Instability And Functional Movement Impairment In Division I Female Athletes, Akihito Tajima May 2012

The Relationship Between Chronic Ankle Instability And Functional Movement Impairment In Division I Female Athletes, Akihito Tajima

Theses and Dissertations

Lateral ankle sprains are the most common injury in athletics (Denegar & Miller, 2002; Ekstrand & Tropp, 1990). In addition, the recurrent rate of ankle sprains is as high as 80% (Smith & Reischl, 1986). Repetitive ankle sprains may lead to a phenomenon known as chronic ankle instability (Hertel, 2002). It has been theorized that there are two main attributions to chronic ankle instability: mechanical and functional instability (Monaghan, Delahunt, & Caulfield, 2006). The exact mechanism of chronic ankle instability is still unclear; however, recent studies focus on multiple factors rather than single measurements, in addition to functional testing. A few studies showed the validity of the use of functional movement screen to predict injury risk (Kiesel, Plisky, & Butler, 2007; Chorba, Bouilon, Overmyer, & Landis, 2010), however there is limited research concerning past injury history and movement impairment. Therefore it was the purpose of this study to use functional movement screen to determine if participants with chronic ankle instability exhibit notable functional movement impairments when compared to a group of matched control with no ...


The Correlation Between Hip Abductor Strength And Functional Performance In Division I Female Collegiate Soccer Athletes, Caitlin Elizabeth Whale May 2012

The Correlation Between Hip Abductor Strength And Functional Performance In Division I Female Collegiate Soccer Athletes, Caitlin Elizabeth Whale

Theses and Dissertations

Division I female soccer athletes have been documented to succumb to the greatest amount of lower extremity injuries, predominately ACL injuries. The risk for a lower extremity injury becomes greater when alterations to functional biomechanics are present. Specifically, the hip abductor strength has a crucial role in maintaining pelvic alignment. The purpose of this study was to determine if the hip abductor strength of a female athlete alters' biomechanics during functional performance. Thirty-two Division I female soccer athletes participated in this study (20+2yrs, 64.5+16.5kg, 166+14cm). Descriptive and anthropological statistics were recorded prior to participation. The ...


Systematic Observation Of Coach Feedback In Elite Youth Volleyball, Mark David Mann May 2012

Systematic Observation Of Coach Feedback In Elite Youth Volleyball, Mark David Mann

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to understand the relationship of coach feedback during time-outs to the performance of 16-18 year old volleyball players in competitive match play situations. The systematic observation of coach feedback during 89 time-outs was recorded using the Coach Time-Out Observation Instrument (CTOOI). Out of the 879 feedback statements that were made during the 89 time-outs, the CTOOI categorized coach feedback for technical feedback (with an internal or an external focus), tactical feedback (referring to our team or the opponent), and psychological feedback (as either encouraging or discouraging remarks). Data from the Game Performance Assessment Instrument ...


Examining Activity Levels And Motor Proficiency: A Comparison Of Children Who Are Overweight And At A Healthy Weight To Their Parents And Peers, Aaron Copeland, Maresa Madsen, Riley Phelps, Brandon Richards May 2011

Examining Activity Levels And Motor Proficiency: A Comparison Of Children Who Are Overweight And At A Healthy Weight To Their Parents And Peers, Aaron Copeland, Maresa Madsen, Riley Phelps, Brandon Richards

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships and differences between motor proficiency, activity level, and parental activity level in children who are at a healthy weight and children who are overweight or obese.

Methods: Forty-four children (26 children at a healthy weight and 18 children who were overweight or obese) between the ages of 8-16 (BMI: 14.3-43.6 kg/m2) and 36 parents (BMI: 18.1-44.7) participated in this study. Children and parents wore StepWatch activity monitors (SAM) to measure activity levels over a 72 hour period. Tests reflecting several determinants of motor performance were ...


The Acute Effects Of Various Types Of Stretching (Static, Dynamic, Ballistic, And No Stretch) Of The Iliopsoas On 40-Yard Sprint Times In Non-Athletes, Scott David Christensen, Craig Perry, Ryan Richard Resnik May 2011

The Acute Effects Of Various Types Of Stretching (Static, Dynamic, Ballistic, And No Stretch) Of The Iliopsoas On 40-Yard Sprint Times In Non-Athletes, Scott David Christensen, Craig Perry, Ryan Richard Resnik

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of static, ballistic, dynamic, and no stretching immediately prior to a 40-yard sprint in college students. There were 35 healthy subjects (22 male and 13 female) between the ages of 24 and 37 (Mean = 26.46 yrs, SD = 2.99 yrs) who participated. The experiment consisted of running 4, 40-yard sprint trials immediately following 1 of 4 different stretching protocols. Prior to each 40- yard sprint trial, a 5-minute warm up was performed at 3.5 mph on a treadmill. Each subject received each of the four techniques in a ...


The Acute Effects Of Static Stretching Of The Gastrocnemius On Limits Of Stability In Young Adults Versus Elderly Adults, Matt Bugnet, Kirk Player May 2011

The Acute Effects Of Static Stretching Of The Gastrocnemius On Limits Of Stability In Young Adults Versus Elderly Adults, Matt Bugnet, Kirk Player

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Background and Purpose: Balance is an important part of everyday life for all individuals with many body systems interacting to achieve optimal balance. Proprioceptive organs aid in this interaction, while also acting as stretch receptors. Therefore, it is possible that stretching may influence the overall balance of the individual. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of stretching on dynamic balance of healthy young and elderly adults. The two groups were used to determine if stretching may discriminately affect balance at different ages.

Subjects: Thirty healthy adults between the ages of 18 and 35 (mean=25 ...


The Effects Of Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation On Lower-Body Hypertrophy-Type Resistance Exercise, Benjamin Mclean Carr May 2011

The Effects Of Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation On Lower-Body Hypertrophy-Type Resistance Exercise, Benjamin Mclean Carr

Dissertations

A number of studies have demonstrated the ergogenic effects of induced-alkalosis on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) administration on a high-volume hypertrophy-type resistance exercise regimen for the lower body. Methods: In a double-blind counterbalanced manner, 12 resistance-trained male participants (mean ± SD; age = 20.3 ± 2 yr, mass = 88.3 ± 13.2 kg, height = 1.80 ± 0.07 m), with a minimum of two years of training experience, ingested either 0.3 g˙kg-1 of NaHCO3 or calcium carbonate (CaCO3) Placebo, divided ...