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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Mathematical Analysis Of Feedback Targets Of Bmp Signaling In Drosophila Embryonic Development, Yan Luo Dec 2016

Mathematical Analysis Of Feedback Targets Of Bmp Signaling In Drosophila Embryonic Development, Yan Luo

Open Access Theses

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) drive a range of cellular processes especially in the early stages of embryonic development. This family of proteins acts as one of the most important extracellular signals in development pattern formation across the animal kingdom. Cells in embryos differentiate into different cell types in response to the concentration level of BMP. This complex process is regulated by multiple regulators that serve to tune the signal response.

Extensive experimental and computational research has been performed to analyze BMP regulation in Drosophila, a widely studied model organism, and has advanced our understanding of animal development. Because of BMP ...


Intestinal Adaptation To Repeated Exposure Of Flavonoid-Rich Foods: In Vitro And Clinical Data, Bejamin W. Redan Aug 2016

Intestinal Adaptation To Repeated Exposure Of Flavonoid-Rich Foods: In Vitro And Clinical Data, Bejamin W. Redan

Open Access Dissertations

Interest in application of flavonoids for chronic disease prevention has grown significantly, but the low oral bioavailability of these compounds from acute doses is commonly highlighted as a limitation when considering their biological significance. Still, the impact of broad dietary patterns such as repeated exposure on flavonoid’s absorption, metabolism, and eventual efficacy is critical to consider since evidence suggests that their bioavailability may be enhanced with repeated exposure. To fill this gap in knowledge, this dissertation will focus on three major areas including characterization of flavonoid metabolites, in addition to use of in vitro models and clinical work to ...


Intestinal Cytoplasmic Lipid Droplets, Associated Proteins, And The Regulation Of Dietary Fat Absorption, Theresa M. D'Aquila Aug 2016

Intestinal Cytoplasmic Lipid Droplets, Associated Proteins, And The Regulation Of Dietary Fat Absorption, Theresa M. D'Aquila

Open Access Dissertations

Dietary fat provides essential nutrients, contributes to energy balance, and regulates blood lipid concentrations. These functions are important to health, but can also become dysregulated and contribute to diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The small intestine absorbs dietary fat through an efficient multi step process of digestion, uptake, metabolism, and secretion or storage. When dietary fat is taken up by the absorptive cells of the small intestine, enterocytes, it can be secreted into circulation where it contributes to blood lipid levels or temporarily stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs). The objective of this dissertation is to investigate ...


Autophagy Regulation After Diet And Exercise In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Megan Elizabeth Rosa Jan 2016

Autophagy Regulation After Diet And Exercise In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Megan Elizabeth Rosa

Theses and Dissertations

Along with the rise in obesity, rates of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have also increased. NAFLD may begin with fat accumulation in the liver, but can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, and eventual cirrhosis. With no pharmacological treatment for NASH, lifestyle interventions appear vital to maintaining liver health. Previous work has shown aberrant mitochondrial content/quality and autophagy in models of NAFLD. Exercise is known to improve mitochondrial health and possibly autophagy, thus autophagy may be a key regulatory factor for treatment of obesity induced-NAFLD. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine how weight loss from ...


Eicosapentaenoic Acid (Epa) From Porphyridium Cruentum: Increasing Growth And Productivity Of The Microalgae For Pharmaceutical Products, Maryam Asgharpour Dec 2015

Eicosapentaenoic Acid (Epa) From Porphyridium Cruentum: Increasing Growth And Productivity Of The Microalgae For Pharmaceutical Products, Maryam Asgharpour

Theses and Dissertations

One of the major nutritional requirements in our diet is an adequate intake of omega-3 specially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). In the present study, the effects of two temperatures (16°C & 20˚C) and light intensities (140 & 180µE/M2.S) and four nitrate levels (0.075, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7g/L) on the cell growth and lipid productivity of Porphyridium cruentum, one of the most promising oil-rich species of microalgae, were investigated. A growth comparison was carried out using pure CO2 and 5% CO2/air. Additionally, the ratio of the fatty acids with omega-3 and omega-6 groups at ...


Comparison Of Different Modulators That Affect Macrophage Activation In Vitro, Alda Alexa Díaz Pérez Jul 2015

Comparison Of Different Modulators That Affect Macrophage Activation In Vitro, Alda Alexa Díaz Pérez

Theses and Dissertations

Inflammation is known as a mechanism to regulate and control infections as well as promote tissue repair. Macrophages (Mф) are known to be a major cell type in the initiation, sustainability and resolution of inflammation. Moreover, Mф are essential for the remodeling process that is also known as the wound healing response. The objective of this research was to compare five modulators (acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), dexamethasone (DEX), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), iloprost, and resolvin D1 (RvD1) for their anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages in vitro. Then, Mф phenotype in terms of gene expression and secreted cytokine response was determined. Our study compared ...


Local Modulation And Measurement Of Macrophage-Derived Bioactive Proteins From Implanted Biomaterials In Rat, Geetika Bajpai May 2015

Local Modulation And Measurement Of Macrophage-Derived Bioactive Proteins From Implanted Biomaterials In Rat, Geetika Bajpai

Theses and Dissertations

Fibrosis around the implanted medical devices is a severe problem that can plague long-term device reliability. Activation of macrophage phenotype (macrophage polarization) has emerged as a new and possible means for reducing fibrosis in the fields of biomaterials and regenerative medicine. Macrophages are phagocytic cells that respond to microenvironmental cues that direct their phenotype. Macrophage activation has been widely studied in mouse and human in the context of tumor biology, yet little information is available regarding how macrophage activation could be used in a biomaterials context. Further, rats rather than mice are the common subjects in biomaterials experiments. A significant ...


Inducing And Characterizing M2c Macrophages At A Non-Degradable Implant In Vivo, Geoffrey David Keeler May 2015

Inducing And Characterizing M2c Macrophages At A Non-Degradable Implant In Vivo, Geoffrey David Keeler

Theses and Dissertations

The implantation of biomaterials in the body leads to a reaction known as the foreign body response (FBR) which leads to the eventual encapsulation of the biomaterial. This encapsulation proves to be detrimental to certain biomaterials, such as implanted glucose sensors, which rely on interacting with the extracellular space for proper function. Altering the FBR has become of interest in an effort to increase the longevity and integration of biomaterials. One strategy for altering the FBR is by targeting the macrophage, shown to play an important role in the FBR. In this work, the microdialysis sampling technique was used to ...


Impacts Of Micrornas On Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis And Mitochondrial Quality, David Lee May 2015

Impacts Of Micrornas On Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis And Mitochondrial Quality, David Lee

Theses and Dissertations

microRNA (miRNA) post-transcriptional modification is becoming a well-established mechanism for controlling mRNA translation. microRNAs -1, -133, and -206 are under the control of skeletal muscle promoters and affect muscle plasticity and metabolic health. A detailed review on the generation and processing of miRNAs with a view to skeletal muscle brings up intriguing connections in the transcriptional connections between multiple miRNAs. Additionally, exciting new research has defined a role of miRNAs in skeletal muscle mitochondria showing an additional, direct link to metabolic function. Multiple investigations in models of exercise, aging, hypertrophy, and injury have shown how these interventions can affect miRNA ...


Neurotrophins And Their Effects On Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation And Migration, Kayla Elise Minser Apr 2014

Neurotrophins And Their Effects On Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation And Migration, Kayla Elise Minser

Open Access Theses

Cancer is a large health issue in all parts of the world. In the United States alone, approximately 1 in 4 deaths are cancer related. Breast cancer is a particularly prevalent form, accounting for a little over 14 percent of all cancer incidence. The largest obstacle to overcome for breast cancer morbidity is metastasis. Over 90 percent of all breast cancer related deaths are due to metastasis. Because metastasis is a complex, multi-step process, it is difficult to treat. A recent observation in the Kirshner lab has revealed a type of phenotypic plasticity, where migratory cancer cells have a neuronal-like ...


Interactions Of Nitric Oxide And Superoxide Pathways In Hyperglycemic Endothelial Cells, Steven Clay Rogers May 2012

Interactions Of Nitric Oxide And Superoxide Pathways In Hyperglycemic Endothelial Cells, Steven Clay Rogers

Theses and Dissertations

Cardiovascular complications arising from diabetic hyperglycemia represents one of the leading causes of death and greatest public health challenges of modern societies. Despite state-of-the-art glucose control, diabetic patients remain at a markedly increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The loss of endothelial function (the development of diabetic endothelial dysfunction) has been implicated in the development of numerous diabetic cardiovascular diseases. The endothelial cell produces many vasoactive substances, hormones and cytoprotective biological factors. Endothelial cells are also involved in and affected by the initiation of inflammatory responses through the release and interaction of cytokines and other immune system molecules. Therefore, regulation of ...


Comparison Of Beta-Adrenoceptor Coupled Camp Production In Cultured Human Mononuclear Leukocytes And Myometrial Cells, Yu-Li Liu Dec 1997

Comparison Of Beta-Adrenoceptor Coupled Camp Production In Cultured Human Mononuclear Leukocytes And Myometrial Cells, Yu-Li Liu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

$\beta\sb2$-Adrenoceptor ($\beta\sb2$-AR) agonists, such as terbutaline, are used as tocolytic agents in the treatment of preterm labor. $\beta$-Adrenoceptor stimulation relaxes myometrium through specific receptors coupled through Gs to adenylyl cyclase (AC) that catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cAMP. The purpose of this study was to compare $\beta$-adrenoceptors and cAMP production in cultured human leukocytes and myometrial cells, and to determine the importance of $\beta$-adrenoceptors and cAMP production in isoproterenol-induced myometrial relaxation. $\sp{125}$I-iodopindolol was used to assess $\beta$-adrenoceptor affinity and number cAMP levels were analyzed before and after stimulation by ...


Molecular And Cellular Analysis Of Chlamydia Trachomatis: Persistence And Reactivation, Kimberly R. Tau May 1992

Molecular And Cellular Analysis Of Chlamydia Trachomatis: Persistence And Reactivation, Kimberly R. Tau

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent sexually-transmitted infection in the United States. It has been suggested that CT infections can become latent. This has not been substantiated. CT persistence was examined at the molecular and cellular level in vitro and in vivo. Penicillin treatment of CT in vitro results in abnormal inclusions and reduced recovery of infectious CT. Penicillin did not inhibit initial stages of infection, but did downregulate CT rRNA levels after 25 hours post-inoculation (p.i.). DNA amplification was employed to differentiate between a resolved infection and a persistent one. Utilizing a primer pair that amplified a ...