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Theses/Dissertations

Health and environmental sciences

Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

2016

Articles 1 - 8 of 8

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Extracellular Matrix Remodeling And The Inflammatory Response During Skeletal Muscle Regeneration In Sarcopenic Obese Mice, Lemuel Arthur Brown Dec 2016

Extracellular Matrix Remodeling And The Inflammatory Response During Skeletal Muscle Regeneration In Sarcopenic Obese Mice, Lemuel Arthur Brown

Theses and Dissertations

AIM: Sarocpenic obesity is a national concern within the United States because this metabolic syndrome is tied with reduced mobility and quality of life. Both obesity and aging are associated with insulin-resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and muscle weakness. Skeletal muscle regeneration is a process that involves the coordinated effort of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), inflammatory signaling, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling for optimal regeneration. It has been demonstrated that obesity and aging have a reduction in muscle regeneration. It has not been examined if sarcopenic obesity will further reduce muscle mass and the regenerative process. The purpose of this study ...


Long-Term Supplementation With Leucine Does Not Prevent Development Of Obesity In Rats Fed A High-Fat Diet, Dameon Smith Aug 2016

Long-Term Supplementation With Leucine Does Not Prevent Development Of Obesity In Rats Fed A High-Fat Diet, Dameon Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Excess dietary fat consumption has been implicated in the development of obesity and diabetes. Obesity can be characterized by a disproportionate increase in fat mass compared to lean body mass. However, if muscle mass can be increased or maintained in obesity, this may facilitate weight loss by increasing the body’s overall metabolic capacity. Historically, supplementation with the branched-chain amino acid leucine has been shown to increase muscle protein synthesis via the protein kinase mTORC1. Recent studies suggest that supplementation with leucine also has the potential to reduce weight gain and fat deposition in high-fat fed, obese mice. The objective ...


Biochemical Changes In Animal Models Of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Christine E. M. Keller Aug 2016

Biochemical Changes In Animal Models Of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Christine E. M. Keller

Open Access Dissertations

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a completely preventable disease, that has profound effects on life-long health and function of the affected individual. Prevalence estimates of FASD in the United States indicate 33.5 per 1,000 live births are affected with this disorder (Roozen, 2016). FASD is caused by maternal ethanol intake during pregnancy. However, recommendations of the amounts of alcohol safe to drink during pregnancy are not established. Further, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the biochemical pathways modified in prenatal ethanol exposure. Biomarkers are also lacking. Our results demonstrate the vast array of biochemical pathways modified in ...


Intestinal Cytoplasmic Lipid Droplets, Associated Proteins, And The Regulation Of Dietary Fat Absorption, Theresa M. D'Aquila Aug 2016

Intestinal Cytoplasmic Lipid Droplets, Associated Proteins, And The Regulation Of Dietary Fat Absorption, Theresa M. D'Aquila

Open Access Dissertations

Dietary fat provides essential nutrients, contributes to energy balance, and regulates blood lipid concentrations. These functions are important to health, but can also become dysregulated and contribute to diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The small intestine absorbs dietary fat through an efficient multi step process of digestion, uptake, metabolism, and secretion or storage. When dietary fat is taken up by the absorptive cells of the small intestine, enterocytes, it can be secreted into circulation where it contributes to blood lipid levels or temporarily stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs). The objective of this dissertation is to investigate ...


Innate Immunity In Chickens: In Vivo Responses To Different Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns, Kristen Alicia Byrne Aug 2016

Innate Immunity In Chickens: In Vivo Responses To Different Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns, Kristen Alicia Byrne

Theses and Dissertations

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on host cells recognize motifs known as pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are common to groups of microbes. Examples include LPS on Gram-negative bacteria, the structural motif PGN common to all bacteria, MDP the smallest immunostimulatory unit of PGN, and poly I:C the dsRNA analog. PAMP recognition by and stimulation of the innate immune system is crucial to an individual’s ability to quickly limit microbial growth and stimulate the adaptive immune system. Characterization of the in vivo immune responses initiated by PAMPs has not been directly addressed. Using growing feathers (GF) as a ...


Proteomic Characterization Of Eggshell Membranes And Their Effect On Poultry Physiology And Immunity, Sarbjeet Kaur Makkar May 2016

Proteomic Characterization Of Eggshell Membranes And Their Effect On Poultry Physiology And Immunity, Sarbjeet Kaur Makkar

Theses and Dissertations

The use of antibiotics in poultry growth and disease control has led to antibiotics resistant problem in human beings, which is a big concern among consumers. With the necessity for judicious use of antibiotics in poultry production, alternative strategies to improve disease resistance in poultry production are necessary. The research is more inclined towards using the natural products available to grow healthier and antibiotic free meat animals. In the context of exploring natural and sustainable resource of alternative to antibiotics, the biochemical milieu of eggshell membranes (ESM) were analyzed by using mass spectrometry techniques including matrix assisted laser desorption ionization ...


Immune Modulating Functions By Soypeptide Lunasin In Cancer Immunotherapy, Chun-Yu Tung May 2016

Immune Modulating Functions By Soypeptide Lunasin In Cancer Immunotherapy, Chun-Yu Tung

Open Access Dissertations

Chemotherapy is currently the mainstay of treatment for most cancer patients. Despite its efficacy in eliminating cancer cells, a high percentage of chemotherapy patients eventually relapse or suffer progression of the disease. Immunosurveillance is capable of recognizing and eliminating continuously arising transformed mutant cells, and thus cancer immunotherapy is one of the emerging therapeutic strategies that harnesses the power of the immune system to eradicate chemotherapy-resistant cancerous cells. However, the adverse side effects of chemotherapy impede the therapeutic effects of immunotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrate that lymphoma patients are refractory to clinical immunotherapy because of chemotherapy-induced immune dysfunction. In addition ...


Alternative Regulation Of Myc In Lung Cancer, Patrick N. Backman Mar 2016

Alternative Regulation Of Myc In Lung Cancer, Patrick N. Backman

Open Access Theses

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States, accounting for 27% of all cancer induced deaths1. In an attempt to create a effective targeted therapy for the treatment of lung cancer, a strategy used to treat an activated KrasG12D/+;p53 R172H/+ transgenic lung cancer mouse model was to deliver a known tumor suppressive microRNA (miRNA) to stop tumor growth. The tumor suppressive miRNA let-7 was lentivirally delivered in the form of its primary transcript, pri-let-7a-1, and resulted in increased lung size and inflammation compared to lungs exposed to a control lentivirus. It was ...