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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Value Of Cover Crops In Suppressing Weeds And Protecting Cotton Yields And Likelihood Of Residual Herbicide Carryover To Cover Crops, Matheus Gabriel Palhano May 2017

Value Of Cover Crops In Suppressing Weeds And Protecting Cotton Yields And Likelihood Of Residual Herbicide Carryover To Cover Crops, Matheus Gabriel Palhano

Theses and Dissertations

Weed-resistance management has become a topic of concern for modern agriculture. Cost related to herbicide usage has increased greatly due to evolution and proliferation of resistant weeds. Therefore, experiments were conducted to investigate the potential for using cover crops to suppress problematic weeds in cotton as well as chemical options for cover crop dessication, and sensitivity of cover crops to residual herbicides were evaluated. No differences were observed for cereal rye biomass production and consequently weed suppression between broadcast and drilled planting methods. Total amount of cover crop biomass was vital to effectively suppress weeds. Hence, of the cover crops ...


Liming Characteristics Of A High-Calcium, Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Product And Its Effects On Runoff Water Quality, Jason Richard Burgess-Conforti Dec 2016

Liming Characteristics Of A High-Calcium, Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Product And Its Effects On Runoff Water Quality, Jason Richard Burgess-Conforti

Theses and Dissertations

In 2013, only 37% of the 32 million Mg of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products generated in the United States were reused beneficially. If FGD by-products could be used as a beneficial soil amendment, millions of megagrams may be diverted away from surface impoundments and landfills. The purpose of this research was to identify the liming characteristics of a high-Ca dry FGD (DFGD) by-product in comparison to a Class-C fly ash (FA) and reagent-grade CaCO3, and to evaluate the effects of land application to a managed grassland on runoff, plant, and soil quality. Liming characteristics were determined by measuring the ...


Agro-Climatic Change, Crop Production And Mitigation Strategies-Case Studies In Arkansas, Usa And Kenya, John Westley Magugu Aug 2016

Agro-Climatic Change, Crop Production And Mitigation Strategies-Case Studies In Arkansas, Usa And Kenya, John Westley Magugu

Theses and Dissertations

Although climate change impacts vary geographically and temporally, studies at local levels are not readily available for stakeholders to better understand how their local communities would be affected and what remedial measures could be more effective in their local contexts. This dissertation has examined climate change and its impacts in two different local contexts: eastern Arkansas in the USA and Nyando in Kenya. The first part of this dissertation develops agro-meteorological indicators and examines the relationship between agro-meteorological indicators and crop yields in eastern Arkansas between 1960 and 2014. Results reveal that temperature based indicators were more strongly correlated to ...


Temperature In The Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) Canopy And Effects On Cotton Leaf And Boll Growth, Maria Soledad Berlangieri Costa Jul 2015

Temperature In The Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) Canopy And Effects On Cotton Leaf And Boll Growth, Maria Soledad Berlangieri Costa

Theses and Dissertations

Cotton development and yield are negatively influenced by extremes temperatures, mainly during reproductive stage. Ambient air temperature is used to evaluate temperature stress effect on yield under field conditions; however, there is evidence that actual temperatures in the canopy where bolls develop are different. In terms of cotton responses, there is limited research about the effects of elevated day and night temperatures upon boll carbohydrate content, size, and boll respiration. Field and growth chamber experiments were performed during 2014-2015 using the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar DP0912B2RF. Field studies for determining temperature gradients through the canopy consisted of two planting ...


Fate Of 17Α-Estradiol, 17Β-Estradiol, And Estrone In Agricultural Soils And Sediments, Michael L. Mashtare Jr Jan 2013

Fate Of 17Α-Estradiol, 17Β-Estradiol, And Estrone In Agricultural Soils And Sediments, Michael L. Mashtare Jr

Open Access Dissertations

The shift to concentrated animal production facilities and increasing rural-urban migration has increased the localized land application of nearly 1 billion tons of manure and biosolids annually. Although these applications provide nutrients and contribute to soil tilth, they also serve as a source for an estimated 49 tons of the natural manure-borne estrogens, 17α-estradiol (17α-E2), 17β-estradiol (17β-E2), and estrone (E1). While these estrogens are critical to endocrine systems, the low concentrations observed in the environment can disrupt endocrine function in non-target organisms, e.g., altering secondary sex characteristics which can lead to changes in wildlife communities.

Research presented here focuses ...


False Smut Of Rice: Histological Analysis Of Infection, Liem Thi Thanh Nguyen Dec 2012

False Smut Of Rice: Histological Analysis Of Infection, Liem Thi Thanh Nguyen

Theses and Dissertations

False smut of rice, caused by Ustilaginoidea virens (Cooke) Takahashi (Teleomorph: Villosiclava virens), has become a common disease in most major rice growing regions throughout the world. Considerable confusion exists regarding the infection process and the disease cycle. Therefore, a clearer understanding of pathogenesis caused by Ustilaginoidea virens is critical for future efforts to develop genetic and chemical tools to manage false smut in Arkansas and other regions of the world. The overall goal of this research was to clarify the infection process underlying false smut, with emphasis on comparing and contrasting the histological basis of root and foliar infections ...


Multifunctionality In U.S. Rice Production: A Logit Analysis In Farmers Participation, Juan Tur Cardona May 2012

Multifunctionality In U.S. Rice Production: A Logit Analysis In Farmers Participation, Juan Tur Cardona

Theses and Dissertations

Multifunctional agriculture is particularly fundamental to some working lands conservation policies and programs, such as the Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP), Conservation Security Program (CSP) and Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program (WHIP). Farmers can also be engaged in providing recreational and agri-tourism services such as hunting, fishing, bird-watching, farm tours, petting zoos and hospitality services. Using the Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS) we analyze factors associated with participation in conservation, recreation and agri-tourism activities as a function of farm structure, farm financial measures, production practices, and socio-demographic characteristics of the farm operator. To estimate the functional relationships we estimate a binary ...


Effect Of Water-Deficit Stress On Cotton During Reproductive Development, Dimitra Loka May 2012

Effect Of Water-Deficit Stress On Cotton During Reproductive Development, Dimitra Loka

Theses and Dissertations

Water deficit is a major abiotic factor limiting plant growth and crop productivity around the world. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is considered to be relatively tolerant to drought and the effects of water stress on leaf physiology and metabolism have been extensively documented. However, information is lacking on the effect of water-deficit stress on the cotton flower. It was hypothesized that water-deficit stress would impair gas exchange functions which consequently would result in perturbation of carbohydrates of cotton reproductive units. To investigate this hypothesis growth room studies and field studies were conducted with the objectives being to document the physiological ...