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Entomology

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Effects Hot Water Kill Time Has On Dna Degradation And Str Profiling From Lucilia Sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Crop Contents, Nicholas Alexander Haas Jan 2019

The Effects Hot Water Kill Time Has On Dna Degradation And Str Profiling From Lucilia Sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Crop Contents, Nicholas Alexander Haas

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

he use of entomological specimens as a source of forensic DNA evidence has been studied since the late 20th century. Currently as it stands, to preserve both the minimum postmortem interval (mPMI) and DNA evidence within fly larvae, two standards of preservation exist. For mPMI, the use of hot water kill with near-boiling water is used to fix larvae size for accurate age estimation. For DNA evidence, the standard technique of preservation is submersion in 70% ethanol. To help reduce the number of standard preservation techniques for practitioners, this study assessed the feasibility of the hot water kill preservation technique ...


Molecular Survey For The Honey Bee Trypanosome Parasites Crithidia Mellificae And Lotmaria Passim, Mary-Kate Williams Aug 2018

Molecular Survey For The Honey Bee Trypanosome Parasites Crithidia Mellificae And Lotmaria Passim, Mary-Kate Williams

Theses and Dissertations

Honey bee populations have been fluctuating within recent years. No one cause has been attributed to colony fluctuations due to the theory that multiple stressors interact with one another to impact colony health. Consequently, microorganisms such as internal parasites of honey bees have been understudied as a contributor to colony health decline.

Molecular diagnostics were utilized to detect the presence of two honey bee trypanosome parasites, Crithidia mellificae and Lotmaria passim, in managed and feral honey bee populations from eight states in the United States (USA). Because studies on trypanosome infections are lacking in the USA, it is important to ...


Impact Of Native Natural Enemies On Populations Of The Invasive Winter Moth (Operophtera Brumata L) In The Northeast United States, Hannah J. Broadley Jan 2018

Impact Of Native Natural Enemies On Populations Of The Invasive Winter Moth (Operophtera Brumata L) In The Northeast United States, Hannah J. Broadley

Doctoral Dissertations

Invasive insects increasingly affect forested landscapes and have important ecological and economic impacts. My dissertation focuses on population dynamics of winter moth (Operophtera brumata L.), an invasive pest in the northeastern United States. Native to Europe, this is the species’ fourth accidental introduction to North America. The Elkinton lab established the biological control agent Cyzenis albicans across the range of winter moth in the northeastern U.S. Prior research indicates that C. albicans’ ability to control winter moth likely depends on additional mortality from native natural enemies. My dissertation research evaluates the identity and role of natural enemies already present ...


Unknown And Cryptic Diversity In The Adelpha Serpa-Group, Cassidi Rush Jan 2018

Unknown And Cryptic Diversity In The Adelpha Serpa-Group, Cassidi Rush

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

The tropics are host to incredible insect diversity. One of the most charismatic groups that exhibit this diversity are the butterflies. Despite the tropical butterfly fauna being heavily researched, there remains much hidden diversity in the form of undescribed life histories and cryptic species. This is especially true among the species rich Nymphalidae, the brush-footed butterflies. Species in the genus Adelpha are known to be “the most trying taxonomically of all nymphalids” DeVries (1987), and as such are fruitful ground for uncovering unknown diversity. About half of the species within Adelpha have undescribed life histories, while A. serpa stands out ...


Comparing Created And Natural Depressional Wetlands Through Trophic Analysis Of Macroinvertebrates, Shante N. Eisele Jan 2018

Comparing Created And Natural Depressional Wetlands Through Trophic Analysis Of Macroinvertebrates, Shante N. Eisele

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Macroinvertebrates are important contributors to wetland ecosystems due to their role in decomposition, nutrient cycling, and as a food resource for other organisms. Several studies have analyzed the macroinvertebrate communities in created wetlands, but few have evaluated them in the context of trophic structure in both created and natural wetlands. The objective of this study is to better understand benthic macroinvertebrate community composition and trophic structure in created and natural wetlands. My central hypotheses were that macroinvertebrate communities in created wetlands would have (1) differing composition and (2) less complex trophic structure with shorter food-chain length compared to natural wetlands ...


A Molecular Diagnostic Survey Of Pathogens And Parasites Of Honey Bees, Apis Mellifera L., From Arkansas And Oklahoma, Dylan Cleary Dec 2017

A Molecular Diagnostic Survey Of Pathogens And Parasites Of Honey Bees, Apis Mellifera L., From Arkansas And Oklahoma, Dylan Cleary

Theses and Dissertations

The health and viability of colonies of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, in the United States have fluctuated dramatically over the past decade. This poses a substantial threat to agricultural production in this country. Currently, no single factor has been identified for this decline. Rather, it has been suggested that the interaction between multiple biotic and abiotic stressors may be responsible. Among these factors are pesticides, habitat loss, climate and weather, parasites and pathogens, and colony management techniques. For this reason, it is important to examine the prevalence of honey bee parasite and pathogen infection at the state level in ...


"Fanciful But Not Forgotten: A Historical Examination Of The Study Of The Flea, 1840-1930", Andrea Jean Buhler May 2017

"Fanciful But Not Forgotten: A Historical Examination Of The Study Of The Flea, 1840-1930", Andrea Jean Buhler

Theses and Dissertations

Although the Victorian and Progressive periods saw a rise in entomological research, fleas were not a priority for scientific investigation. The discovery of fleas as disease vectors in the late nineteenth century marked a turning-point in interest in fleas. Expanding this standard history of fleas, the thesis probes flea research conducted outside the confines of disease during 1840-1930. It documents and analyzes the contributions of Louis Bertolotto, William Heckler, Charles Rothschild, Karl Jordan, and L. O. Howard. Whereas those working in the new profession of entomology saw fleas as disease vectors, these men had different relationships with fleas: Bertolotto and ...


Susceptibility Of The Southern House Mosquito, Culex Quinquefasciatus, In East Baton Rouge Parish To Larval Insecticides, Nicholas Alexander Delisi Jan 2017

Susceptibility Of The Southern House Mosquito, Culex Quinquefasciatus, In East Baton Rouge Parish To Larval Insecticides, Nicholas Alexander Delisi

LSU Master's Theses

Mosquito control districts in Louisiana focus their efforts on Culex quinquefasciatus, the primary vector of West Nile virus in the southern United States, with rigorous larvicide treatments. However, the development of resistant populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus in response to extensive insecticide application has been demonstrated repeatedly. Examining changes in insecticide susceptibility and larvicide efficacy in real world scenarios can help inform mosquito control districts as to whether or not their treatments are killing mosquitoes. We hypothesized that frequent larvicide applications for the control of mosquitoes in East Baton Rouge Parish had lowered susceptibility of wild Cx. quinquefasciatus to insecticides, and ...


Investigations On The Vampire Moth Genus Calyptra Ochsenheimer, Incorporating Taxonomy, Life History, And Bioinformatics (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Calpinae), Julia L. Snyder Dec 2016

Investigations On The Vampire Moth Genus Calyptra Ochsenheimer, Incorporating Taxonomy, Life History, And Bioinformatics (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Calpinae), Julia L. Snyder

Open Access Theses

The seventeen species and two subspecies described in the genus Calyptra are known to be obligate fruit piercers, with some species being of economic importance. Males within the genus have not only been observed piercing their fruit hosts, but have also been documented to occasionally feed on mammalian blood. The genetic and ecological mechanisms contributing to host preference for either plant or vertebrate hosts in this lineage are unknown. Thus, the focus of this study was to investigate the chemosensory systems between and among Calyptra species exhibiting differential feeding strategies. Before investigating the chemosensory systems within Calyptra, the taxonomy and ...


Inheritance And Fitness Costs Of Field-Derived Resistance To Cry3bb1 Corn By Western Corn Rootworm, Aubrey Rose Paolino Jan 2016

Inheritance And Fitness Costs Of Field-Derived Resistance To Cry3bb1 Corn By Western Corn Rootworm, Aubrey Rose Paolino

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) is serious pest of corn, particularly in the Midwestern United States. One strategy used to manage western corn rootworm is the planting of transgenic corn that produces one or more Cry toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Refuges of non-Bt corn function to delay the development of resistance to these toxins. The greatest delay in resistance development is expected when the inheritance of resistance is recessive and there are associated fitness costs. We characterized the inheritance of resistance of two strains of western corn rootworm with field-derived resistance to the Bt toxin ...


Effects Of Diversity On Beneficial And Pest Arthropods, Mike W. Dunbar Jan 2016

Effects Of Diversity On Beneficial And Pest Arthropods, Mike W. Dunbar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Vegetational diversity within agroecosystems can vary in in three basic ways; the species richness of plants, the spatial arrangement of species and the temporal relationship among species. Agroecosystems with greater vegetational diversity are associated with decreased pest abundance and increased natural enemy abundance. The objectives of this dissertation were to test the effect of farming practices that alter vegetational diversity on beneficial arthropod communities and pest insects. Farming practices investigated included the addition rye cover crop (Secale cereale L.) to corn (Zea mays L.) and the use of extended crop rotations.

Two separate studies were conducted on experimental plots to ...


Beyond Biotypes: Aphis Glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biology And The Durability Of Aphid-Resistant Soybean, Adam Jerry Varenhorst Jan 2015

Beyond Biotypes: Aphis Glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biology And The Durability Of Aphid-Resistant Soybean, Adam Jerry Varenhorst

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In North America, Aphis glycines, is capable of reducing soybean yields by as much as 40%. The management of A. glycines has relied heavily on the use of broad-spectrum insecticides that can be detrimental to both the pest and natural enemies that are present in soybean at the time of application. An alternative management strategy for A. glycines is the use of aphid-resistant soybean that contain Rag genes. The presence of three virulent A. glycines biotypes (i.e., able to overcome aphid-resistance genes) in the US however raises the question about the durability and practicality of Rag genes. Here I ...


Engineering Cry4aa For Toxicity Against The Soybean Aphid, Aphis Glycines Matsumura, Benjamin Robert Deist Jan 2015

Engineering Cry4aa For Toxicity Against The Soybean Aphid, Aphis Glycines Matsumura, Benjamin Robert Deist

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Soybean aphid poses a significant threat to soybean agriculture in North America. Current management strategies are heavily dependent on chemical insecticides, which while presently effective, may have negative side effects. Bt toxins have been successfully used in various transgenic crops for almost 20 years to manage lepidopteran and coleopteran pests. However, this strategy has not been used in the management of aphids and other hemipterans due to their low susceptibility to Bt toxins, potentially arising from a lack of binding to the hemipteran gut. To circumvent this limitation in soybean aphids, a phage display library was screened in vivo against ...


Control Of Agrilus Ruficollis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) With Insecticides And Identifying Visual Attractants For Use In A Monitoring Trap, Soo-Hoon Kim Dec 2014

Control Of Agrilus Ruficollis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) With Insecticides And Identifying Visual Attractants For Use In A Monitoring Trap, Soo-Hoon Kim

Theses and Dissertations

The rednecked cane borer, Agrilus ruficollis (F.), is a pest of cultivated and wild blackberries in the Midwestern and Eastern parts of the United States. Feeding, mating, egg laying and development of A. ruficollis from larvae to adult only occurs on primocane, the first year vegetative growth stage of blackberries, and not on the second year fruiting stage called floricanes that die after fruiting. Damage from this pest is caused by the larva girdling the primocane and tunneling in the pith, causing the formation of a gall. Gall formation on the primocane increases the chance of winter injury and can ...


Investigating Effects Of Surrounding Landscape Composition And Complexity On Populations Of Two Polyphagous Insect Pest Groups In Iowa Soybean, Cody Daniel Kuntz Jan 2014

Investigating Effects Of Surrounding Landscape Composition And Complexity On Populations Of Two Polyphagous Insect Pest Groups In Iowa Soybean, Cody Daniel Kuntz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The composition and complexity of agro-ecosystems are important factors influencing the population dynamics of insect pests. Understanding these interactions may improve our ability to predict the spatial occurrence of pest outbreaks, thereby informing scouting and management decisions. In 2012 and 2013, two concurrent studies were conducted to examine the relationship between landscapes surrounding Iowa soybean, Glycine max [L.] Merrill, fields and two polyphagous pest groups; Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), and stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Population densities were monitored in soybean within simple and complex agricultural landscapes to determine the response of these pests to landscape complexity. Results ...


Insect Pollinators In Corn And Soybean Agricultural Fields, Michael Joseph Wheelock Jan 2014

Insect Pollinators In Corn And Soybean Agricultural Fields, Michael Joseph Wheelock

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Iowa's landscape is dominated by row crop agriculture with the majority of acres being in corn and soybean production, and as a result is spatially uniform and functionally homogenized. In landscapes dominated by agriculture, such as those found in Iowa, the availability of mass flowering crop species show strong positive effects on the density of generalist, native pollinators. While soybean, a self-pollinated plant, and corn, a wind pollinated plant, do not require physical pollination for fruit production, they can be a source of nectar and/or pollen for insect pollinators. The first objective is to develop methodology to accurately ...


Phylogeny And Diversity Of The Phantom Crane Flies (Diptera: Ptychopteridae), Andrew Fasbender Jan 2014

Phylogeny And Diversity Of The Phantom Crane Flies (Diptera: Ptychopteridae), Andrew Fasbender

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The species diversity and higher level classification of Ptychopteridae (Insecta: Diptera) is examined with cladistic methods using morphological and molecular datasets. The taxonomic status of Ptychoptera contaminata Linnaeus is discussed, and a neotype designation is proposed. The Afrotropical fauna is detailed as part of a larger reference work of Diptera in the region. The structure and homologies of male genitalia within the family are examined, and a new standardized terminology is proposed, supported with colorized illustrations. An illustrated key is provided for the Nearctic species of both subfamilies. The extant species of the subfamily Bittacomorphinae are revised, including redescriptions, illustrations ...


The Phylogenetics Of Tachinidae (Insecta: Diptera) With An Emphasis On Subfamily Structure, Daniel J. Davis Jan 2013

The Phylogenetics Of Tachinidae (Insecta: Diptera) With An Emphasis On Subfamily Structure, Daniel J. Davis

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

The parasitoid flies of the Tachinidae family are an important and diverse (>10,000 species) lineage of insects. However, tachinids are not well studied partially due to their confusing classification and taxonomy. DNA sequences were obtained from twenty tribal representatives of Tachinidae, along with eight outgroups in order to phylogenetically reconstruct the superfamilial, subfamilial and tribal relationships of Tachinidae. Seven gene regions of six genes (18S, 28S, COI, CAD, Ef1a, and TPI) were sequenced for each taxon (6214 bp total). Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were used to infer phylogenies. The Sarcophagidae and Oestridae were usually reconstructed as monophyletic ...


Taxonomy And Systematics Of New Zealand Faronitae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae), Jong-Seok Park Jan 2013

Taxonomy And Systematics Of New Zealand Faronitae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae), Jong-Seok Park

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The New Zealand Faronitae was revised at the species level, and a phylogenetic study was performed based on morphological and molecular data. Eight new genera and 143 new species were discovered. Three new genera, “Brounea”, “Ahnea” and “Pseudoexeirarthra” were designated based on the species originally described in the genus Sagola. Five new genera, “Aucklandea”, “Chandlerea”, “Nunnea”, “Leschenea” and “Pseudostenosagola” were designated by new species. Three known genera, Exeirarthra, Stenosagola and Sagola were also revised at species level. Eighty four names were synonymized, two in Exeirarthra, four in Stenosagola and 78 in Sagola. Lectotypes of seven species, Sagola terricola Broun, S ...


Nuclear Fingerprinting Identification Of Black Fly Species In The Simulium Jenningsi Species Group (Diptera: Simuliidae), Gail Lynn Senatore May 2012

Nuclear Fingerprinting Identification Of Black Fly Species In The Simulium Jenningsi Species Group (Diptera: Simuliidae), Gail Lynn Senatore

Masters Theses

SourceURL:file://localhost/Users/johnmoulton/Desktop/SenatoreGailMay2012.docA molecular approach was taken to differentiate morphologically homogeneous species within the Simulium jenningsi species group (SJG). This group of Nearctic black flies consisting of 22 recognized species has its highest diversity in the southeastern United States. No other group of black flies in this region is more ubiquitous or pestiferous. Female black flies in this group are nearly isomorphic, which complicates identification, elucidation of host specificity and pest status, and directed control of through application of Bti in the appropriate natal streams. Among SJG species, only S. luggeri Nicholson & Mickel, S. jenningsi ...


Learning Ability And Factors Influencing Nest Establishment Of The Solitary Bees Osmia Lignaria And Megachile Rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), Cory A. Vorel May 2010

Learning Ability And Factors Influencing Nest Establishment Of The Solitary Bees Osmia Lignaria And Megachile Rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), Cory A. Vorel

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Over the last several decades, the use of solitary bees as an alternative to honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) for pollination of commercial crops has increased, in part as a response to ongoing problems faced by commercial honey bee populations. Two solitary bee species have exhibited great commercial potential: the blue orchard bee, Osmia lignaria Say, and the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). However, growth of O. lignaria and M. rotundata populations is limited in commercial systems, mainly due to low establishment of females at provided nesting sites, possibly due to mortality, dispersal, or other causes. Rough ...


Revisionary Systematics And Evolutionary Ecology Of Neophylidorea (Diptera: Tipuloidea), Jessica Diane Petersen Jan 2010

Revisionary Systematics And Evolutionary Ecology Of Neophylidorea (Diptera: Tipuloidea), Jessica Diane Petersen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Uncovering the evolutionary and ecological process that has lead to biodiversity has been, and continues to be one of the most fascinating aspects of biology. One way to assess such processes is to study the diversity and limits of species. One group of interest in biodiversity are the crane flies (Diptera: Tipuloidea) because of their extreme diversity (>15,000 described species, representing 10% of all Diptera). Little is known about the patterns and processes responsible for creating such species diversity in crane flies. Often termed the fundamental units of life, species remain a difficult entity to define. Through recent innovations ...


Ecological Speciation In A Multi-Trophic Complex: Gall Midges, Goldenrods, And Parasitoids, Brenda L. Wells Jan 2010

Ecological Speciation In A Multi-Trophic Complex: Gall Midges, Goldenrods, And Parasitoids, Brenda L. Wells

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

The importance of ecological interactions in the origin and maintenance of species diversity remains unclear. The current study assesses how ecological interactions shape the process of evolutionary diversification using a gall midge-host plant system in Ohio involving the gall midge, Asteromyia carbonifera (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), and its goldenrod (Solidago) host-plants. A. carbonifera form four morphologically distinctive gall morphs and differ genetically. I studied phenology, host-plant specialization, and parasitism at three field sites in Southwestern Ohio. Phenology was assessed for twelve weeks while host-plant distribution and pressure from parasitoids were measured by monthly plot and rearing gall collections. Relative gall frequencies and ...


Studies On The Vector Competence Of A Mid-Western Strain Of Aedes Vexans (Meigen) (Diptera: Culicidae) For West Nile Virus, Jason Robert Kinley Jan 2008

Studies On The Vector Competence Of A Mid-Western Strain Of Aedes Vexans (Meigen) (Diptera: Culicidae) For West Nile Virus, Jason Robert Kinley

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Aedes vexans (Meigen) mosquitoes were given access to 2- to 4-day-old chickens inoculated with 103.0 CID50s/ml West Nile Virus (WNV) at 1 day old. Mosquitoes were given access to chickens at different intervals after inoculation to make certain that blood meals were of varying virus titers. No differences occurred in infection rates of Ae. vexans and Culex pipiens (L.) fed on the same WNV viremic chicken. Infection rates of Ae. vexans were higher when fed on chickens with viremias of 6.0 log10 WNV PFUs/ml or higher than they were in mosquitoes fed on chickens with viremias ...


Bt-Resistant European Corn Borers And Nosema Pyrausta: Implications For Resistance Management, Miriam Dorothy Lopez Jan 2008

Bt-Resistant European Corn Borers And Nosema Pyrausta: Implications For Resistance Management, Miriam Dorothy Lopez

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Interactions of Nosema pyrausta Paillot (Microsporida: Nosematidae) in Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), resistant and susceptible to the Bt protein Cry1Ab were studied. Differences in survival and developmental rate due to Cry1Ab exposure and N. pyrausta infection were quantified. Delayed development due to feeding on Cry1Ab has the potential to accelerate resistance evolution by precluding random mating. Resistant O. nubilalis infected with N. pyrausta were more susceptible to Cry1Ab than uninfected resistant O. nubilalis. Partially and fully resistant N. pyrausta-infected O. nubilalis exposed to Cry1Ab experienced reduced survival and weight compared with uninfected O. nubilalis. Encountering N. pyrausta in combination ...


Ecological And Behavioral Studies Of The Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) In Corn, David Lee Dorhout Jan 2007

Ecological And Behavioral Studies Of The Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) In Corn, David Lee Dorhout

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Chemical Ecology, Fungal Interactions And Forest Stand Correlations Of The Exotic Asian Ambrosia Beetle, Xylosandrus Crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Curculionidae), Eric Paul Ott Jan 2007

Chemical Ecology, Fungal Interactions And Forest Stand Correlations Of The Exotic Asian Ambrosia Beetle, Xylosandrus Crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Curculionidae), Eric Paul Ott

LSU Master's Theses

Increasing evidence of non-indigenous ambrosia beetles aggressively attacking hosts in their new environment in the United States has led to concern over the potential for damage to urban trees, nurseries, orchards, and forests. A novel technique of flooding host trees was devised to stimulate ambrosia beetle attacks, with ambrosia beetle attraction peaking four days following flooding. In-situ sampling identified significant differences in the composition, quantity and point of release (leaf or bole) of volatiles emitted by the flooded and non-flooded trees. Coupled gas chromatography electroantennographic detection revealed olfactory sensitivity by the ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) to 29 of these ...


Ecological Studies Of The European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Nosema Dose-Response, Pheromone Trapping, And Adult Dispersal , Brendon James Reardon Jan 2006

Ecological Studies Of The European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Nosema Dose-Response, Pheromone Trapping, And Adult Dispersal , Brendon James Reardon

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Transgenic, insecticidal corn hybrids (Bt corn) are a tactic for managing European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), in North America. To slow development of Bt-corn resistance, an Insect Resistance Management plan requires monitoring and nearby refugia. We examined the effect of feeding diet incorporated with Cry1Ab on growth, development, and survival of Nosema-infected and uninfected O. nubilalis. Increasing concentrations of Cry1Ab in diet reduced larval growth and development rates, and this phenomenon was amplified by micro sporidiosis. This work demonstrates that it is important to determine whether pathogens are present when monitoring resistance;Pheromone-baited traps are used in O. nubilalis ...


Sampling And Management Of Aphidophagous Natural Enemies In Iowa Soybean , Nicholas Patrick Schmidt Jan 2006

Sampling And Management Of Aphidophagous Natural Enemies In Iowa Soybean , Nicholas Patrick Schmidt

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In Iowa, surveys of natural enemies in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] conducted before the arrival of Aphis glycines Matsumara (Hemiptera: Aphididae) revealed several species that may contribute to the mortality of A. glycines. In 2004 and 2005, several sampling methods were investigated to determine if diversity of the natural enemy community in Iowa soybean has changed with the arrival of A. glycines. We hypothesized that the natural enemy community in soybean has changed with the introduction of A. glycines and that sampling methods would collect different species of natural enemies. Also, with the use of an alfalfa living mulch ...


The Biology Of Rosa Multiflora (Rosaceae) And Two Of Its Biotic Mortality Factors , Laura Christine Jesse Jan 2006

The Biology Of Rosa Multiflora (Rosaceae) And Two Of Its Biotic Mortality Factors , Laura Christine Jesse

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Rosa multiflora Thunb. (Rosaceae), an invasive plant in the eastern U.S., was planted in the 1940's as a living fence, for wildlife cover and to prevent soil erosion. However, R. multiflora rapidly spread from these original plantings via seeds and clonally, invading pasture and wooded areas. We found that at the scale of contiguous plants (patches) R. multiflora is spreading clonally and through sexual reproduction. Although there were multiple genotypes in the large patches of R. multifora, overall genetic diversity was consistent with clonal reproduction;Invasive species often require mutualistic relationships to successfully invade new environments. Insect pollination ...