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Drought

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Determining Water Requirements In Turfgrass Systems, Tyler Quinn Carr Dec 2019

Determining Water Requirements In Turfgrass Systems, Tyler Quinn Carr

Theses and Dissertations

Turfgrass lawns are commonly utilized for home and commercial applications because of the aesthetic, environmental, and recreational benefits grasses provide, but many people perceive turfgrass as solely an aesthetic benefit that requires significant water inputs. It is important to identify and use turfgrass cultivars that have known drought tolerance, and also fine-tune and throughout development. A series of field experiments were conducted to determine the water requirements of turfgrass lawn systems with the following objectives: 1) investigate differences in chronic drought resistance and irrigation recommendations among cultivars of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) 2 ...


Studies On Pathogenesis Of The Diseases Caused By Macrophomina Phaseolina And Phomopsis Longicolla On Soybean, Marcio Leizer Zaccaron Aug 2019

Studies On Pathogenesis Of The Diseases Caused By Macrophomina Phaseolina And Phomopsis Longicolla On Soybean, Marcio Leizer Zaccaron

Theses and Dissertations

Soybean (Glycine max), a legume, is an economically important crop in many parts of the world, including the USA, Brazil, Argentina, China, and India, currently the top five producing countries. Soybean is primarily used as feed, with incising markets for food and biodiesel. Similar to most crops, soybean yield and quality are affected by a diverse group of plant pathogens. In particular, several species of filamentous fungi have been the cause of severe yield losses in most growing regions world-wide. The soil born fungus Macrophomina phaseolina, causal agent of charcoal rot, has been found to be endemic to several soybean ...


Fine-Scale Microclimatic Controls On Soil Carbon Dioxide Fluxes In A Northern Hardwood Forest, Will Saunders May 2019

Fine-Scale Microclimatic Controls On Soil Carbon Dioxide Fluxes In A Northern Hardwood Forest, Will Saunders

Dissertations and Theses

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soil are typically the largest carbon flux from forest ecosystems to the atmosphere, representing a significant biogenic source of greenhouse gases. Although the temperature and moisture sensitivities of the respiration processes underlying soil CO2 fluxes are well studied, the impacts of a changing climate on these abiotic controls and the resulting soil flux responses are unresolved. Using in-situ continuous measurements of soil microclimate at sites with contrasting hydrology, this study assessed the temperature and moisture dependence of soil CO2 fluxes within hardwood forests of the Adirondack Mountains in northern New York State (USA). During the ...


Competition, Climate, And Drought Effects On Tree Growth In An Encroached Oak Woodland In Northern California, Jill J. Beckmann Jan 2019

Competition, Climate, And Drought Effects On Tree Growth In An Encroached Oak Woodland In Northern California, Jill J. Beckmann

Theses and projects

Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana Douglas ex Hook.) is experiencing increasing competition from Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) across its range at the same time as climate models are predicting increasing climate variability, including drought. Management recommendations that consider competition dynamics between these species under a changing climate are therefore needed for oak woodlands, but we do not currently understand the combined effects of competition, climate, and drought in this ecosystem. This research examines radial tree growth and drought response in Oregon white oak and Douglas fir in an encroached oak woodland near Kneeland, California. Stem maps of local ...


Drought And Coyotes Mediate The Relationship Between Mesopredators And Human Disturbance In California, Molly K. Parren Jan 2019

Drought And Coyotes Mediate The Relationship Between Mesopredators And Human Disturbance In California, Molly K. Parren

Theses and projects

Mesopredators in California are facing two major changes to their ecosystem: drought and the expansion of human disturbance. As a result, mesopredators are likely shifting their habitat use as well as their interspecies interactions to balance resource needs and risk-taking on the landscape. In response to severe drought, the California Department of Fish and Wildlife deployed 585 camera traps throughout the Mojave Desert and Central Valley documenting mammalian mesopredator presence in a drought year (2016) and a post-drought year (2017). The objectives of this study were to examine spatial patterns of mesopredator occurrence and co-occurrence with a dominant predator, the ...


Influence Of Coal-Derived Humic Substances On Soil And Plant Properties, Mike Salman Jan 2019

Influence Of Coal-Derived Humic Substances On Soil And Plant Properties, Mike Salman

Creative Components

No abstract provided.


Stoichiometric Homeostasis In Two Native And Two Invasive South Dakotan Grasses, Joshua Thonas Harvey Jan 2019

Stoichiometric Homeostasis In Two Native And Two Invasive South Dakotan Grasses, Joshua Thonas Harvey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Increased nutrient availability has been widely linked to the success of invasive plants, however a general mechanism explaining these observations is lacking. Stoichiometric homeostasis (H), which is the regulation of internal nutrient concentrations, has been used to explain changes in plant community diversity under alterations in nutrient availability. One hypothesis holds that plants with high regulation (larger H) decrease in abundance in nutrient enriched conditions but are stable in nutrient deficient and drought conditions, likely due to extensive root systems. Additionally, plants with low regulation (lower H) increase in abundance under nutrient enriched conditions but are sensitive to drought conditions ...


Wetland Biogeochemical Responses To Predicted Climate Change Scenarios, Angela R. Shaffer Jan 2019

Wetland Biogeochemical Responses To Predicted Climate Change Scenarios, Angela R. Shaffer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Wetlands are one of the world's largest known carbon sinks while comprising only a small amount of the Earth's surface. However, the amount of carbon sequestered by wetlands is shrinking as droughts and human disturbance increases. Carbon in wetlands is stored through the contrast of decomposition and sedimentation of organic matter and absorption of CO2 from the atmosphere by soil microbes. Understanding how changing hydrological regimes and increased wildfires will affect wetland soil and microbial processes is important in the face of predicted climate change for future wetland conservation practices. Specifically, I seek to understand the response ...


Sociodemographic And Climatic Factors Shaping The Development Of Drought Policies In Major U.S. Cities, Riana S. Gayle Dec 2018

Sociodemographic And Climatic Factors Shaping The Development Of Drought Policies In Major U.S. Cities, Riana S. Gayle

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In most parts of the world, drought is an inevitable and natural occurrence. However, as the climate continues to warm, and populations grow and expand, the negative impacts of this extreme weather event are predicted to become more pronounced. This leads many communities and stakeholders to question what is being done to prepare society for widespread drought? The following research determines different social and atmospheric characteristics that affect a city’s likelihood of having a drought policy in place.To do this, a thorough search was conducted at the city level to determine where drought policies are currently located in ...


Effect Of Silicon On Wheat Growth And Development In Drought And Salinity Stress, Spencer A. Tibbitts May 2018

Effect Of Silicon On Wheat Growth And Development In Drought And Salinity Stress, Spencer A. Tibbitts

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Silicon is a major component of most soils, and is found in significant concentration in plant tissue. Plants vary widely in the amount of silicon they take up, with some plants excluding it, and others using transporters to move the silicon from the soil into their roots. Early plant physiology studies were unable to determine conclusively whether silicon was essential to plant growth, but for some plants, most notably rice, it has proved to be important enough to justify fertilizing silicon deficient fields.

Researchers at the USU Crop Physiology Lab tested the effect of silicon on wheat growth and seed ...


Adapting To The Changing Tide: An Evaluation Of California’S Drought Policies And Future Mitigation Strategies, Lauren Dorsey Jan 2018

Adapting To The Changing Tide: An Evaluation Of California’S Drought Policies And Future Mitigation Strategies, Lauren Dorsey

CMC Senior Theses

California endured an extreme and prolonged drought from 2012 until the winter of 2017, offering a fascinating yet tragic example of how drought impacts lives. Despite this recent and stark phenomenon, there is surprisingly little information about its effects and implications. This thesis aims to lessen this knowledge gap by asking how severe the drought was, how well the state responded, and what policies would increase California’s water security. It answers these questions by exploring the Golden State’s long and complicated water management history, which is necessary to understand the current drought policy framework; then, it collects the ...


Quantifying Genetic Responses Of Plants To Drought Stress With A Comparative Transcriptome Approach, Jessica K. Devitt Jan 2018

Quantifying Genetic Responses Of Plants To Drought Stress With A Comparative Transcriptome Approach, Jessica K. Devitt

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mentzelia section Bartonia (Loasaceae) commonly occurs in some of the hottest and driest places in North America, but we poorly understand the mechanisms that allow them to tolerate such extreme environments. Morphological and physiological adaptations are well studied in model organisms. The underlying genetic responses to drought stress in non-model organisms like Mentzelia is unknown. To better understand and identify differences and similarities in genetic responses to drought stress between species existing in different habitats with differing water availability, three species from the genus Mentzelia were compared. Species of section Bartonia occur across an environmental gradient, from temperate to arid ...


Coping With Drought In Beef Cattle Production: Innovation Through Optimal Warm-Season Forage Systems, Katelynn Elizabeth Zechiel Dec 2017

Coping With Drought In Beef Cattle Production: Innovation Through Optimal Warm-Season Forage Systems, Katelynn Elizabeth Zechiel

Masters Theses

Drought conditions have had detrimental effects on beef cattle production in the southeastern states where forages are the primary source of feed for livestock. Many southeastern states lie within the fescue-belt, where tall fescue is the predominant livestock forage. Tall fescue is a cool-season (CS) grass that thrives in the cooler temperatures of spring and fall, becoming semi-dormant during peak summer temperatures and again in winter. Conversely, warm-season (WS) forage species increase in production during the summer months and exhibit drought tolerant qualities, making them a viable summer forage option to complement tall fescue for beef cattle producers. The primary ...


Impact Of Preemergent Herbicides, Mowing Height, And Fertilization On Centipedegrass Root Architecture And Drought Tolerance, Mike J. Adams Oct 2017

Impact Of Preemergent Herbicides, Mowing Height, And Fertilization On Centipedegrass Root Architecture And Drought Tolerance, Mike J. Adams

LSU Master's Theses

Mowing, N fertilization and the application of preemergence herbicides (PRE) are cultural practices performed on centipedegrass to improve overall turf quality. It is posited that increasing mowing height and application of fertilizers can lead to greater turfgrass rooting and increase drought survival; while the application of PRE is reported to potentially have negative impacts on rooting. At two locations in Louisiana, studies examining the effects of these practices on centipedegrass rooting and drought tolerance were conducted.

In the first 11-week study conducted, centipedegrass was treated with dithiopyr, pendimethalin, prodiamine, simazine, or indaziflam at the manufacturers’ labeled rates. During the 11-wk ...


A Study Of Salmonid Growth In Two Southern Appalachian Headwater Streams, Joshua Argo Aug 2017

A Study Of Salmonid Growth In Two Southern Appalachian Headwater Streams, Joshua Argo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study sampled salmonid populations in two headwater streams in East Tennessee, Briar Creek and Left Prong Hampton Creek. Length and weight data were used to calculate the growth of these populations to determine if significant variation exists between isolated brook trout populations. Slope comparisons concluded that there was a difference in growth between brook trout populations of these streams (p


Genomic And Physiological Approaches To Improve Drought Tolerance In Soybean, Avjinder Kaler Aug 2017

Genomic And Physiological Approaches To Improve Drought Tolerance In Soybean, Avjinder Kaler

Theses and Dissertations

Drought stress is a major global constraint for crop production, and improving crop tolerance to drought is of critical importance. Direct selection of drought tolerance among genotypes for yield is limited because of low heritability, polygenic control, epistasis effects, and genotype by environment interactions. Crop physiology can play a major role for improving drought tolerance through the identification of traits associated with drought tolerance that can be used as indirect selection criteria in a breeding program. Carbon isotope ratio (δ13C, associated with water use efficiency), oxygen isotope ratio (δ18O, associated with transpiration), canopy temperature (CT), canopy wilting, and canopy coverage ...


The Impact Of Climate And Elevation On The Growth And Mortality Of Piñon Pine, Alice M. Fretz Jul 2017

The Impact Of Climate And Elevation On The Growth And Mortality Of Piñon Pine, Alice M. Fretz

Biology ETDs

The Southwestern United States is currently experiencing severe drought, resulting in the mortality of many tree species. Piñon-juniper woodlands are an extensive biome in the Southwest, and are highly vulnerable to extended periods of drought that lead to tree mortality. Specifically, Pinus edulis populations are decreasing due to increasingly arid conditions. I used dendrochronology to investigate how tree growth rings of Pinus edulis reflect severe drought in living and dead trees. I also investigated how severe drought affects Pinus edulis along an altitudinal gradient. Tree core samples were taken from currently living and dead trees, as well as from trees ...


Ecological Importance Of Invader Source Population And Disturbance In Aquatic Invasions, Nicole Elizabeth Graham May 2017

Ecological Importance Of Invader Source Population And Disturbance In Aquatic Invasions, Nicole Elizabeth Graham

Theses and Dissertations

Invasive species are a global problem and their effects on recipient ecosystems may be mediated by disturbance and intraspecific variation. Crayfish can substantially influence stream structure and function, and invasive crayfish often have differential impacts than native crayfish in aquatic ecosystems. Since species traits often vary across a distribution, it is possible that invasive crayfish from different source populations may have distinct impacts on recipient ecosystem structure and function. In the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri, USA, invasive O. neglectus (the Ringed Crayfish) may be leading to the displacement of native O. eupunctus (the Coldwater Crayfish). The objective of ...


Influence Of Stream Permanence, Predation, And Invasive Species On Crayfish In The Ozark Highlands With An Emphasis On Species Of Greatest Conservation Need (Orconectes Marchandi, Orconectes Eupunctus And Cambarus Hubbsi), Allyson Noelle Yarra May 2017

Influence Of Stream Permanence, Predation, And Invasive Species On Crayfish In The Ozark Highlands With An Emphasis On Species Of Greatest Conservation Need (Orconectes Marchandi, Orconectes Eupunctus And Cambarus Hubbsi), Allyson Noelle Yarra

Theses and Dissertations

Due to the ecological importance of crayfish and the increasing vulnerability of freshwater systems due to habitat loss, invasive species, and hydrologic alteration, understanding crayfish-environment relationships is crucial in the context of aquatic species conservation. I sought to examine the influence of hydrologic variation among intermittent and permanent streams on crayfish occupancy, abundance, predation risk, and potential vulnerability to invasive species effects. I conducted crayfish and environmental data sampling during two consecutive summers across 20 Ozark streams of differing permanence levels (10 intermittent, 10 permanent). In these same streams, I conducted fish and scat surveys over the course of four ...


Post-Drought Survey Of Freshwater Mussels In The Saline And Smoky Hill Rivers With Emphasis On The Status Of The Cylindrical Papershell (Anodontoides Ferussacianus) And Effects Of Lowhead Dams On Growth Of The Pimpleback (Quadrula Pustulosa) In The Neosho River, Kansas, Andrew T. Karlin May 2017

Post-Drought Survey Of Freshwater Mussels In The Saline And Smoky Hill Rivers With Emphasis On The Status Of The Cylindrical Papershell (Anodontoides Ferussacianus) And Effects Of Lowhead Dams On Growth Of The Pimpleback (Quadrula Pustulosa) In The Neosho River, Kansas, Andrew T. Karlin

Master's Theses

Study 1:Post-drought survey of freshwater mussels in the Saline and Smoky Hill rivers with emphasis on the status of the Cylindrical Papershell (Anodontoides ferussacianus) in Kansas. The Cylindrical Papershell (Anodontoides ferussacianus), considered a “Species in Need of Conservation” in Kansas, historically occurred across much of the state; however, recent studies suggest that the species is currently restricted to the upper Smoky Hill-Saline River Basin, and a survey emphasizing the status of the Cylindrical Papershell conducted in 2011 suggested its conservation status be elevated to endangered. Continuing drought since the completion of the 2011 survey raised concerns regarding the status ...


Precision Drought Stress In Orchards: Rootstock Evaluation, Trunk Hydration And Canopy Temperature, Lance V. Scott May 2017

Precision Drought Stress In Orchards: Rootstock Evaluation, Trunk Hydration And Canopy Temperature, Lance V. Scott

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In many areas, over half of all diverted water is used for irrigation. Tree fruit crops use a lot of water, but water productivity can be increased using properly-timed precision water stress. In addition to water conservation, increases in water productivity arise from better fruit quality, increased storage life and reductions in pruning and maintenance. One major hurdle to applying precision water stress in orchards is the lack of a reliable, automated method of determining tree water status. However, the influence of physiological characteristics such as rootstock vigor on water productivity are also important. Selecting the most appropriate rootstocks and ...


The Horticultural Potential Of Six Species Of North American Hickories, Brandon Michael Miller Jan 2017

The Horticultural Potential Of Six Species Of North American Hickories, Brandon Michael Miller

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The genus Carya is largely composed of taxa endemic to eastern North America. This entire group of long-lived, durable, and aesthetically pleasing trees has been ignored by horticulturists because of issues related to their production as well as performance in the nursery and landscape. Hickories develop large, dominant taproots and supposedly produce few lateral roots, which are often associated with increased transplant success. Hickory seedlings are also considered to exhibit a lag phase in shoot growth, an additional disadvantage that hinders their production. The main objectives of the research presented in this document were to explore potential production methods that ...


In The Face Of Drought: Do Fuel Treatments Promote Resistance To Multi-Year Drought In A Mixed-Conifer Forest Of Northern California?, Michael Vernon Jan 2017

In The Face Of Drought: Do Fuel Treatments Promote Resistance To Multi-Year Drought In A Mixed-Conifer Forest Of Northern California?, Michael Vernon

Theses and projects

Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency, duration, and severity of drought events across many bioregions. Forest managers have two active management techniques to promote resistance and resilience to drought: prescribed fire and mechanical thinning. Generally applied to reduce fuels and fire hazard, treated areas may also reduce competition for resources that may improve tree-growth during drought and reduce mortality. The recent severe and prolonged drought in California allowed me to investigate the effects of climate stress and fuel treatments on tree growth responses in a dry mixed-conifer forest ecosystem.

To assess tree-growth responses to fuel treatments during severe ...


Game Theory Analysis Of Intra-District Water Transfers; Case Study Of The Berrenda Mesa Water District, Harry Riordan Ferdon Dec 2016

Game Theory Analysis Of Intra-District Water Transfers; Case Study Of The Berrenda Mesa Water District, Harry Riordan Ferdon

Master's Theses and Project Reports

California state officials have continued to warn and encourage preparedness for the growing threats of water scarcity. This puts pressure on water suppliers to develop technological and managerial solutions to alleviate the problems associated with scarcity. A recent popular management strategy for distributing water is encouraging water transfers. While there has been analyses on water transfers between large districts and agencies, little analysis has been completed for smaller scale trades, i.e. between individuals in the same water district. This analysis models an agricultural water district, based on the Berrenda Mesa Water District (BMWD). In the model, the growers in ...


Selection Of Drought-Tolerant Soybean Lines Using A Field Screening Method And Identification Of Qtls For Slow Wilting And Nitrogen Fixation Associated With Drought-Tolerance, Mirta Beatriz Dalzotto Dec 2016

Selection Of Drought-Tolerant Soybean Lines Using A Field Screening Method And Identification Of Qtls For Slow Wilting And Nitrogen Fixation Associated With Drought-Tolerance, Mirta Beatriz Dalzotto

Theses and Dissertations

Drought causes significant yield reductions in soybean. The development of drought-tolerant cultivars is an effective alternative to overcome this abiotic stress. Slow wilting, prolonged nitrogen fixation, and minimal yield reduction under water stress play an important role in evaluating breeding materials. Despite advances in knowledge about plant responses to drought conditions, there is little information on effective methodologies for phenotype screening in the field, and some QTLs have been identified for drought tolerance. Field screenings under drought and irrigated conditions are necessary to detect drought tolerant lines. In addition, QTLs and molecular makers associated with drought tolerance traits will greatly ...


Agro-Climatic Change, Crop Production And Mitigation Strategies-Case Studies In Arkansas, Usa And Kenya, John Westley Magugu Aug 2016

Agro-Climatic Change, Crop Production And Mitigation Strategies-Case Studies In Arkansas, Usa And Kenya, John Westley Magugu

Theses and Dissertations

Although climate change impacts vary geographically and temporally, studies at local levels are not readily available for stakeholders to better understand how their local communities would be affected and what remedial measures could be more effective in their local contexts. This dissertation has examined climate change and its impacts in two different local contexts: eastern Arkansas in the USA and Nyando in Kenya. The first part of this dissertation develops agro-meteorological indicators and examines the relationship between agro-meteorological indicators and crop yields in eastern Arkansas between 1960 and 2014. Results reveal that temperature based indicators were more strongly correlated to ...


Effect Of The 2013-2015 California Drought On Small Mammal Abundance And Diversity In Chaparral, Oak Woodland And Riparian Habitats, Nicole Desideri Jun 2016

Effect Of The 2013-2015 California Drought On Small Mammal Abundance And Diversity In Chaparral, Oak Woodland And Riparian Habitats, Nicole Desideri

Biological Sciences

Long-term biodiversity surveys are a useful tool for assessing the impacts of stochastic events on wildlife and their communities. A recent stochastic event to affect the state of California is the historic 2013-2015 drought. This drought, described as a one-in-one-thousand year event, brought precipitation to a historic low; the statewide rainfall reaching 34% below average (Swain et al. 2014). While humans are feeling the impact of this water shortage, the effects on native ecosystems and wildlife populations are poorly documented. Baseline small mammal biodiversity data collected in 2011, before the drought, allows us the opportunity to study the impacts of ...


Rooting Characteristics And Antioxidant Pigment Responses Of Three Hybrid Bermudagrass [Cynodon Dactylon (L.) Pers. × Cynodon Transvaalensis Burtt- Davy] Cultivars Exposed To Drought, Cory Alan Yurisic May 2016

Rooting Characteristics And Antioxidant Pigment Responses Of Three Hybrid Bermudagrass [Cynodon Dactylon (L.) Pers. × Cynodon Transvaalensis Burtt- Davy] Cultivars Exposed To Drought, Cory Alan Yurisic

Masters Theses

With recent changes in global climate, water use and its conservation have become important topics of discussion. Turfgrasses for lawns, parks, and other recreational areas are often perceived negatively due to the need for irrigation. The identification of turfgrasses possessing an improved ability to withstand water deficit is an important goal in science to curb irrigation requirements in the landscape. Newly released cultivars of hybrid bermudagrass (C. dactylon L. x. C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) have demonstrated improved tolerance to stresses such as cold, traffic, and water deficit; however, drought resistance mechanisms of these new cultivars have been largely uninvestigated. Drought resistant ...


Geospatial Analysis Of Droughts, Rice And Wheat Production, And Agrarian Vulnerability: A District-Level Study Of The Self-Calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index In India, Aaron Michael Shew May 2016

Geospatial Analysis Of Droughts, Rice And Wheat Production, And Agrarian Vulnerability: A District-Level Study Of The Self-Calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index In India, Aaron Michael Shew

Theses and Dissertations

Droughts have affected more people than any other natural disaster in the last century, causing billions in economic damages and millions of deaths. As the Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) have heated in the Indian Ocean, drought patterns across South Asia have changed; the Indian monsoon has become more volatile and less predictable. In this study, monthly self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI) data for the time period between 1950 and 2009 were interpolated to India’s districts; then the data were analyzed for changes in frequency and severity. The data were further evaluated using Anselin’s Local Moran’s I ...


Physiological Evaluation And Root Morphological Differences Associated With Novel Drought Tolerant Corn (Zea Mays L.) Hybrids, Austin Gentry Scott Dec 2015

Physiological Evaluation And Root Morphological Differences Associated With Novel Drought Tolerant Corn (Zea Mays L.) Hybrids, Austin Gentry Scott

Masters Theses

Corn hybrids designated “drought tolerant” (DT) from three commercial seed companies were evaluated in order to determine the benefit of DT technology in a mid-south environment that may receive adequate but often poorly timed rainfall. Field research was conducted in 2014 and 2015 at Milan, TN where hybrid response to stress was evaluated at two planting dates and in non-irrigated and irrigated environments and greenhouse research was conducted in Jackson, TN to evaluate early season drought to plant physiology and root structure.

In 2014 and 2015, the non-irrigated trials received enough rainfall to create a high yielding environment. Since the ...