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Effects Of Coral Reef Habitat Complexity On The Community Composition And Trophic Structure Of Marine Fish Assemblages In Indonesia’S Wakatobi Marine National Park, Kuyer Josiah Fazekas Jr. Jan 2019

Effects Of Coral Reef Habitat Complexity On The Community Composition And Trophic Structure Of Marine Fish Assemblages In Indonesia’S Wakatobi Marine National Park, Kuyer Josiah Fazekas Jr.

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The coral reefs within Indonesia’s Wakatobi Marine National Park support a high diversity of reef-building hard corals and associated marine fish. Climate change threatens to dramatically affect coral reef ecosystems by altering the interactions between reef fish and the specific microhabitats they depend on for survival. To examine the spatially varied effects of habitat complexity on the community composition and trophic structure of marine fish assemblages, I analyzed fish community and habitat complexity data across reef zones. Habitat complexity metrics were: structural complexity, the percentage of hard coral (HC) cover, HC genera richness, HC genera diversity (Shannon index), and ...


Bat Species Diversity And Habitat Use Assessment With Focus On Endangered Indiana Bats In The Wright State University Woods, Megan R. Rude Jan 2019

Bat Species Diversity And Habitat Use Assessment With Focus On Endangered Indiana Bats In The Wright State University Woods, Megan R. Rude

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The goals of my thesis are to: 1) identify species of bats in Wright State University’s (WSU) campus woods via acoustic surveys to compare to detections from previous years (Chapter 1) (2) analyze occupancy and detection probabilities of Indiana bats in different areas throughout the woods (Chapter 1), and 3) create an acoustical approach to analyze habitat use through bat social calls (Chapter 2). In Chapter 1, I conducted stationary acoustic surveys in the Wright State University woods in hydric (riparian), edge, and old growth habitats to record bat vocalizations. The WSU woods have a diverse bat community as ...


Monitoring Ohio Bat Communities And Populations Using Mobile Acoustics, Molly C. Simonis Jan 2018

Monitoring Ohio Bat Communities And Populations Using Mobile Acoustics, Molly C. Simonis

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The goal of my thesis is to: 1) provide baseline information of where Ohio bats are foraging in Wright State University's (WSU) campus woods in relation to forest age and habitat (Chapter 1), 2) determine potential roost availability for local bats (Chapter 1), and 3) examine changes in state-wide species composition following the introduction of White-nose Syndrome (WNS; Chapter 2). In Chapter 1, I created walking bat acoustic routes and used generalized linear models to determine what forest ages and habitats had the greatest bat activity in the WSU campus woods. I conducted habitat transects throughout all forest ages ...


Lipin1 Regulates Skeletal Muscle Differentiation Through The Pkc/Hdac5/Mef2c:Myod -Mediated Pathway, Abdulrahman M. Jama Jan 2018

Lipin1 Regulates Skeletal Muscle Differentiation Through The Pkc/Hdac5/Mef2c:Myod -Mediated Pathway, Abdulrahman M. Jama

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Our previous characterization of global lipin1-deficient (fld) mice demonstrated that lipin1 played a novel role in skeletal muscle (SM) regeneration. The clinical relevance of lipin1 has been observed in patients with lipin1 null mutations where they exhibited severe rhabdomyolysis with aggregated and dysfunctional mitochondria. Lipin1 is a key gene that plays an important role in lipid biosynthesis and metabolism. It has dual functions as it contains a phosphatase activity that converts phosphatidic acid (PA) to diacylglycerol (DAG), the penultimate step in triglycerides (TAG) biosynthesis as well as transcriptional co-activator function. In the cytosol and ER, lipin1 carries out its lipid ...


The Effect Of Increased Quizzing On Retention Of Material By Histology Laboratory Students, R. J. Nogrady Jan 2018

The Effect Of Increased Quizzing On Retention Of Material By Histology Laboratory Students, R. J. Nogrady

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In traditional approaches to teaching, examinations and quizzes have been considered secondary activities, designed to assess and motivate learning, but not generally as teaching tools in themselves (Roediger and Butler, 2011). However, abundant psychological research in laboratory settings indicates that the act of taking a quiz or examination on the material can directly enhance retention of that material in ways which are distinct from and often more effective than restudying of the material. This phenomenon is now referred to as the testing effect. The testing effect hypothesis asserts that (1) repeated retrieval attempts have a longer lasting effect on retention ...


Lonicera Maackii Alters Decay Dynamics Of Coarse Woody Debris, Michaela J. Woods Jan 2018

Lonicera Maackii Alters Decay Dynamics Of Coarse Woody Debris, Michaela J. Woods

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Since industrialization, anthropogenic carbon emissions have led to excess atmospheric carbon dioxide that may alter the stability of ecosystem processes. Microorganisms are essential in mitigating excess carbon and play a notable role in the breakdown of organic material. This process, decomposition, is essential in forested ecosystems where microorganisms can recycle nutrients and store carbon in soil organic matter or release it through respiration. Fungi participate in decomposition through the release of enzymes responsible for carrying out the chemical reactions that break down plant material. Species introductions have the potential to alter decomposition dynamics. In the Midwestern US, the invasive shrub ...


Osmotic Activation Of Sperm Motility Via Water Flow Through Aquaporins In The Freeze-Tolerant Cope's Gray Treefrog, Dryophytes Chrysoscelis, Deja Miller Jan 2018

Osmotic Activation Of Sperm Motility Via Water Flow Through Aquaporins In The Freeze-Tolerant Cope's Gray Treefrog, Dryophytes Chrysoscelis, Deja Miller

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Gametes of gray treefrogs, Dryophytes chrysoscelis, are deposited into freshwater ponds. Sperm undergo spermatogenesis and maturation beginning in the seminiferous tubules and migrating to the lumen. In mammals and fishes, these cells are immotile within the isosmotic fluid of the testes and have motility activated by exposure to a hyper- or hypoosmotic medium. Water flows into or out of the sperm cell, altering intracellular ionic concentrations, and ultimately stimulates flagellar movement. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to a hypotonic environment activates motility of gray treefrog sperm. We also hypothesized that osmotic water uptake is facilitated by expression of water ...


Low-Impact Yoga Improves Flexibility, But Has No Effect On Heart Rate Variability In Sedentary Adult Women, Lauren Marie Shafer Jan 2018

Low-Impact Yoga Improves Flexibility, But Has No Effect On Heart Rate Variability In Sedentary Adult Women, Lauren Marie Shafer

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Heart disease is the leading cause of death among adults in the United States and more than 600,000 people per year die when the condition goes untreated. Many cardiovascular maladies, such as high blood pressure and heart disease, can be markedly improved with lifestyle changes, including eating a healthy diet and regular exercise. In this study, 15 sedentary adult women (aged 19-63 years) participated in a prescribed 12-week yoga program. Electrocardiography was used to measure Heart Rate Variability, a tool that assesses autonomic tone on the heart. Autonomic nervous system activity is assessed at VLF, LF, and HF spectral ...


Determinants Of Host Use In Tachinid Parasitoids (Diptera: Tachinidae) Of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) In Southwest Ohio, Matthew W. Duncan Jan 2017

Determinants Of Host Use In Tachinid Parasitoids (Diptera: Tachinidae) Of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) In Southwest Ohio, Matthew W. Duncan

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Tachinid parasitoids in the subfamily Phasiinae are important natural enemies of heteropteran bugs. Host location by these flies occurs via antennal reception to the pheromones of their hosts; however little is known regarding the mechanisms which underlie host selection. Halyomorpha halys, the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, represents a potential novel host species in North America. This study was conducted to determine the suitability of H. halys as a host for phasiine species, and to assess cues used in host selection by the species Gymnoclytia occidua. Field attraction to pentatomid pheromones by both phasiines and pentatomids in Southwest Ohio were ...


The Effect Of Aging On The Blood Brain Barrier Permeability And Response To Fluoxetine Enantiomers, Ethar Arkan Jan 2017

The Effect Of Aging On The Blood Brain Barrier Permeability And Response To Fluoxetine Enantiomers, Ethar Arkan

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We tested the effect of the fluoxetine enantiomers (S-fluoxetine and R-fluoxetine) versus Prozac (50:50 ratio of R- and S- fluoxetine enantiomers) and/or control on blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability in different brain regions in both male and female rats. The rats consumed orally the drug (5 mg/kg) or vehicle for a total of three days, then were injected with sterile Evans blue dye ip, at least 12 hours before euthanasia.. We see significant regional brain differences in BBB permeability (hippocampus has tighter BBB), significant differences based on the age of the animals (young rats show enhanced permeability ...


The Impact Of Socs1 And Socs3 Peptide Mimetics On Rho And Cdc42 Proteins Expression, F-Actin Cytoskeleton Rearrangements, And Cytokines Production Of Uninfected And Hsv-1 Infected M1 And M2 Raw 264.7 Murine Macrophages, Maha A. Elwardany Jan 2017

The Impact Of Socs1 And Socs3 Peptide Mimetics On Rho And Cdc42 Proteins Expression, F-Actin Cytoskeleton Rearrangements, And Cytokines Production Of Uninfected And Hsv-1 Infected M1 And M2 Raw 264.7 Murine Macrophages, Maha A. Elwardany

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The immune system plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of HSV-1 during the lytic phase of the disease, orchestrating the inflammatory response, retaining the virus in its latent phase and preventing the recurrence of HSV-1 infection. Macrophages display a vital role in the innate and adaptive immune responses during multiple phases of HSV-1 infection. Polarized macrophages are categorized into two distinct classes with diverse functions. The classically activated M1 can engulf and destroy the microbial agents, produce proinflammatory cytokines, and participate in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. The alternatively activated M2 induces anti-inflammatory mediators and stimulates tissue remodeling ...


Genomic Signatures Of Population History In A Pair Of Recently Diverged Australian Teal Support Strong Selection On The Z Sex-Chromosome, Kevin Kyle Hawkins Jan 2016

Genomic Signatures Of Population History In A Pair Of Recently Diverged Australian Teal Support Strong Selection On The Z Sex-Chromosome, Kevin Kyle Hawkins

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Sex chromosomes are thought to be an important component of the genome associated with speciation and the buildup of reproductive isolation. Recent advances in sequencing technologies and improvements in population genetics and modeling techniques have made it possible to better assess genomic signatures of selection, genetic drift and gene flow in diverging lineages. Recent studies have shown elevated differentiation on the Z sex-chromosome between the Australian grey teal (Anas gracilis) and chestnut teal (Anas castanea). Here, we used next generation sequencing to scan ~3,400 autosomal loci and ~190 Z loci to examine genomic differentiation and signatures of selection and ...


Changes In Cytoskeleton Proteins In Hsv-1 Infection Of J774a.1 Macrophage Phenotype, Riham Abbas Subahi Jan 2016

Changes In Cytoskeleton Proteins In Hsv-1 Infection Of J774a.1 Macrophage Phenotype, Riham Abbas Subahi

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The cell cytoskeleton, a unique intracellular matrix found in all eukaryotes, is composed of three main protein structures, microtubules, microlaments and intermediate laments. The cytoskeleton maintains cell shape and internal structures providing mechanical support that facilitates intracellular transport (Parker et al., 2014). Many viruses such as the herpesviruses use the cytoskeleton system of the cell for infectivity (Henry Sum, M. S. 2015). HSV-1 utilizes the cell cytoskeleton in many steps of its life cycle from entry through assembly to egress (Lyman et al., 2008). During infection, HSV-1 viral proteins cause drastic changes and rearrangement of the cellular actin and cell ...


The Genomics Of Speciation Within The Globally Distributed Blue-Winged Ducks, Joel Thomas Nelson Jan 2016

The Genomics Of Speciation Within The Globally Distributed Blue-Winged Ducks, Joel Thomas Nelson

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The ability to disperse over long distances can result in a high propensity for colonizing new geographic regions and lead to lineage diversification via allopatric speciation. However, high vagility can also result in gene flow between otherwise allopatric populations, and in some cases, parapatric or divergence-with-gene-flow models of speciation might be more applicable to widely distributed lineages. Here, I used five nuclear introns and the mitochondrial control region to examine divergence, gene flow, and phylogenetic relationships within a cosmopolitan lineage comprising six species, the blue-winged ducks (genus Anas), which inhabit all continents except Antarctica. I found two primary sub-lineages, the ...


Genetic Analysis Of Male-Specific Lethality Between Caenorhabditis Briggsae:: Caenorhabditis Nigoni F1 Hybrids, Vaishnavi Ragavapuram Jan 2016

Genetic Analysis Of Male-Specific Lethality Between Caenorhabditis Briggsae:: Caenorhabditis Nigoni F1 Hybrids, Vaishnavi Ragavapuram

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Speciation occurs when there is a lack of reproduction due to genetic barriers. These genetic barriers to gene flow are referred as reproductive isolation mechanisms. Pre-zygotic and post-zygotic isolation are types of reproductive isolation mechanisms. In this project, post-zygotic isolation mechanisms were examined. Haldane's Rule states that in F1 hybrids, individuals of the heterogametic sex are less fit than those of the homogametic sex. Darwin's Corollary to Haldane's rule states that there is asymmetry in hybrid progeny between interspecific reciprocal crosses. Crosses done between Caenorhabditis briggsae males to Caenorhabditis nigoni females produce viable F1 hybrid females and ...


Metabolism Of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infected Raw 264.7 Macrophages, Mary K. Jenkins Jan 2016

Metabolism Of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infected Raw 264.7 Macrophages, Mary K. Jenkins

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Macrophages are immune cells that phagocytize pathogens and act as antigen presenting cells. Macrophages are critical in regulating the adaptive immune response and play a key role in neutralizing infection. Macrophages exhibit a variety of phenotypes which have different energy requirements. In the case of HSV-1 infection the virus has been shown to alter metabolic processes of its host. Utilizing a XF24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer the metabolic activity of M0, M1, and M2 (IL-4, IL-13, and IL-10) RAW 264.7 macrophages was quantified for both uninfected cells and in response to HSV-1 infection. The analysis showed uninfected M0 and M2 ...


Co-Evolution Of Mitochondrial And Nuclear Genomes In Caenorhabditis , Emily Elaine Hill Jan 2014

Co-Evolution Of Mitochondrial And Nuclear Genomes In Caenorhabditis , Emily Elaine Hill

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Nuclear and mitochondrial genomes have co-adapted through evolution. Interactions between these genomes are required for mitochondrial functions. My goal was to determine how divergence of these interactions affected mitochondrial function and organismal fitness. The impact of divergence between Caenorhabditis briggsae populations and between C. briggsae and its sister species, C. nigoni was assessed. To accomplish this, four sets of hybrid lines were constructed. Each hybrid line possessed the nuclear genome of one parental strain and mitochondria from another parental strain. Two sets of hybrid lines were constructed from strains derived from different C. briggsae populations. The other two were constructed ...


Effects Of Rev Protein On Microtubule Arrays In Living Cells, Nayana M. Nikumbh Jan 2014

Effects Of Rev Protein On Microtubule Arrays In Living Cells, Nayana M. Nikumbh

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The HIV protein Rev regulates the expression of essential viral proteins during the course of infection by a mechanism that is well understood. It promotes nuclear export of viral transcripts, normally retained in the nucleus owing to the presence of introns, by interacting with host cell transport factors. However, over-expression of Rev in cells leads to defects in cell cycle progression, specifically slowing growth and impairing progression through mitosis (43). While it is possible that Rev may be altering the proteins in transport pathways, cell cycle defects may be attributed to Rev's interactions with other proteins.

In vitro experiments ...


Likely Successors Of Ash Species In Response To The Emerald Ash Borer In Ohio Forests, Brian Michael Good Jan 2013

Likely Successors Of Ash Species In Response To The Emerald Ash Borer In Ohio Forests, Brian Michael Good

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Invasive species have the capability to alter landscapes and change the composition of a forest in a very short time. The recent invasive pest, Agrilus planipennis, emerald ash borer, was unintentionally introduced to the United States via ship route to Michigan. The pest attacks and kills all five native ash species in Ohio. This study focused on an area in west central Ohio not yet affected by the borer. Ash centered plots were used to record all species and sizes (diameter at breast height) within a 5m radius of a central ash tree. Plots ranged in topography and all five ...