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Behavior

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Functional, Ecological, And Evolutionary Morphology Of Sea Lampreys (Petromyzon Marinus), Bradley Morgan Wood Nov 2019

The Functional, Ecological, And Evolutionary Morphology Of Sea Lampreys (Petromyzon Marinus), Bradley Morgan Wood

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Lampreys (Petromyzontiformes) are jawless vertebrates with an evolutionary history lasting at least 360 million years and are often used in comparisons with jawed vertebrates because some of their morphological aspects, such as the segmented trunk musculature with curved myosepta and a non-mineralized skeleton fibrous skeleton, are thought to resemble the condition of early vertebrates before the evolution of jaws. Although earlier authors studied the morphology of the skeleto-muscular system of the trunk of lampreys, their studies are not detailed and complete enough to allow a functional and biomechanical analysis that is needed as a basis for modeling the mechanics of ...


Sex, Scents, And Cephalopods: Factors That Affect Social And Reproductive Behavior In Chambered Nautilus And Oval Squid, Naomi J. Lewandowski Sep 2019

Sex, Scents, And Cephalopods: Factors That Affect Social And Reproductive Behavior In Chambered Nautilus And Oval Squid, Naomi J. Lewandowski

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cephalopods are a highly specialized group of molluscs that show a wide range of behavioral patterns. Chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius) and oval squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana) are two very distinct species of cephalopod that both provide unique insight into cephalopod reproductive and social behavior. In experiments utilizing both species, I aimed to fill in knowledge gaps in a range of reproductive behaviors from fundamental responses to conspecifics, to preferred mating habitat.

In Chapter 1 and 2 I tested individual nautiluses in a Y-maze where recipients were exposed to paired odors of two donor nautiluses. I collected data on both their choice ...


Reduced Gabaergic Signaling At The Axon Initial Segment Decreases Vigilance State Transitioning, Austin John Boren Aug 2019

Reduced Gabaergic Signaling At The Axon Initial Segment Decreases Vigilance State Transitioning, Austin John Boren

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Sleep is a highly regulated homeostatic process that is disrupted in an estimated 50-70 million Americans. Regulation of sleep depends upon coordinated signaling of multiple neurotransmitter systems. In particular, inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling is required to suppress wake-active brain regions in order to initiate and maintain sleep states. GABA type A receptors (GABAARs) are ionotropic receptors with subunit compositions uniquely enriched on subcellular domains of target cells. α2 subunit-containing GABAARs are the primary target of GABA released onto the axon initial segment (AIS), a site critical for phasing the oscillatory activity of cortical cells. α2-containing GABAARs have previously been ...


Play Behavior And The Development Of Boldness And Caution In Juvenile Belding’S Ground Squirrels (Urocitellus Beldingi), Madelene Shehan May 2019

Play Behavior And The Development Of Boldness And Caution In Juvenile Belding’S Ground Squirrels (Urocitellus Beldingi), Madelene Shehan

Master's Theses

The ubiquity of play among juvenile mammals suggests it provides adaptive benefits, potentially through influences on the development of temperament in young animals. Juvenile Belding’s ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi) must balance competing demands for boldness and caution imposed by the fundamental trade-off between their short active season and their vulnerability to predation. In this study, I evaluated whether play helps to facilitate the development of an appropriate balance between boldness and caution in juvenile U. beldingi.I observed the play behavior of juvenile U. beldingiand conducted flight-initiation distance tests to measure boldness-caution at the beginning and toward the ...


The Effects Of Electrofishing On Different Life Stages Of Ozark And Eastern Hellbenders, Stephanie Kay Morrison May 2019

The Effects Of Electrofishing On Different Life Stages Of Ozark And Eastern Hellbenders, Stephanie Kay Morrison

MSU Graduate Theses

Electrofishing, a common method of freshwater fish sampling, has been shown to negatively affect some fish species, but the effects on non-target species, such as hellbenders, have not been well studied. I tested effects of electrofishing on the behavior of several life stages of captivereared Ozark (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi) and eastern (C. a. alleganiensis) hellbenders. Ozark hellbender eggs were exposed to different voltages in the laboratory, and embryos in higher voltages had higher incidences of twitching during exposures and higher numbers of morphological deformities after exposures. For hatchling Ozark hellbenders, which typically are sedentary, individuals moved more during exposure to ...


The Impact Of Male-Exposure In The Neuronal Response Of The L3 Auditory Intemeuron To Model Calls, Shekinah Dosunmu Apr 2019

The Impact Of Male-Exposure In The Neuronal Response Of The L3 Auditory Intemeuron To Model Calls, Shekinah Dosunmu

Honors Theses

The L3 auditory neuron in female cricket Acheta domesticus responds to phonotactically attractive calls with decrement: a reduction in the number of action potentials in response to consecutive sound pulses within a chirp. Such unique response has been reported only in virgin females. This study evaluates the response of the L3 in male-exposed females to determine whether they respond to auditory stimuli differently from those exhibited by virgin female crickets.

Preliminary data indicate that L3 in young exposed female crickets responds with different decrement patterns as those reported for virgin females. The implications of these findings are discussed.


Neuronal And Behavioral Response Relationships In Virgin Females Of Acheta Domesticus, Brandon Shin Apr 2019

Neuronal And Behavioral Response Relationships In Virgin Females Of Acheta Domesticus, Brandon Shin

Honors Theses

Animals that communicate acoustically serve as models for investigating how organisms respond to sound. For instance, in field crickets, females exhibit phonotaxis (directed movement towards the sound's source) to calls with a specific frequency, intensity, and syllable period (SP) - the time between the beginning of one sound pulse and the beginning of another within the same chirp. Additionally, auditory neurons in females produce action potentials in direct response to the sound pulses of a male 's call. A previous study on the species Gryllus bimaculatus demonstrated a relationship between an individual female's behavioral and neuronal responses; however, no ...


Climatic Variables Are Strong Predictors Of Allonursing And Communal Nesting In Primates, Alexandra Louppova Feb 2019

Climatic Variables Are Strong Predictors Of Allonursing And Communal Nesting In Primates, Alexandra Louppova

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Allomaternal care (AMC) is widespread throughout the primate order, previous studies have focused on benefits and costs to individuals. However, our understanding of environmental impacts on AMC behaviors in primates is still limited. Our study examines how ecology and environmental factors can predict certain AMC behaviors more than others.


Long-Term Effects Of Elevated Manganese On Procambarus Clarkii Behavior, Cody W. Lambert Jan 2019

Long-Term Effects Of Elevated Manganese On Procambarus Clarkii Behavior, Cody W. Lambert

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Manganese is a prominent heavy metal within the earth’s crust and a micro mineral essential for biological function, however, high level exposure may lead to neurological defects. Industrial activities allow elevated manganese (Mn2+)to enter air and waterways. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) implements secondary standards for aesthetics in drinking water at 0.05 ppm Mn2+, although evidence indicates levels at, or below this concentration negatively impact aquatic life. Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) were exposed to environmentally relevant Mn2+ concentrations for 6 months, while the control group was kept in reconstituted fresh water for the same time period ...


Activity Budgets And Behavior Of Captive Black-Handed Spider Monkeys (Ateles Geoffroyi) At The Central Florida Zoo And Botanical Gardens, Stephanie Hargrave Jan 2019

Activity Budgets And Behavior Of Captive Black-Handed Spider Monkeys (Ateles Geoffroyi) At The Central Florida Zoo And Botanical Gardens, Stephanie Hargrave

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Establishing baseline activity budgets for zoo-housed captive animals can be important in tracking behavior changes that may indicate medical or other concerns, as well as assessing overall welfare and the need for implementation of interventions such as increased amounts of enrichment. This study sought to calculate activity budgets for the current spider monkeys residing at the Central Florida Zoo, a father-daughter pair of Ateles geoffroyi. Having a baseline activity budget is also valuable because major changes in behavior may accompany the upcoming introduction of new individuals to this particular group of spider monkeys. BORIS behavior coding software was used to ...


A Novel Environmental Enrichment Laser Device Stimulated Broiler Chicken Active Behavior And Improved Performance Without Sacrificing Welfare Outcomes, Meaghan Meyer Jan 2019

A Novel Environmental Enrichment Laser Device Stimulated Broiler Chicken Active Behavior And Improved Performance Without Sacrificing Welfare Outcomes, Meaghan Meyer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The modern commercial broiler chicken is a genetic hybrid selected for fast growth, feed efficiency, and a large proportion of breast muscle tissue. As birds reach market weight within a typical 6- week commercial cycle, they are increasingly inactive and prone to leg disorders and contact dermatitis of the feet and breasts. Environmental enrichment can be used to increase activity and natural behavior in captive animals. The goal of this thesis was to incorporate environmental enrichment to stimulate broilers to voluntarily move and feed, whilst maintaining leg health and performance. The environmental enrichment was a novel device that projected red ...


Behavioral Impairment Following Gestational Exposure To Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterial Aerosols In Male And Female Rats, Matthew Leland Eckard Jan 2019

Behavioral Impairment Following Gestational Exposure To Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterial Aerosols In Male And Female Rats, Matthew Leland Eckard

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are beginning to be recognized as hazardous to human and animal health. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is primarily used as a whitening agent in paints, plastics, and sunscreens. While relatively inert in its bulk form, nano-TiO2 (diameter) can produce prolonged inflammation and oxidative stress in target tissue. Recently, the potential for nano-TiO2 to cause neuroinflammation and damage has heightened concerns about its continued use. One important concern is that nano-TiO2, and other metal oxide ENMs, may affect fetal neurodevelopment. Accordingly, it is imperative to screen ENMs, like TiO2, for possible neurotoxicity following developmental exposures. The current set of ...


Influence Of Environmental Features On Spermatophore Placement In Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Maculatum), Megan A. Kuechle Jan 2019

Influence Of Environmental Features On Spermatophore Placement In Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Maculatum), Megan A. Kuechle

Theses and Dissertations

Successful reproduction in salamanders is driven by behavioral, environmental, and temporal interactions among adults. While much of our understanding of salamander mating systems is based upon either courtship behavior of both sexes or aspects of female choice, the decisions made by males regarding where to place spermatophores is much less quantified. In this study, we mapped male spermatophore placement in the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) with respect to ecological and spatial locations within a vernal pool complex in Charles City County, Virginia. The overall goal was to use the spatial and ecological placement of spermatophores to determine if individuals deposit ...


Ecology, Monogamy, And The Evolution Of Animal Families, Jacqueline Rae Dillard Jan 2019

Ecology, Monogamy, And The Evolution Of Animal Families, Jacqueline Rae Dillard

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Family-living has been recognized as a necessary prerequisite for the evolution of advanced cooperative societies, yet the evolutionary and ecological processes that drive the coupling of different forms of cooperation in family-based societies are still poorly understood. In my dissertation, I investigate the correlated evolution of parental care, monogamy, and cooperative breeding in a variety of family-based taxa. I explore the mating and social behavior of family-living beetles with incipient cooperation to better understand the factors driving these social traits. Specifically, I evaluate different causes of extra-pair mating in socially monogamous beetles, the potential benefits that young adult offspring may ...


Effect Of Water Velocity And Temperature On Energy Use, Behavior, And Mortality Of Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus Albus Larvae, Joseph Thomas Mrnak Jan 2019

Effect Of Water Velocity And Temperature On Energy Use, Behavior, And Mortality Of Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus Albus Larvae, Joseph Thomas Mrnak

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus are a federally endangered species endemic to the Missouri River basin. Natural reproduction has been limited for decades and a recruitment bottleneck is hypothesized to occur during the larval stage of development. Understanding factors that affect survival of Pallid Sturgeon larvae is key given their critical status and ongoing recovery efforts. In this study, I evaluated the effects of water velocity and temperature on energy use, behavior, and mortality of endogenously feeding Pallid Sturgeon larvae (< 25 mm TL). In the first experiment, I examined the effect of water velocity (0 – 8.3 cm s−1) on larval growth, energy density, swimming activity, and mortality. Larval growth rate at 16.3 °C was similar across treatments ...


Shaping The Tools Of Battle : Sexual Selection, Contest Dynamics, And Weapon Divergence In The Asian Rhinoceros Beetle Trypoxylus Dichotomus, Jillian F. Del Sol Jan 2019

Shaping The Tools Of Battle : Sexual Selection, Contest Dynamics, And Weapon Divergence In The Asian Rhinoceros Beetle Trypoxylus Dichotomus, Jillian F. Del Sol

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Exaggerated weapons of sexual selection often diverge more rapidly and dramatically than other body parts, suggesting that relevant agents of selection may be discernible in contemporary populations. I examined the ecology, reproductive behavior, and strength of sexual selection on horn length in five recently diverged beetle populations that differ in relative horn size. I show that mating system ecology differs between these locations and corresponds with the local strength of contemporary selection on horn length. Comparisons of ecological conditions and selection strength across populations offer a critical first step towards meaningfully linking mating system dynamics, selection patterns, and diversity in ...


Discrimination And Behavioral Responses To Communication Signals Compared Across Apteronotids., Danielle Leigh Dillon-Seeger Jan 2019

Discrimination And Behavioral Responses To Communication Signals Compared Across Apteronotids., Danielle Leigh Dillon-Seeger

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Sensory systems are often uniquely tailored to encode behaviorally relevant signals and comparative studies across species can thus reveal how evolutionary changes shape sensory functions. The structure of communication signals varies widely between ghost knifefish species. Recent findings suggest that the nervous system co-adapted to the various signal structures observed across species to support different sensory behaviors. The aim for this thesis was to compare the sensory behavior of 3 species of ghost knifefish to contrast their behavioral performance with the known differences in neurophysiology. We hypothesize that for the different signal types and species, the ability to discriminate small ...


Characterization Of G-Protein Coupled Receptors In Pain, Depression And Anxiety, Neil Lax Dec 2018

Characterization Of G-Protein Coupled Receptors In Pain, Depression And Anxiety, Neil Lax

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chronic pain and major depressive disorder are widespread conditions in the world. Interestingly, these conditions often occur comorbidly, with each individual disease amplifying the symptoms of the other. A significant amount of preclinical research in pain and depression focuses on G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), implying that GPCRs may be useful in treating this comorbidity. Our efforts have sought to characterize several poorly understood GPCRs, including the serotonin receptor subtypes 2C and 7 (5-HT2CR and 5-HT7R) and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), along with more well-known GPCRs such as the mu opioid receptor (MOR), and the role that they play in ...


The Effects Of Density Gradients On The Distribution And Behavior Of Copepods, Connor Cayson Aug 2018

The Effects Of Density Gradients On The Distribution And Behavior Of Copepods, Connor Cayson

Theses

Observations of fine-scale behavioral dynamics of zooplankton may shed insight into much larger-scale ecosystem patterns and phenomena. Some zooplankton, such as copepods, are known to aggregate near density gradients; however, it is not clear the extent to which density gradients alone affect copepod distribution and behavior, since these gradients are often associated with phytoplankton layers. In this study, we investigated the behavior of Calanus pacificus in response to salinity gradients through laboratory experiments observed with high-resolution video and analyzed using computational techniques. Image data were collected using two cameras recording continuously for a duration of 30 minutes or more, allowing ...


Bubble Stream Production By Belugas (Delphinapterus Leucas), Megan Slack Aug 2018

Bubble Stream Production By Belugas (Delphinapterus Leucas), Megan Slack

Theses

Bubble stream production in belugas has been poorly characterized and its function is not well understood. I examined behavioral states when producing bubble streams (“bubbling”), and when bubbling calls, to determine whether bubbling was significantly associated with a particular call category or behavioral state. Using 19 hours of video and audio recordings collected over a two-day period, I quantified bubble streams of a 4-month old calf and an unrelated adult female housed together. Based on the overall activity budgets and pool of vocalizations for both animals, I calculated the expected counts of bubble streams with and without vocalizations, assuming that ...


Territorial Behavior In Southern Red-Backed And Ozark Zigzag Salamanders: Effects Of Sex, Species, And Ownership, Colton Savage Lynn Aug 2018

Territorial Behavior In Southern Red-Backed And Ozark Zigzag Salamanders: Effects Of Sex, Species, And Ownership, Colton Savage Lynn

MSU Graduate Theses

Territorial disputes are common among terrestrial woodland salamanders (genus Plethodon). Males and females of both Ozark zigzag (P. angusticlavius) and southern red-backed (P. serratus) salamanders are territorial, but differing costs and benefits between sexes may influence the expression of territorial behavior. I compared the competitive and exploratory behavior of males and females of both species in laboratory experiments. Competitive behavior was assessed through staged contests between same-sex, same-sized conspecifics. There were no differences between males and females for territory owners (residents). Female intruders were more aggressive than male intruders, spending more time in and performing higher grades of the All ...


A Note On The Onset Of Synchronous Egg Laying In A Seabird Behavior Model, Dorothea Gallos, Christiane Gallos Apr 2018

A Note On The Onset Of Synchronous Egg Laying In A Seabird Behavior Model, Dorothea Gallos, Christiane Gallos

Honors Theses

Protection Island, Washington hosts a large colony of Glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens). These birds are known to exhibit every-other-day egg-laying synchrony in dense areas of the colony in response to egg cannibalism, which is the main source of egg loss. Here we present an equilibrium analysis of a discrete-time animal behavior model for egg laying. We use Jury Conditions to find the stability criteria for the equilibrium as a function of the colony density and show that a 2-cycle bifurcation occurs when the equilibrium loses stability. The 2-cycle pattern in egg laying becomes increasingly synchronous as the colony density increases ...


Grooming Behaviors Of, Lauren N. Williams Mar 2018

Grooming Behaviors Of, Lauren N. Williams

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The giant freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is a large species of prawn grown extensively in aquaculture settings. A social hierarchy exists within the males of this species, representing three distinct male morphotypes. These male morphotypes differ in their behavior, physiology, and morphology and include the largest blue-clawed males (BC males), moderately- sized orange-clawed males (OC males), and the undifferentiated small-clawed males (SM males). All individuals of this species perform grooming behaviors to rid themselves of body fouling which can impede important functions such as movement, respiration, chemoreception, and reproduction. Grooming behaviors in crustaceans often utilize specialized structures called setae, which ...


Personality In California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus) And Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina): Methodological Convergence And Species-Specific Emotional Repertoires., Amber De Vere Feb 2018

Personality In California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus) And Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina): Methodological Convergence And Species-Specific Emotional Repertoires., Amber De Vere

Dissertations

Despite the wide acceptance of animal personality as a valid area of study, research on marine mammal personality remains remarkably scarce. What literature does exist predominantly focuses on bottlenose dolphins (Frick, 2016; Highfill & Kuczaj, 2007; Kuczaj, Highfill & Byerly, 2012; Lilley, de Vere, Yeatre & Kuczaj, 2018; Moreno, Highfill & Kuczaj, 2017). There is also strong evidence for individual differences in grey seals (Robinson et al., 2015; Twiss & Franklin, 2010; Twiss, Culloch & Pomeroy, 2011; Twiss, Cairns, Culloch, Richards & Pomeroy, 2012), and preliminary research has provided evidence of broad personality factors in pinniped species using behavioral coding (de Vere, Lilley & Highfill, 2017) and trait rating methods (Ciardelli, Weiss, Powell & Reiss, 2017). Several aspects of personality are not well documented across many taxa, including age-related patterns, the species-relevance of emotional trait words, potential issues associated with the non-human Dominance factor, and the convergent validity of multiple methods. The current study therefore aimed to address these issues in two pinniped species, California sea lions and harbor seals, and provides the first cross-method validation of personality dimensions in these taxa. There was some evidence that pinniped trainers could reliably rate the emotional states experienced by these species. Trait rating assessments produced three personality factors for each species; these exhibited good cross-method convergence in California sea lions, but not harbor seals. Dominance rankings were correlated with one behavioral and one rating factor in each species, although this was somewhat confounded by the extremely close correspondence of dominance and age.


Variation In Mass And Wing Loading Of Nestling American Kestrels: Possible Effects Of Nestling Behavior And Adult Provisioning Behavior, Doug Mitchell Jan 2018

Variation In Mass And Wing Loading Of Nestling American Kestrels: Possible Effects Of Nestling Behavior And Adult Provisioning Behavior, Doug Mitchell

Online Theses and Dissertations

Among birds, the rapid growth rates of altricial young help reduce mortality by reducing the amount of time spent in the nest. However, in species where a high degree of maneuverability and speed is required (i.e. aerial insectivores), it is important that nestlings not gain excess weight. Nestlings in some species must attain an efficient wing loading just prior to fledging to facilitate mobility for hunting and evading predators. My objective was to examine the mass of nestling American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) during the mid- to late nestling period and specifically to determine the possible effects of attaching small ...


Physiological And Molecular Changes Across The Lifespan Following Developmental Chemical Exposure, Frances Xin Jan 2018

Physiological And Molecular Changes Across The Lifespan Following Developmental Chemical Exposure, Frances Xin

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Early life environment can impact disease risk later in life, a concept known as the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD). Furthermore, the effects may persist across several generations of offspring. The underlying molecular dysregulation driving these phenotypes, however, remain unknown. Using the ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) bisphenol A (BPA) as a model estrogen, we investigated the physiological and molecular consequences of chronic, low-dose developmental BPA exposure across the lifespan, using a mouse model system. To assess the transmission of phenotypes across generations, we examined physiological endpoints across two generations of offspring in each study. In Chapter 2 ...


Effects Of Roundup On Behavior, Growth, And Mortality Of Larval Blue Dashers, Pachydiplax Longipennis, Kayleen K. Parker, Claire A. Fuller Jan 2018

Effects Of Roundup On Behavior, Growth, And Mortality Of Larval Blue Dashers, Pachydiplax Longipennis, Kayleen K. Parker, Claire A. Fuller

Murray State Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to determine if Roundup (active ingredient: Glyphosate) causes negative effects on behavior, growth, and mortality of larval Pachydiplax longipennis. Larvae were captured from rainwater-filled mesocosms at Hancock Biological Station in Murray, KY. Larvae were exposed to one of four concentrations of Roundup (0mg/L, 2.5mg/L, 5mg/L, or 10mg/L). Daphnia consumption, seek refuge, and anti-predator trials were conducted at 7 and 14 days post-exposure. Growth and survival trials were carried out for eight weeks using different larvae. There were no significant differences among treatments for whether or not larvae ate offered ...


Leaping Behavior In Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Molitrix): Analysis Of Burst Swimming Speeds, Angle Of Escape, Height, And Distance Of Leaps, Ehlana Stell Jan 2018

Leaping Behavior In Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Molitrix): Analysis Of Burst Swimming Speeds, Angle Of Escape, Height, And Distance Of Leaps, Ehlana Stell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Silver Carp have rapidly expanded their range exploiting vulnerable habitats, disrupting fisheries, and inflicting unknown ecological damage. These fish have continued to spread into the Middle Mississippi River and the Tennessee River Valley and great effort is being expended to prevent Silver Carp from entering the Great Lakes and expanding further into the Ohio, Illinois, Missouri, and Tennessee Rivers. Using boat-mounted cameras, we recorded in situ video of invasive Silver Carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix leaps to measure their horizontal distance, height, and angle of escape as well as their burst speed. Video tapes of fish leaps were obtained from populations of ...


Epigenetic Mechanisms Governing Behavioral Reprogramming In The Ant Camponotus Floridanus, Riley John Graham Jan 2018

Epigenetic Mechanisms Governing Behavioral Reprogramming In The Ant Camponotus Floridanus, Riley John Graham

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Eusocial insect colonies divide behaviors among specialist groups called castes. In some species, caste identity is determined by the interaction of endogenous (e.g. genomic) and exogenous (e.g. juvenile hormone from nurses) signals during larval development, suggesting epigenetic mechanisms underlie plastic traits tied to caste identity. Previous work demonstrated a link between patterns of histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac) and caste-specific gene expression in Major and Minor workers of the ant Camponotus floridanus, and we hypothesized caste-specific behaviors such as foraging may be similarly regulated by histone acetylation. To test this hypothesis, we fed mature (~30d old) Majors ...


Optogenetic Examination Of Salt Taste In Mice, Martin Raymond Jan 2018

Optogenetic Examination Of Salt Taste In Mice, Martin Raymond

Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

This thesis describes a series of experiments designed to evaluate the hypothesis that Type I taste receptor cells play a critical role in the detection and transduction of sodium taste via of epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs). Experiment 1 validated the function of a simple and affordable behavioral apparatus (hardware and software) for testing taste preference and taste aversion in mice. Experiment 2 demonstrated a pharmacological method for rapid induction of salt appetite in mice. Experiment 3 showed that optogenetic stimulation of Type I taste receptor cells (TRCs) in transgenic mice could drive consumption of tap water under conditions of salt ...