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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase-Mediated Lipid Metabolism In Obesity And Colon Tumorigenesis, Weicang Wang Oct 2019

Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase-Mediated Lipid Metabolism In Obesity And Colon Tumorigenesis, Weicang Wang

Doctoral Dissertations

Colon cancer is a major public health issue: it is expected to have 140,250 new cases and 50,630 deaths during 2018, making colon cancer the third most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Obesity is associated with enhanced colonic inflammation, which is a major risk factor of colorectal cancer. Currently, more than 35% of adults and nearly 17% of children are obese. Considering the obesity and colon cancer epidemic in the United States, there is an urgent need to identify novel therapeutic targets for obesity and colon cancer ...


The Role Of Secretory Phospholipase A2 Group Iia In Obesity And Metabolism, Michael S. Kuefner Aug 2019

The Role Of Secretory Phospholipase A2 Group Iia In Obesity And Metabolism, Michael S. Kuefner

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (PLA2G2A) is a member of a family of secretory phospholipases previously implicated in inflammation, atherogenesis, and antibacterial actions. These enzymes hydrolyze glycerophospholipids at the sn-2 position releasing lysophospholipids and fatty acids. Though studies have shown PLA2G2A is pro-inflammatory and promotes atherosclerosis, no research has analyzed the role of this enzyme in obesity and metabolism. Studies in the past 5-10 years utilizing various knock- out or over-expression mouse models have analyzed the role of different secretory phospholipase A2s (sPLA2) in metabolic diseases. From these studies, it is known that at least seven of the 11 sPLA2 ...


Awareness And Opinions About Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Policy In A University Setting, Helaina Thompson Aug 2019

Awareness And Opinions About Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Policy In A University Setting, Helaina Thompson

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore awareness and opinions about sugar-sweetened beverage policy—specifically pouring rights contracts—on a university campus. Participants were 915 students, staff, and faculty currently studying or under employment at the University of Iowa. Participants completed an online survey. Nearly two-thirds (64.2%) of participants reported not being aware of pouring rights prior to completing the survey. Over one-third (38.0%) of participants reported they agreed with universities engaging in pouring rights contracts, while 30.9% of participants neither agreed or disagreed, and 31.0% disagreed with universities engaging in pouring rights contracts. Respondents ...


Physical Activity Of Preschoolers With Developmental Disabilities And Delays, Michaela A. Schenkelberg Jul 2019

Physical Activity Of Preschoolers With Developmental Disabilities And Delays, Michaela A. Schenkelberg

Theses and Dissertations

Children with developmental disabilities and delays are at greater risk for developing overweight and obesity compared to typically developing peers. Participation in regular physical activity is a modifiable behavior that is consistently associated with improved weight status and other positive health outcomes. Previous studies have identified numerous individual- and environmental-level factors that associate with physical activity among school-age children with and without disabilities. However, little is known about physical activity behaviors and related correlates among preschool-aged children with disabilities (ages 3 – 5 years), especially while they are in preschool settings. Therefore, the overall purpose of this dissertation was to describe ...


Oleic Acid Attenuates Palmitic Acid-Induced Impairments In Mouse Blastocyst Development, Maisoon Dafalla Yousif Jun 2019

Oleic Acid Attenuates Palmitic Acid-Induced Impairments In Mouse Blastocyst Development, Maisoon Dafalla Yousif

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Palmitic acid (PA) and oleic acid (OA) are the most abundant saturated and monounsaturated non-esterified fatty acids, respectively, in serum. The consequences of PA and OA treatment on preimplantation mouse embryo development were investigated. It was hypothesized that OA treatment from the two-cell stage onwards would attenuate PA-induced reductions in mouse blastocyst development. PA significantly reduced development to the blastocyst stage. Transcript analysis revealed that PA increased ER stress pathway markers activating transcription factor 3 and C/EBP homologous protein transcripts, and XBP1 splicing. Co-culture of PA-treated embryos with OA prevented this PA-induced ER stress and rescued blastocyst development. Cytoplasmic ...


Association Of Dietary Behaviors, Macro-Nutrients And Energy Intake With Body Fat Percentage, Lean Mass, And Bone Mineral Density., Makayla Goggins May 2019

Association Of Dietary Behaviors, Macro-Nutrients And Energy Intake With Body Fat Percentage, Lean Mass, And Bone Mineral Density., Makayla Goggins

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Due to the obesity epidemic, many studies have compared nutrient intake to human body composition. However, previous studies have not used gold standard measures of body composition in a college population. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine how dietary behaviors, overall energy intake, and macronutrient intake are associated with the body composition factors measured in a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. We hypothesize higher body fat percentage will be associated with higher fat and carbohydrate intake, but not total energy intake. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study done as part of Exercise is Medicine® On Campus ...


Effects Of Eat Better, Move More (Ebmm) Educational Program On Obesity Rates In Latino Children Residing In Northwest Arkansas, Allison Jones May 2019

Effects Of Eat Better, Move More (Ebmm) Educational Program On Obesity Rates In Latino Children Residing In Northwest Arkansas, Allison Jones

The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Childhood obesity, especially in ethnic minority populations, is a growing problem with no signs of improvement over the past decade. The Latino population is one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States. Unfortunately, they have experienced substantial health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantages that contribute to the high rates of obesity in their youth. Decreasing obesity rates would not only have many health advantages, but also financial benefits as well. It would reduce the risk of co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease and depression. Healthy children are more likely to grow into healthy adults, ultimately lowering the cost ...


Cultural Influences On Body Size Ideals Among African American Women In The Mississippi Delta, Lois Marie Coleman Jan 2019

Cultural Influences On Body Size Ideals Among African American Women In The Mississippi Delta, Lois Marie Coleman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Results: One-on-one interviews yielded 25 cognitive maps. The maps contained a total of 169 concepts with 294 connections among them. The lowest number of variables identified on a participant’s map was 4 and the highest was 11. The lowest number of connections made on a participant’s map was 4 and the highest was 39. Through qualitative condensing and matrix addition, the 169 concepts were used to create 27 variables with 134 connections. Feedback from focus group participants resulted in the addition of 3 variables and 9 connections.


Male Weight Control: Crowdsourcing And An Intervention To Discover More, Tiffany Rounds Jan 2019

Male Weight Control: Crowdsourcing And An Intervention To Discover More, Tiffany Rounds

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Men and women have similar rates of obesity but the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher among men. Men who are overweight are a high-risk group for many obesity-related chronic diseases, as they are more likely to carry excess weight in the abdomen, which is generally more harmful than weight stored in the lower body. Men are also less likely than women to perceive themselves as overweight, and thus are less likely to initiate weight loss through organized weight loss programs. On average, less than 27% of weight loss trial participants have been men.

Internet-based research is a ...


Eat Smart, Play Hard The Oyate Way: Impact Of A Culturally Tailored Nutrition And Physical Activity Curriculum On Elementary Youth, Abbey Hillestad Jan 2019

Eat Smart, Play Hard The Oyate Way: Impact Of A Culturally Tailored Nutrition And Physical Activity Curriculum On Elementary Youth, Abbey Hillestad

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Objective: To assess changes in nutrition and physical activity (PA) knowledge and behavior in elementary-age participants from school districts with high American Indian enrollment after completion of a culturally tailored education curriculum.
Design: Pre-post intervention study assessing knowledge and behavior using quantitative methods. Participants: A total of 248 participants (Kindergarten through 5th grade, n=248) throughout 13 elementary classrooms in tribal communities participated in Eat Smart. Play Hard.: The Oyate Way. Intervention(s): Baseline and post intervention data from a culturally tailored nutrition and PA knowledge and behavior curriculum.
Main Outcome Measure(s): Dependent variables were nutrition and PA knowledge ...


Differences In Running Mechanics And Tibial Plateau Dimensions Between Overweight/Obese And Healthy Weight Children, Claire Sylvestre Jan 2019

Differences In Running Mechanics And Tibial Plateau Dimensions Between Overweight/Obese And Healthy Weight Children, Claire Sylvestre

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: Overweight and obese (OW/OB) children display increased knee joint loading during running, which may lead to excessive frontal plane motion and moments at the knee joints. The relationship between tibial plateau dimensions and knee vertical loading may explain the loading related injuries OW/OB children experience.
PURPOSE: Compare knee mechanics during running and tibial plateau dimensions between healthy weight (HW) and OW/OB children.
METHODS: Ten HW children and ten OW/OB children aged 9-12 participated in the study. Kinematic and kinetic data were captured as participants ran across a force platform at 3.5m/s. Tibial plateau ...


Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: A Survey To Assess Adults Knowledge, Attitudes, And Consumption Patterns Of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Jeff Schafer Jan 2019

Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: A Survey To Assess Adults Knowledge, Attitudes, And Consumption Patterns Of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Jeff Schafer

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have a direct impact on the general health of the country when looking at the rising obesity levels (CDC, 2017a). The USDA’s dietary guidelines suggest that the daily intake of added sugar should be limited to 6 teaspoons for women and 9 teaspoons for men (Hughes, 2017). However, the average American consumes 20 teaspoons of sugar daily (Hughes, 2017). These extra calories are converted into fat and stored in the body. Data collected throughout the years indicates a rise in the number of Americans living with a weight above healthy recommendations, which is termed, obese. Obesity ...


Relationship Of Weight-Related Eating Behaviors And Weight-Loss Of Participants In A Proprietary Weight-Loss Program, Megan Tschakert Jan 2019

Relationship Of Weight-Related Eating Behaviors And Weight-Loss Of Participants In A Proprietary Weight-Loss Program, Megan Tschakert

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The aim of this study is to evaluate weight-related eating behaviors of participants with clinically significant weight loss (CSWL) in a proprietary weight loss program. A crosssectional sample of participants (n=1,454) enrolled in a proprietary weight-loss program that includes meal replacements and health coaching were queried for weight-related eating behaviors (using Weight Related Eating Questionnaire) of routine restraint (RR), compensatory restraint (CR), susceptibility to external cues (SEC), and emotional eating (EE) in relation to CSWL (defined as having achieved a weight loss greater than 10% of starting weight). Participants were dichotomized into those with CSWL (n=973) and ...