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Theses/Dissertations

2019

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga Dec 2019

The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dickeya dianthicola (Samson) causing blackleg and soft rot was first detected in potatoes grown in Maine in 2014. Previous work has suggested that insects, particularly aphids, may be able to vector bacteria in this genus between plants, but no conclusive work has been done to confirm this theory. In order to determine whether insect-mediated transmission is likely to occur in potato fields, two model potato pests common in Maine were used: the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decimlineata Say) and the green peach aphids (Myzus persicae Sulzer). Olfactometry and recruitment experiments evaluated if either insect discriminates between infected and uninfected foliage ...


California Stream Condition Index (Csci) Score Analysis Of Streams Sampled From 1998 To 2017 In The San Francisco Bay Region, Jenna Rais Dec 2019

California Stream Condition Index (Csci) Score Analysis Of Streams Sampled From 1998 To 2017 In The San Francisco Bay Region, Jenna Rais

Master's Projects and Capstones

Human impacts to California’s streams have altered the state’s riparian and hydrological landscape. This is a critical issue with regard to natural resources, including ecosystem services such as water availability and water quality. Regulations have a limited amount of impact on the improvement of this landscape and can also become complicated by politics. Scientific advances have developed ways to quantify and describe the quality of streams, this includes the development of the California Stream Condition Index (CSCI) which is based on benthic macroinvertebrate (BMI) population numbers and functions. This index allows scientists to not only score the quality ...


The Best Management Practices For Addressing Human-Caused Riparian And Wetland Degradation, Aldo Lopez Dec 2019

The Best Management Practices For Addressing Human-Caused Riparian And Wetland Degradation, Aldo Lopez

Master's Projects and Capstones

Riparian and wetland ecosystems accomplish a variety of significant ecological purposes, especially in the State of California where a majority of these ecosystems have been removed, degraded, or altered due to human interferences. A large portion of this interference comes from a strong agricultural presence throughout the state. In order to combat further ecological loss, private and public entities have begun strong restorative and managerial efforts. This project reviews the effects of agriculture in riparian and wetland areas, and what are the best management practices focusing on the Santa Clara River Watershed and the Elkhorn Slough found in Monterey Bay ...


Fish Passage And Hydropower: Investigating Resource Agency Decision-Making During The Ferc Hydropower Relicensing Process, Sarah Vogel Dec 2019

Fish Passage And Hydropower: Investigating Resource Agency Decision-Making During The Ferc Hydropower Relicensing Process, Sarah Vogel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hydropower dams represent a significant challenge for the successful migration of sea-run fish, many species of which are in decline. Most hydropower dams in the United States are regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent federal agency responsible for granting 30 to 50-year licenses to projects for their continued operation. Licenses typically include conditions for the conservation of sea-run fish such as fish passage construction, operational changes, monitoring of effectiveness, and other mitigative conditions. While FERC remains the primary authority in licensing, the current regulatory framework stipulates input from other federal and state resource and regulatory agencies ...


Springs Of The Arabian Peninsula: Historical Trends, Current Status And Human Impact In Saudi Arabia, Oman And Jordan, Kamal M. Aljohani Dec 2019

Springs Of The Arabian Peninsula: Historical Trends, Current Status And Human Impact In Saudi Arabia, Oman And Jordan, Kamal M. Aljohani

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research was conducted to update previous studies of the springs of the Arabian Peninsula (Saudi Arabia, Oman and Jordan). Approach: 76 springs were surveyed in between March and July 2018: 15 Saudi Arabia, 41 Oman and 20 Jordan to ascertain the current status, water quality and zooplankton benthos and fish communities. Investigation of the changes of biota and chemical parameters downstream from the springs source in Saudi Arabia. Results: Mercury exceeded the WHO and USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) in 63 of 76 springs, Aluminum exceeded MCL in 8 of 76 springs, and both were the common dissolved heavy ...


Species Richness And Ecological Diversity Of Myxomycetes And Myxomycete-Like Organisms In The Tropical Forests Of Brazil, Isadora Lima Coelho Dec 2019

Species Richness And Ecological Diversity Of Myxomycetes And Myxomycete-Like Organisms In The Tropical Forests Of Brazil, Isadora Lima Coelho

Theses and Dissertations

Tropical rain forests cover less than two percent of Earth's surface, yet they sustain the greatest diversity of living organisms on the planet. Tropical rain forests cover nearly 73% of the Brazilian territory and besides harboring some of the most biodiverse ecosystems on the planet, this vast area also houses about 83% of the Brazilian population. Approximately 175 million people live in urban and rural areas with fragments of coverage of these biomes which contributes to the loss of biodiversity that rapidly increases over the years. Furthermore, the majority of the taxonomic and ecological efforts to describe and protect ...


Effects Of Infanticide Risk And Timber Harvest On American Black Bear Space Use, D. Cody Norton Dec 2019

Effects Of Infanticide Risk And Timber Harvest On American Black Bear Space Use, D. Cody Norton

All NMU Master's Theses

Space use is an important aspect of bear ecology that maybe influenced by infanticide risk and timber harvest. I used generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) to determine if female American black bear (Ursus americanus) space use was consistent with avoidance behavior to reduce infanticide risk in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan during the 2009–2011 and 2013–2014 breeding seasons. Females with cubs occupied core areas and home ranges of similar size and relative probability of male use to females without cubs. Additionally, females with cubs did not reduce movements during times of day when male movements were greatest. Female ...


Observable Persistent Effects Of Habitat Management Efforts In The Ozark Highlands After 10 Years, Maxwell Carnes-Mason Dec 2019

Observable Persistent Effects Of Habitat Management Efforts In The Ozark Highlands After 10 Years, Maxwell Carnes-Mason

Theses and Dissertations

I investigated the lasting impacts of a management plan designed to improve oak regeneration and benefit wildlife in the Ozark Highlands in Madison, Co., AR. To assess the efficacy of the management plan, I used variables relevant to the success and establishment of oak trees. Controlled burns and selective logging were used to thin the canopy, increase ground level productivity, and increase the abundance of small mammals. I used measurements of overstory and understory densities, light availability, and the density of mice in the genus Peromyscus across time to look at the lasting impacts of management. Different treatment plots were ...


Eastern Collared Lizard (Crotaphytus Collaris) Population Declines In Ozark Landscapes: An Assessment Of Environmental Constraints., Casey L. Brewster Dec 2019

Eastern Collared Lizard (Crotaphytus Collaris) Population Declines In Ozark Landscapes: An Assessment Of Environmental Constraints., Casey L. Brewster

Theses and Dissertations

The Eastern Collared Lizard (Crotaphytus collaris) has experienced extensive population declines over the past half century in the Ozark Mountains. Previous research suggests that glade habitat degradation through woody vegetation encroachment is an important factor resulting in population declines. In this dissertation I used information on time-energy budgets to investigate the link between habitat degradation and shifts in life history traits likely resulting in population declines of Eastern Collared Lizards (Crotaphytus collaris) in the Ozarks. In chapter one, I addressed the influence of dense woody vegetation encroachment on age-specific growth, body size, body condition and reproduction of C. collaris in ...


The Response Of Utah Lake's Plant And Algal Community Structure To Cultural Eutrophication, Leighton R. King Dec 2019

The Response Of Utah Lake's Plant And Algal Community Structure To Cultural Eutrophication, Leighton R. King

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Human activities have long had a negative impact on the water quality of freshwater lakes around the world. Utah Lake, located in north-central Utah, has been a subject of such impacts, as the lake experiences recurrent harmful algal blooms during the summer months. Lake warnings and closures have made the public increasingly aware of the ecological and economic impact of these blooms. The objectives of this study were to: 1) compare historical and present-day water quality and ecosystem conditions using environmental data contained in sediment cores, 2) identify whether, and when, Utah Lake transitioned from clearwater to turbid conditions, and ...


Effects Of Water Table Depth And Edaphic Characteristics On Plant Diversity In A Southern Mississippi Pitcher Plant Bog, Patrick Kirby Dec 2019

Effects Of Water Table Depth And Edaphic Characteristics On Plant Diversity In A Southern Mississippi Pitcher Plant Bog, Patrick Kirby

Master's Theses

This study examined the effects that water table depth and soil characteristics have on plant species richness and species composition within pitcher plant bogs across seasons. Eight piezometers were installed at random distances to monitor long-term water table depth and pressure fluctuations along a ~710-meter line transect traversing upland and bog habitats. Vegetation sampling quadrats (n=128) were set up near each piezometer. Cover data and water table depths were collected in spring and late summer. Soil samples collected from each treatment group were used to obtain soil texture and nutrient data. The summer collection period yielded a total gdiversity ...


Release Of Captive-Raised Eastern Hellbenders (Cryptobranchus Alleganiensis) To Test The Success Of A Chytrid Vaccine And New Cage Design, Megan C. Kocher Dec 2019

Release Of Captive-Raised Eastern Hellbenders (Cryptobranchus Alleganiensis) To Test The Success Of A Chytrid Vaccine And New Cage Design, Megan C. Kocher

Biology Theses

Researchers and managers commonly apply captive-raising and reintroductions of animals to offset losses due to worldwide amphibian declines. Recent declines in the Eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) have resulted in several reintroductions that have had little success. There is evidence that chytridiomycosis (chytrid), a disease caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), may negatively affect hellbenders post-release. Further, excessive post-release movement may result in movement away from suitable habitat and increased risk of predation which can have negative effects on the survival of released hellbenders. Caging captive-raised animals can be effective for limiting excessive post-release movement. This study tested a ...


Movements And Behaviors Of Resident And Translocated Northern Map Turtles (Graptemys Geographica) In The Upper Niagara River With Artificial Basking/Nesting Platforms As A Management Strategy, Chelsea L. Moore Dec 2019

Movements And Behaviors Of Resident And Translocated Northern Map Turtles (Graptemys Geographica) In The Upper Niagara River With Artificial Basking/Nesting Platforms As A Management Strategy, Chelsea L. Moore

Biology Theses

Urbanization and degradation of riparian zones has contributed to the decline of fish and wildlife populations throughout the world. Northern Map Turtles (Graptemys geographica) in the upper Niagara River face similar declines due to shoreline development and the concurrent loss of backwater habitats and terrestrial nesting sites. A project was initiated in which basking/nesting platforms were created, and Northern Map Turtles from a Lake Erie population were translocated into the river. Resident and translocated turtles were tracked using biotelemetry and their habitat use, behaviors, and swimming paths were compared. Translocated turtles exhibited homing behavior and had longer home ranges ...


Spatial And Temporal Variation In The Aquatic Invertebrate Community Structure Of Rock Pools Along The Penobscot River, Maine, Chase R. Gagne Dec 2019

Spatial And Temporal Variation In The Aquatic Invertebrate Community Structure Of Rock Pools Along The Penobscot River, Maine, Chase R. Gagne

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pools of water that form in the fissures and depressions of rock outcrops, known as rock pools, are fairly common aquatic habitats that can easily be found along the rocky banks of many of Maine’s major rivers. In general, rock pools and the aquatic invertebrates inhabiting them have received little research attention and, though ubiquitous, have never been studied in Maine. My research addressed this knowledge gap by surveying 40 rock pools at four sites along the Penobscot River in Maine. The rock pools themselves had highly variable environmental characteristics and differed across sites and over time, especially in ...


Effects Of Soil-Borne Pathogens On Seedling Establishment Patterns In Forest Systems, Eric P. Sodja Dec 2019

Effects Of Soil-Borne Pathogens On Seedling Establishment Patterns In Forest Systems, Eric P. Sodja

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Janzen-Connell mechanism is proposed to maintain plant diversity: predators and diseases of seeds reduce the number of seeds that survive near a parent tree, but allow seeds far from the parent tree to grow into adulthood. In the area where seeds don’t survive, seedlings from other tree species which are not affected by the seed consumer can grow. At large scales, this effect is thought to increase overall plant diversity. Soil-borne pathogens can contribute to seed mortality in this way, but we don’t know how important different parts of their lifecycle are in creating Janzen-Connell patterns. To ...


Behavioral Aspects Of Chemoreception In Juvenile Cottonmouths (Agkistrodon Piscivorus), Chelsea E. Martin Dec 2019

Behavioral Aspects Of Chemoreception In Juvenile Cottonmouths (Agkistrodon Piscivorus), Chelsea E. Martin

MSU Graduate Theses

For snakes, chemical recognition of predators, prey, and conspecifics has important ecological consequences. For example, detection of predator cues can reduce predation risk. Similarly, scent trailing of conspecifics to communal hibernacula can improve overwinter survival for neonates. I used y-maze choice trials to examine scent-trailing ability of 32 captive-born juvenile cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus) in two separate experiments. In conspecific trailing tests, subjects preferred to follow cues from their own mothers over a blank control cue, but also preferred to trail cues from unrelated adult females compared to cues from their own mothers. My results are consistent with previous reports and ...


Mammal Species Inventory Using Various Trapping Methods In Zone 4 Of Billy Barquedier National Park, Belize During Rainy Season, Mersady Redding Dec 2019

Mammal Species Inventory Using Various Trapping Methods In Zone 4 Of Billy Barquedier National Park, Belize During Rainy Season, Mersady Redding

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Belize is a small country, but it is extremely ecologically diverse. Based on the few studies conducted in Belize, the abundance of mammals is low but diversity is high. Particular findings note the number and identity of species differed between four sites in the Maya Mountains of Belize, indicating that a data set from a single site is not representative of the Neotropical region. Insufficient data is available to estimate current species richness of many areas in Belize, including Billy Barquedier National Park (BBNP). The objective of this study was to explore trapping and documentation methods of terrestrial mammals in ...


A Survey Of Earthworm Communities Across Areas Of Varying Land Management In Northwest Arkansas, Alyssa M. Ferri Dec 2019

A Survey Of Earthworm Communities Across Areas Of Varying Land Management In Northwest Arkansas, Alyssa M. Ferri

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Earthworms are an integral component of the soil ecosystem, impacting factors including soil formation, maintenance of soil structure, and nutrient recycling. Earthworm abundances and distributions are related to abiotic soil properties and can influence the community structure. The goal of this study was to survey earthworm populations across areas of different land management histories and soil characteristics to determine if a relationship between earthworm density and land management characteristics was present. Earthworm and soil samples were collected at irregular temporal intervals from September 2017 to March 2018. In total, five sites were sampled, three at the Botanical Garden of the ...


Assessing & Protecting Dark Night Skies In El Morro National Monument, Leslie Kobinsky Dec 2019

Assessing & Protecting Dark Night Skies In El Morro National Monument, Leslie Kobinsky

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Light pollution is causing the disappearance of dark night skies around the world. In the United States alone, 1/3 of people are unable to see the Milky Way where they live (Ramlagan, 2016). National Park Service sites contain some of the darkest skies in the country. Here at El Morro National Monument, these dark skies are a beautiful and healthy benefit to people in the local community and visitors traveling from afar. El Morro’s current park legislation does not include specific measures of protection for the night sky. This capstone project will create a baseline data set of ...


Urban Stream Syndrome And The Presence Of E. Coli In Philadelphia Streams, Eileen Black Nov 2019

Urban Stream Syndrome And The Presence Of E. Coli In Philadelphia Streams, Eileen Black

HON499 projects

In this experiment, water samples were collected from the Pennypack and Wissahickon Creeks as part of an exploratory study on the presence of microbes, particularly Escherichia coli, in urban streams. Contamination by E. coli may indicate that a creek is polluted and suffering from urban stream syndrome. E. coli was found in both creeks, likely due to their locations near a sewage treatment facility and a farm.


The Effects Of Seasonal Variations, El Niño-Southern Oscillation, And Climate Change On The Tuna-Dolphin Association, Caitlynn Birch, Michael D. Scott, Zhi-Yong Yin, Lisa T. Ballance Nov 2019

The Effects Of Seasonal Variations, El Niño-Southern Oscillation, And Climate Change On The Tuna-Dolphin Association, Caitlynn Birch, Michael D. Scott, Zhi-Yong Yin, Lisa T. Ballance

Theses

Tuna and dolphins swim together in the waters of the eastern tropical Pacific, and this association has long benefitted tuna fishermen and intrigued scientists. Although the tuna-dolphin association is often referred to as a “mystery,” much is known about the association. Yellowfin tuna are primarily caught with spotted dolphins and, to a lesser extent, spinner dolphins; historically the spotted dolphin has borne the brunt of the bycatch mortality. The tuna-dolphin association is thought to be a product of the distinct oceanography of the ETP: a shallow mixed layer, a thick oxygen minimum zone, and warm surface waters. As the mixed ...


Vines In The Neotropics: Phylogenomics, Biogeography And Systematics In Passion Flowers (Passiflora Subgenus Decaloba Section Decaloba), Serena Acha Nov 2019

Vines In The Neotropics: Phylogenomics, Biogeography And Systematics In Passion Flowers (Passiflora Subgenus Decaloba Section Decaloba), Serena Acha

Dissertations

With 600 species, Passiflora is a large, morphologically complex and broadly distributed genus in Passifloraceae that represents a major challenge to scientists interested in understanding the evolutionary history of tropical vines. Passiflora has been divided into subgenera, super sections and sections. One of the most enigmatic and species-rich (~120 spp.) groups in Passiflora is section Decaloba, which occurs in the Neotropics and is particularly diverse in Andean montane forests. In this study, we used phylogenomic and population genomic approaches to investigate the evolutionary history, biologeography, species boundaries, and taxonomy of Passiflora section Decaloba. We sampled herbarium specimens, extracted DNA, and ...


The Peculiar Nature Of Florida’S Sandhill Wetlands, Ponds & Lakes— Their Ecohydrology, Relationship With The Regional Aquifer & Importance Within The Landscape., Renae Starr Nowicki Nov 2019

The Peculiar Nature Of Florida’S Sandhill Wetlands, Ponds & Lakes— Their Ecohydrology, Relationship With The Regional Aquifer & Importance Within The Landscape., Renae Starr Nowicki

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation explores the ecohydrology of Florida’s peculiar and poorly studied sandhill wetland and water features, particularly those located in west-central Florida. The primary research goals include: compilation and summarization of the available ecohydrologic information for features across Florida; comparison of water level and water geochemistry data between sandhill wetlands and waters and the regional aquifer to provide evidence of regional hydrologic control; and use of geophysical applications to examine the hydraulic connections between sandhill wetlands and waters and the regional aquifer.

From this research, a natural history of sandhill wetland and water ecohydrology is presented, highlighting: the differences ...


Untapped Potential Of Gorgonian Octocorals For Detecting Environmental Change In Biscayne National Park, Florida, Usa, Selena A. Kupfner Johnson Nov 2019

Untapped Potential Of Gorgonian Octocorals For Detecting Environmental Change In Biscayne National Park, Florida, Usa, Selena A. Kupfner Johnson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

One consequence of dramatic stony-coral loss has been recognition that gorgonian octocorals (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) have emerged among the dominant reef fauna. However, gorgonians are notoriously difficult to field-identify and consequently have been underrepresented in most monitoring efforts resulting in a lack of long-term data. The rich diversity of habitats, close proximity to the urban center of Miami, and connectivity to other areas of Florida have made Biscayne National Park an active location for reef research since its establishment in 1968. As such, a plethora of data (e.g., museum specimen and species abundance data) has been collected and stored in ...


Investigating Among-Individual Growth Heterogeneity In Longleaf Pine: Advancing Dendrochronological Approaches, Jamie E. Munn Nov 2019

Investigating Among-Individual Growth Heterogeneity In Longleaf Pine: Advancing Dendrochronological Approaches, Jamie E. Munn

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Within a population, individuals frequently differ in the rate at which they grow, and this rate can be impacted by both genetic differences and abiotic factors. Often, dendrochronology is used to elucidate growth trends based on climate or other factors. This dissertation explores new statistical approaches to dendrochronological research.

First, I created a chronology for a population of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill.) individuals in a southwest Florida sandhill community. I then used generalized linear mixed models to investigate the effects of fire frequency, year, tree age and size, and elevation on variation in radial growth heterogeneity. I then ...


Ecology Of The Elusive: Genome-Informed Investigation Of Soil Microbial Diversity, Lauren Alteio Oct 2019

Ecology Of The Elusive: Genome-Informed Investigation Of Soil Microbial Diversity, Lauren Alteio

Doctoral Dissertations

Soil is considered one of the most diverse ecosystems on Earth, harboring diversity of organisms across the three domains of life. It is spatially and chemically heterogeneous: properties that intertwine in a complex matrix to support organismal diversity and function across different scales. Soil microorganisms both respond to and drive changes in ecosystems through metabolic activities. A single gram of soil is teeming with millions of cells comprised of thousands of species. Much of this diversity remains uncharacterized due to technical and methodological challenges faced by soil ecologists. Due to the complex physicochemical properties of soil and cross-feeding interactions between ...


An Examination Of Tern Diet In A Changing Gulf Of Maine, Keenan Yakola Oct 2019

An Examination Of Tern Diet In A Changing Gulf Of Maine, Keenan Yakola

Masters Theses

The Gulf of Maine is a dynamic ecosystem with rapidly warming sea surface temperatures (SSTs), therefore it is vital to understand how species interactions vary over time and space. In chapter two, I quantify and compare dietary differences among four tern species, across seven islands in the region, over a 32-year period. Multivariate statistical analyses were employed to discern spatial and temporal differences in foraging ecology. Findings suggest there are significant differences between species and islands; however, only three prey species comprise the majority of chick diet for all terns and islands. The reliance on only a few prey items ...


Patterns Of Morphological Plasticity In Metriaclima Zebra And Danio Rerio Suggest Differently Canalized Phenotypes Due To Form-Function Relationships, Dylan Jockel Oct 2019

Patterns Of Morphological Plasticity In Metriaclima Zebra And Danio Rerio Suggest Differently Canalized Phenotypes Due To Form-Function Relationships, Dylan Jockel

Masters Theses

In order to ascertain the degree of compatibility in developmental restructuring and behavioral plasticity between two fish species frequently made subject of laboratory research (Metriaclima zebra & Danio rerio), alternative trophic niche exposure experiments utilizing novel three-prong feeding treatments were conducted to obtain morphometric data, which demonstrated both species do bear some degree of plasticity. The results are somewhat complicated by differences in locality of detectable restructuring, which may be due to disparity in the form-function relationship for each species’ lineage. Each is notable in the manner of respective species’ jaw protrusion, as it is driven by anterior kinethmoid rotation in ...


Reproductive Parameters And Female Breeding Season Survival Of Rio Grande Wild Turkeys In South Central Texas, Jacob White Oct 2019

Reproductive Parameters And Female Breeding Season Survival Of Rio Grande Wild Turkeys In South Central Texas, Jacob White

LSU Master's Theses

Historically, Rio Grande wild turkeys in south central Texas have been at lower densities than other portions of the state. Within the Oak-Prairie Wildlife District of Texas, Rio Grande wild turkey regulatory restrictions are different for counties in the eastern and western portions of the ecoregion. Due to perceived increases in turkey density in the eastern portion of the ecoregion (hereafter 1-bird zone), Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD) considered increasing the bag limit to match counties in the western portion of the district (hereafter 4-bird zone) in order to increase hunting opportunities. However, if regulatory changes are to be ...


The Distribution And Demography Of The Invasive Pacific Oyster, Crassostrea Gigas, And Native Olympia Oyster, Ostrea Lurida, In The San Diego River, Jason Langevin Oct 2019

The Distribution And Demography Of The Invasive Pacific Oyster, Crassostrea Gigas, And Native Olympia Oyster, Ostrea Lurida, In The San Diego River, Jason Langevin

Theses

Even though the introduction of the Pacific Oyster, Crassostrea gigas, to the west coast of North America, happened roughly a century ago, it has only been in the past 15 to 20 years that C. gigas has started to become an established and conspicuous species along Southern California’s coast. The establishment of C. gigas in Southern California has the potential to heavily influence many native species, as it has done globally. In Southern California, this invasion is particularly relevant for the native Olympia Oyster, Ostrea lurida. The Olympia oyster has both historical and present-day threats to its population, due ...