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Theses/Dissertations

2019

Cell Biology

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Genetic Analysis Of A Novel Ftsk Homolog, Hfka, In Streptomyces Coelicolor Development-Associated Chromosome Segregation, Sumedha Sethi Dec 2019

Genetic Analysis Of A Novel Ftsk Homolog, Hfka, In Streptomyces Coelicolor Development-Associated Chromosome Segregation, Sumedha Sethi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A quintessential phenomenon occurring during prokaryotic development is accurate segregation of the replicated genomes into the daughter cells. Key energy-dependent processes like chromosome condensation and subcellular partitioning of the genomes are driven by conserved proteins like SMC, ParB, FtsK. During its complex developmental cycle, Streptomyces coelicolor segregates its genomes into chains of unicellular spores when its multigenomic syncytial aerial hyphae undergo division.

A novel ftsK-like gene, hfkA (Homolog of FtsK protein A), was examined for function and localization during development-associated chromosome segregation. Individual deletions did not affect segregation, but a ΔhfkA ΔftsK mutant exhibited 8% anucleate spores ...


Gingival Mscs Improve Bone Phenotype In Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis Via Programmed Cell Death Pathway, Sultan Alghaithi Dec 2019

Gingival Mscs Improve Bone Phenotype In Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis Via Programmed Cell Death Pathway, Sultan Alghaithi

Dental Theses

Estrogen deficiency-related osteoporosis is a skeletal system disorder that affects women after menopause taking a toll on financial and health institutions. Gingival Mesenchymal Stem cells (GMSCs) are a distinctive population of dental tissue-derived stem cells that possess uniquely high proliferation abilities and are capable of self-maintenance and multipotent differentiation. Their use has been investigated in different disease model applications, including cutaneous wound healing models, colitis, and allergy-related inflammatory disease models, but their effect on the bone phenotype of ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis hasn’t been explored. In our study, we show that a single systemic infusion of GMSCs elevated the bone mass ...


A Noncanonical Function Of The Telomerase Rna Component In Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Kirsten Ann Brenner Dec 2019

A Noncanonical Function Of The Telomerase Rna Component In Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Kirsten Ann Brenner

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Telomeres are stretches of TTAGGG nucleotide repeats located at the ends of linear chromosomes that shorten with progressive cell division and prevent genomic instability at the cost of limiting a cell’s capacity to proliferate. This limitation can be overcome by telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein complex that elongates telomeres via reverse-transcription of the template telomerase RNA component (TERC). Recent studies have reported potential functions of TERC outside of its role in telomere maintenance. These noncanonical functions of TERC are however poorly defined, and the molecular mechanisms and biological relevance behind such functions remain elusive. Here, we generated conditional TERC knock-out human ...


Comprehensive Investigation Of Bioactive Steroidal Alkaloids In Veratrum Californicum, Matthew West Turner Dec 2019

Comprehensive Investigation Of Bioactive Steroidal Alkaloids In Veratrum Californicum, Matthew West Turner

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Veratrum californicum, commonly referred to as corn lily or Californian false hellebore, grows in high mountain meadows and produces bioactive steroidal alkaloids, including cyclopamine. Cyclopamine is a potent inhibitor of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. Our lab has optimized methods to extract cyclopamine and related steroidal alkaloids from V. californicum, and implemented in-house Hh signaling bioactivity evaluation of these steroidal alkaloids using a Shh-Light II cell assay. A survey of extraction methods and solvents resulted in the identification of conditions most favorable for alkaloid extraction yield and antagonist activity in the Shh-Light II cell assay. The highest amount of bioactive ...


Toward Understanding The Mechanism Of Protein Targeting In The Chloroplast Signal Recognition Particle Pathway, Mercede Furr Dec 2019

Toward Understanding The Mechanism Of Protein Targeting In The Chloroplast Signal Recognition Particle Pathway, Mercede Furr

Theses and Dissertations

Protein targeting is a vital cellular function. The signal recognition particle (SRP) pathway is a universally conserved targeting system present in the cytosol and used to co-translationally target many proteins to the inner membrane of prokaryotes and the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotes. The chloroplast has a homologous SRP system which post-translationally targets light harvesting chlorophyll binding proteins (LHCPs) to the thylakoid membrane for integration. The chloroplast SRP (cpSRP) is a heterodimer with a 54 kDa subunit equivalent to SRP54 in the canonical pathway. In addition, cpSRP contains a novel 43 kDa subunit which is a unique and irreplaceable component. cpSRP43 ...


Anti-Inflammatory Effects Of Cruciferous And Apiaceous Vegetables In C57bl/6j Mice Colon, Rosa Moreno Narvaez Dec 2019

Anti-Inflammatory Effects Of Cruciferous And Apiaceous Vegetables In C57bl/6j Mice Colon, Rosa Moreno Narvaez

Theses and Dissertations

Previous studies have demonstrated chemo-preventive potential of cruciferous and apiaceous vegetables against colon cancer. Colon inflammation is one condition closely related with colon cancer initiation. Therefore, we wanted to compare if total western diet (TWD) was as pro-inflammatory as died-induced obesity (DIO) and a better dietary model for human conditions, and determine if diet supplementation with cruciferous (broccoli, watercress and cabbage) or apiaceous vegetables (celery and parsnip) could reduce dietary inflammation, and which vegetable was more effective.

Male CBL57/6J mice were fed chow for seven days, on day eight, mice were assigned to one of the following diets: American ...


In Vivo Metabolic And Vascular Response To Hypoxia In Twist Knockdown Murine Breast Cancer, Brandon Sturgill Dec 2019

In Vivo Metabolic And Vascular Response To Hypoxia In Twist Knockdown Murine Breast Cancer, Brandon Sturgill

Theses and Dissertations

Twist transcription factor is often overexpressed in aggressive tumors. Although needed in early embryonic development for organogenesis, Twist is known to induce an epithelial to mesenchymal transition in cells. In cancer, epithelial to mesenchymal transitions can lead to increased motility and invasiveness. It has also been linked to metabolic reprogramming and increased metastatic risk. Furthermore, metabolic preferences can increase proliferation, enhance metastatic potential, and influence the site of metastasis. We hypothesize that Twist directly affects the metabolism of cancer cells. We expect to see in vivo what we have seen in vitro; Twist overexpression should promote a shift away from ...


Natural Variation In Yeast Stress Signaling Reveals Multiple Paths To Similar Phenotypes, Amanda N. Scholes Dec 2019

Natural Variation In Yeast Stress Signaling Reveals Multiple Paths To Similar Phenotypes, Amanda N. Scholes

Theses and Dissertations

Natural environments are dynamic, and organisms must sense and respond to changing conditions. One common way organisms deal with stressful environments is through gene expression changes, allowing for stress acclimation and resistance. Variation in stress sensing and signaling can potentially play a large role in how individuals with different genetic backgrounds are more or less resilient to stress. However, the mechanisms underlying how gene expression variation affects organismal fitness is often obscure.

To understand connections between gene expression variation and stress defense phenotypes, we have been exploiting natural variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae stress responses using a unique phenotype called acquired ...


Quantitative Study Of The Antimicrobial Effects Of Silver On The Motility Of Escherichia Coli, Benjamin Russell Dec 2019

Quantitative Study Of The Antimicrobial Effects Of Silver On The Motility Of Escherichia Coli, Benjamin Russell

Theses and Dissertations

In recent decades, the number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections has grown to become a serious global threat. This rise can be attributed to the widespread misuse of antibiotics and the lack of newly developed drugs to fight resistant organisms. Novel bactericidal substances have, therefore, garnered significant research interest. Silver, due to its powerful antimicrobial effects, is one such substance. Silver is typically most effective in cationic form; however, advancements in nanotechnology have paved the way for the controlled fabrication of nano-silver. Silver nanoparticles have been shown to have increased antibacterial potency for a variety of reasons, including the release of ...


Cyclophilin A Enhances Hiv-1 Reverse Transcription In Human Microglial Cells, Zachary Michael Ingram Dec 2019

Cyclophilin A Enhances Hiv-1 Reverse Transcription In Human Microglial Cells, Zachary Michael Ingram

MSU Graduate Theses

Parenchymal microglia represent a susceptible cell type to HIV infection and contribute to HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND). Currently, HIV host-protein interactions in microglia are understudied, but relevant to the design of antiviral drugs. HIV replication events rely on host and viral proteins to evade an immune response while improve replication success. Post-fusion the HIV capsid is released into the cytoplasm and begins trafficking towards the nucleus. During transit viral RNA is transcribed to DNA through reverse transcription (RT). In addition, the HIV capsid that protects the reverse transcription complex disassembles in a step termed uncoating. Once the pre-integration complex ...


Investigating The Effects Of Excitotoxic Stimuli On The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus, Rachel A. Brandes Dec 2019

Investigating The Effects Of Excitotoxic Stimuli On The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus, Rachel A. Brandes

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Connexin And Pannexin Large-Pore Channels In Hearing, Julia Abitbol Nov 2019

The Role Of Connexin And Pannexin Large-Pore Channels In Hearing, Julia Abitbol

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Connexin and pannexin large-pore channels allow the regulated passage of small molecules at sites of cell-cell contacts, and from the cytosol to the extracellular milieu, respectively. Since it has been known for many years that Cx26 and Cx30 gap junction proteins are crucial in hearing we propose that Cx43 might also be important in hearing. Here we used two different genetically modified mouse lines that contain systemic Cx43 gene mutations that reduces gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) to examine whether Cx43 is also important for proper hearing function. Furthermore, since pannexins have also been postulated to be involved in auditory ...


Investigating The Role Of Lbh During Early Embryonic Development In Xenopus Laevis, Emma Weir Oct 2019

Investigating The Role Of Lbh During Early Embryonic Development In Xenopus Laevis, Emma Weir

Masters Theses

LBH is a highly conserved protein whose role during vertebrate development is relatively under-studied. In collaboration with the Albertson lab, our lab has previously shown that it is necessary for cranial neural crest cell migration in the zebrafish and in Xenopus laevis. The molecular mechanisms through which it acts are not well understood.

In Xenopus, LBH is a maternally deposited protein. As such, studying its role in early development has not been feasible through the morpholino-mediated knockdown techniques that prevent translation of target genes. Recently, a technique for degrading endogenous proteins was developed, called Trim-Away. This was developed in mammalian ...


Equine Hoof Stratum Internum K14+Cd105+ Progenitor Cells: Culture, Characterization, And Model Of Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition, Qingqiu Yang Oct 2019

Equine Hoof Stratum Internum K14+Cd105+ Progenitor Cells: Culture, Characterization, And Model Of Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition, Qingqiu Yang

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

For the potential benefit of progenitor cells to be realized in cell-based clinical therapies, it is vital to investigate the mechanism between progenitor cells and abnormal tissue formation. Laminitis is a fatal condition that is often presented by equine hoof inflammation and hoof tissue disarrangement. The persistence of abnormal tissue formation after the resolution of equine laminitis suggests there is progenitor cell compromise. So far, there is limited information about equine hoof progenitor cells and the effects of inflammation on hoof progenitor cells. To pursue a better understanding of both hoof progenitor cell and hoof growth as well as find ...


Effect Of The Physical Micro-Environment On Cell Adhesion And Force Exertion, Mohamad Eftekharjoo Oct 2019

Effect Of The Physical Micro-Environment On Cell Adhesion And Force Exertion, Mohamad Eftekharjoo

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Physical characteristics of the microenvironment, such as geometry and stiffness, influence cell adhesion and contractile forces. Here, we determined how these physical factors influenced cell force exertion and adhesion in two specific contexts that have broad relevance.

Fibroblasts are cells in connective tissues that interact with a fibrous extracellular matrix (ECM) that have a predominantly one-dimensional (1D) (fibrillar) geometry. However, it has been unclear as to how the 1D nature of the fibrillar ECM influences the forces exerted by fibroblasts. Here, we used fibroblast cells adherent on fibronectin lines on polyacrylamide (PAA) gels of stiffness 13 and 45 kPa to ...


Anti-Cancer Effects Of Oleocanthal And Extra Virgin Olive Oil, Limor Goren Sep 2019

Anti-Cancer Effects Of Oleocanthal And Extra Virgin Olive Oil, Limor Goren

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Oleocanthal is a phenolic compound found in varying concentrations in extra virgin olive oil. Oleocanthal has been shown to be active physiologically, benefiting several diseased states by conferring anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective benefits. Recently, we and other groups have demonstrated its specific and selective toxicity toward cancer cells; however, the mechanism leading to cancer cell death is still disputed. The current study demonstrates that oleocanthal induced damage to cancer cells’ lysosomes leading to cellular toxicity in vitro. Non-cancer cells were significantly less affected. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization following oleocanthal treatment in various cell lines was assayed via three complementary methods. Additionally, we ...


Hyaluronan At The Brain-Environment Interface, Donald M. Thevalingam Sep 2019

Hyaluronan At The Brain-Environment Interface, Donald M. Thevalingam

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Hyaluronan (HA; Hyaluronic Acid), a primary scaffolding component of the brain extracellular matrix, serves as an integral structural component to the brain extracellular space (ECS). The fossorial African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber; NM-R), a mammal which lives in a low-oxygen environment and is capable of tolerating hypoxia and hypercapnia, has been shown to synthesize and sustain a unique high-molecular-mass variant of hyaluronan macromolecule (HMM-HA). This body of work highlights HA’s role in mediating the interplay between brain ECM composition, ECS structure, and cell viability.

Here we employ the NM-R as a unique animal model to observe the role of ...


The Role Of Tra1 In Cellular Stress Responses In Yeast: Implications For Human Diseases, Yuwei Jiang Aug 2019

The Role Of Tra1 In Cellular Stress Responses In Yeast: Implications For Human Diseases, Yuwei Jiang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Regulation of gene expression under stress conditions involves chromatin remodeling through post-translational modification of histones. One of these modifications, acetylation of lysine residues, regulates transcription initiation and is linked to a variety of essential cellular processes including cell cycle control, DNA repair, and importantly, activation of cellular stress response pathways. Dysregulation of histone acetylation has been observed in many stress-related diseases such as inflammatory diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and fungal infections. Tra1 is the only essential component of both the highly conserved SAGA and NuA4 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes that are responsible for acetylation of histones and other proteins. Tra1 ...


The Functional Conservation Of Frazzled In Insects, Benjamin Wadsworth Aug 2019

The Functional Conservation Of Frazzled In Insects, Benjamin Wadsworth

Theses and Dissertations

Axons in the developing embryo receive and react to signals that direct their growth to reach target tissues at specified locations. The signal pathways that direct midline crossing of axons during embryonic development have been comprehensively examined in the past years using the Drosophila ventral nerve cord or the spinal cord as a model system. A number of these signaling mechanisms are conserved, however disparities have been found between species in general strategy or the molecular signals controlling the response of axons to guidance cues.

The Netrin-Frazzled pathway has been shown to aid in midline crossing of axons in the ...


Bioengineering Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds For Volumetric Muscle Loss, Kevin Roberts Aug 2019

Bioengineering Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds For Volumetric Muscle Loss, Kevin Roberts

Theses and Dissertations

Volumetric muscle loss overwhelms skeletal muscle’s ordinarily capable regenerative machinery, resulting in fibrosis and severe functional deficits which have defied clinical repair strategies. My work spans the design and preclinical evaluation of implants intended to drive the cell community of injured muscle toward a regenerative state, as well as the development of an understanding of the molecular responses of this cell community to biomaterial interventions. I demonstrate a new class of biomaterial by leveraging the productive capacity of sacrificial hollow fiber membrane cell culture; I show specifically that unique threads of whole extracellular matrix can be isolated by solvent ...


The Functional And Structural Analysis Of Drosophila Robo2 In Axon Guidance, Lafreda Janae Howard Aug 2019

The Functional And Structural Analysis Of Drosophila Robo2 In Axon Guidance, Lafreda Janae Howard

Theses and Dissertations

In animals with complex nervous systems such as mammals and insects, signaling pathways are responsible for guiding axons to their appropriate synaptic targets. Importantly, when this process is not successful during the development of an organism, outcomes include catastrophes such as human neurological diseases and disorders. It is vital to determine the underlying causes of such diseases by understanding the development of the nervous system. There are many pathways that have been identified to play a role in this, however, we lack an understanding of how these pathways can promote such diverse outcomes in different populations of neurons. These pathways ...


The Gsk-3Β-Fbxl21 Axis Regulates Tcap Via Ubiquitin-Mediated Proteasomal Pathway In The Cytoplasm, Jiah Yang Aug 2019

The Gsk-3Β-Fbxl21 Axis Regulates Tcap Via Ubiquitin-Mediated Proteasomal Pathway In The Cytoplasm, Jiah Yang

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Protein turnover is one of the most essential mechanisms controlling circadian rhythms. F-Box and Leucine Rich Repeat Protein21 (FBXL21) is a circadian E3 ligase which shows oscillatory mRNA transcripts and protein levels. It was previously found to perform subcellular compartment-specific E3 ligase activities targeting the core clock proteins CRYPTOCHROME(CRY)1/2. Here we identified a new sarcomeric target substrate, Telethonin(TCAP), which also shows circadian oscillation in its mRNA transcript and protein expression and, importantly, interaction with FBXL21 in an anti-phasic manner. Via computational and pharmacological tests, we identified Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β(GSK-3β) as a regulator of FBXL21. Biochemical ...


Ipsc Based Gene Correction And Disease Model Of A New Class Of Lgmd Due To Poglut1 Mutation, Jose Ortiz-Vitali Aug 2019

Ipsc Based Gene Correction And Disease Model Of A New Class Of Lgmd Due To Poglut1 Mutation, Jose Ortiz-Vitali

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Recently, a novel class of muscular dystrophy has been discovered in a family due to autosomal recessive missense mutation in POGLUT1. Mutation of this enzyme leads to decreased O-glucosyltransferase activity and impaired Notch signaling, the pathways important for skeletal muscle stem cell (satellite cells) quiescence and activation. We hypothesize that reduced POGLUT1 activity and impaired Notch signaling is causative of this limb girdle muscular dystrophy through dysfunction of muscle stem cells and myogenic progenitors.

To test this, we have used iPSCs for disease modeling and rescue experiments. Using a CRISPR based gene targeting method, we aimed to correct the point ...


Deubiquitinating Enzymes Promote Cancer Progression And Metastasis Via Regulating Protein Stability, Zhenna Xiao Aug 2019

Deubiquitinating Enzymes Promote Cancer Progression And Metastasis Via Regulating Protein Stability, Zhenna Xiao

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs, also called deubiquitinases) are enzymes that remove monoubiquitin or polyubiquitin chains from target proteins. DUBs have critical roles in cell homeostasis and signal transduction, as they regulate protein degradation, subcellular localization, and protein-protein interaction. Deregulation of DUBs contributes substantially to tumor formation and progression, and therefore targeting DUBs may be a promising cancer therapy strategy. My dissertation focuses on identifying the DUBs of EZH2 and SNAI1, two proteins critical for cancer progression and metastasis, and establishing these DUBs as promising anti-cancer targets.

EZH2, the catalytic component of the PRC2 complex, silences gene transcription by histone methylation. High ...


The Expression Of Connexin-43 By Cd11c+ Dendritic Cells Is Required To Maintain Cd4+ Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cell Population In Peripheral Lymphoid Organs, Caroline Titus Miller Jul 2019

The Expression Of Connexin-43 By Cd11c+ Dendritic Cells Is Required To Maintain Cd4+ Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cell Population In Peripheral Lymphoid Organs, Caroline Titus Miller

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (TR) are an immunosuppressive subset of CD4+ T cells that maintain homeostasis of the immune system. They are sustained by the interaction between the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules present on antigen presenting dendritic cells and the T Cell Receptor (TCR) expressed on TR cells that is specific for the MHC loaded with an antigenic peptide. Here, we show that in addition to MHC/TCR interaction, Connexin-43 (Cx43) expression by dendritic cells is required to maintain the TR cell population. CD11c+ dendritic cells represent a major subset of antigen presenting cells. Using flow cytometry ...


Endogenous Force Transmission Between Epithelial Cells And A Role For Α-Catenin, Sandeep Dumbali Jul 2019

Endogenous Force Transmission Between Epithelial Cells And A Role For Α-Catenin, Sandeep Dumbali

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

In epithelial tissues, epithelial cells adhere to each other as well as to the underlying extra-cellular matrix (ECM). E-cadherin-based intercellular junctions play an important role in tissue integrity. These junctions experience cell-generated mechanical forces via apparent adaptor proteins such as beta (β) catenin, alpha (α) catenin and vinculin. Abnormalities in these junctions may result in skin related diseases and cancers. Here, I devised methods to determine the endogenous intercellular force within cell pairs as well as in large epithelial islands. I further ascertained the factors that affect the level of inter-cellular tension.

Experiments with pairs of epithelial cells exogenously expressing ...


Development Of A Prolyl Endopeptidase Expression System In Lactobacillus Reuteri To Reduce The Clinical Manifestation Of Celiac Disease, Kara Lynn Jew Jul 2019

Development Of A Prolyl Endopeptidase Expression System In Lactobacillus Reuteri To Reduce The Clinical Manifestation Of Celiac Disease, Kara Lynn Jew

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Celiac Disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that emerges due to the ingestion of gluten, a protein found in a variety of common grains such as wheat, rye, and barley. Approximately 1 in 100 individuals in the US suffer from CD, making it the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal disorder (Ciclitira et. al., 2005). These proline-rich gluten peptides are resistant to proteolysis and accumulate in the duodenum of the small intestine. Once in the duodenum, these peptides illicit an autoimmune response resulting in villous atrophy. Current treatment for CD requires a rigorous adherence to a gluten-free diet. Nevertheless, gluten-containing grains are ...


Characterization Of Pth Type-2 Receptor (Pth2rb) And Its Endogenous Ligand Pth2 In Zebrafish Development, Nicholas Seitz May 2019

Characterization Of Pth Type-2 Receptor (Pth2rb) And Its Endogenous Ligand Pth2 In Zebrafish Development, Nicholas Seitz

Theses and Dissertations

Members of the parathyroid hormone family of ligands, PTH (parathyroid hormone), PTH2, and PTHLH (parathyroid hormone-like hormone). These hormones interact with the class B GCPRs parathyroid hormone receptors PTH1R, PTH2R, and PTH3R to regulate a variety of biological processes. In mammals, PTH and PTHLH activate PTH1R and PTH3R to mediate serum calcium homeostasis, chondrogenesis, and bone maintenance. PTH2R activation by PTH2 has been studied primarily in regard to its neuroendocrine roles but is also found in the skin where it contributes to wound healing and keratinocyte differentiation. Still, little is known about the impacts of PTH2R signaling relative to PTH1R ...


Differential Roles Of Mammalian Target Of Rapamycin Complexes 1 And 2 In Migration Of Prostate Cancer Cells, Smrruthi Vaidegi Venugopal May 2019

Differential Roles Of Mammalian Target Of Rapamycin Complexes 1 And 2 In Migration Of Prostate Cancer Cells, Smrruthi Vaidegi Venugopal

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

In this study, we investigated differential activation and the role of two mTOR complexes in cell migration of prostate cancer cells. Specific knock-down of endogenous RAPTOR and RICTOR by siRNA resulted in decreased cell migration in LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 cells indicating that both mTORC1 and mTORC2 are required for cell migration. EGF treatment induced the activation of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 as determined by complex-specific phosphorylation of mTOR protein. Specific knock-down or inhibition of Rac1 activity in PC3 cells blocked EGF-induced activation of mTORC2, but had no effect on mTORC1 activation. Furthermore, the over-expression of constitutively active Rac1 (Rac1Q61L ...


Extraction, Purification And Evaluation Of Prmt5-Inhibitory Phytochemical Compounds For The Treatment Of Prostate Adenocarcinoma, Oliver H. Richmond Iii May 2019

Extraction, Purification And Evaluation Of Prmt5-Inhibitory Phytochemical Compounds For The Treatment Of Prostate Adenocarcinoma, Oliver H. Richmond Iii

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The development and advancement of prostate cancer is supported by a plethora of genetic and proteomic abnormalities, including events of post-translational modifications. The protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) enzyme regulates epigenetic events of histone modifications and protein post-translational modifications within protein signaling pathways. PRMT5 functions by catalyzing the symmetric dimethylation of terminal arginine residues on target protein substrates. Under abnormal conditions of overexpression and upregulation, PRMT5 methyltransferase activity constitutively drives the growth and proliferation of dysregulated cells. Overexpression or upregulation of PRMT5 correlates with disease progression as observed among numerous cancer types, including breast, colorectal, leukemia, lung, melanoma and prostate ...